Face to Face with the Mexicans

Face to Face With the Mexicans.djvu

Opening-illustration-p002.jpg


MEXICO CITY.

Some fragrant trees
By flower-sown seas
Where boats go up and down,
And a sense of rest
To the tired breast
In this beauteous Aztec town.
 
But the terrible thing in this Aztec town,
That will blow men's rest into stormiest skies,
Or whether they journey or they lie down—
These wide and these wonderful Spanish eyes!

Great walls about,
Gate posts without,
That prop these sapphire skies;
Two huge gate posts
Snow white, like ghosts—
Gate posts to this Paradise!
 
But, oh! turn back from the high-walled town;
There is trouble enough in this world, I surmise,
Without men riding in regiments down
To die by those perilous Spanish eyes!

                    —Joaquin Miller.

   

FACE TO FACE

WITH THE MEXICANS:

The


Domestic Life, Educational, Social, and Business Ways,
Statesmanship and Literature, Legendary and
General History of the Mexican People.


AS SEEN AND STUDIED BY AN AMERICAN WOMAN DURING
SEVEN YEARS OF INTERCOURSE WITH THEM.

BY

FANNY CHAMBERS GOOCH.

With 200 Illstrations.


NEW YORK:
FORDS, HOWARD, & HULBERT.









Copyright, 1887, by
FANNY CHAMBERS GOOCH.









Press of J J. Little & Co.
Astor Place, New York.





 
280x

Carmen R. de Diaz





TO


MY MEXICAN FRIENDS


THIS VOLUME,

IN WHICH I HAVE ENDEAVORED

TO EXPRESS MY APPRECIATION OF MEXICAN CHARACTER AND

SHOW IT TRUTHFULLY TO MY COUNTRYMEN,

IS DEDICATED.

Porfiro Diaz-p0010.jpg
Letter-p0011.jpg
 

[Translation of letter from President Diaz.]

Mexico, April 1, 1886.

Mrs. Fanny Chambers Gooch,

Present.

Esteemed Madame:

Having read your favor of day before yesterday, and complying with the kind desire which you are pleased to express, I have the pleasure to send you herewith the photographs of my wife and myself. We are grateful to you for your consideration, and also thank you for your courtesy in notifying us of your approaching journey, which I hope you will make with all happiness. I remain your attentive and affectionate servant,

Porfirio Diaz.

PREFACE.


 

The descriptions of Mexican life, customs, and character embraced in the following chapters are drawn from a close and interested scrutiny of the people of our neighboring Republic during a residence and visits among them including in all a period of about seven years.

Like all foreigners, I was practically a stranger to the marked peculiarities of race, social and business life, government, and religion there to be encountered. In all that I had read on the subject, in books or transient sketches, I found that no one had endeavored to minutely describe certain phases of Mexican life and character, necessary to be understood in order to fully appreciate the people.

First impressions of writers are either glowing on account of novelty, excitement, and varied pleasures, or marked by unfavorable criticisms obtained from a mere surface-view of the new society with which they mingle. I shared in the variety of impressions common to all strangers; but experience with the people and a careful observation of them brought about a change in my opinions as to the fitness of their government and national customs for the varied races of their Republic. And more than this: a closer contact also revealed to me the high culture and splendid attainments of her men and the warm, sympathetic hearts of her women.

The longer I mingled with the Mexican people the more forcibly was I impressed with the fact that they are not properly understood by their Anglo-Saxon neighbors. As this thought grew in my mind day by day, there grew with it a desire to acquaint my own countrymen more intimately with them, and, if possible, secure a fairer appreciation of a people whom it has been too long the custom to decry, but who deserve the highest commendation for their works and institutions, projected and carried out under many difficulties. To accomplish this task, which I felt was a sacred mission and a tribute that I wished to pay to my Mexican friends, I undertook the present volume. I have not failed to realize that the field is new and that it required a more skillful pen than mine to accomplish all that was intended. The details were so numerous and yet so indispensable to the full delineation of character and customs, that great patience has been necessary to eliminate from the material accumulated much that was interesting but not essential to the main design of the work. Then, too, dealing with so many subjects grouped under general headings, the tendency was to make broken and fragmentary sketches. Every chapter will be found to be complete in itself, however, and all serve to give faithful pictures of the people.

Having lived in close personal contact with the domestic service of the country, I have devoted a few of the initial chapters to this unique and, to us, humorous phase of Mexican life,—showing the unfailing inbred adherence to national characteristics.

In submitting this volume to the people of both Republics, it is with the sincere wish that it may, in a measure, lead to a better acquaintance the one with the other, and that this acquaintance may induce both to realize that they have differences and peculiarities naturally adapted to their governments, races and religions. Each can respect and co-operate with the other in peace and harmony, independent and separate as they ever should remain, fixed by nature; but sisters as Republics.

 

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.

 

A duty would be neglected if I failed to pay a tribute to the many friends from whom acts of kindness were received during my residence and journeys in Mexico. To mention each one is impossible, because none were met who did not aid me in my efforts, either by words or acts, which, though perhaps forgotten by them, will ever be by me most gratefully remembered.

To ex-Governor John Ireland of Texas my first acknowledgments are due. He has taken a deep personal interest in my work and encouraged me in its execution, furnishing me with letters to President Diaz and governors of various Mexican States; to General Henry R. Jackson, American Minister; to Major Joseph Magoffin, Collector of Customs at El Paso, and to other leading personages, and obtained for me facilities for full access to various sources of information.

General Hamilton P. Bee and Dr. Halbert P. Howard, both of whom have had a life-knowledge of Mexico, rendered me valuable assistance with letters of introduction to distinguished citizens of the Mexican Republic.

To S. G. Sneed, Esq., my thanks are due for his sympathetic interest in the preparation of the work and the benefit of his cultivated literary taste.

To Dr. D. T. Iglehart, Hon. J. W. Robertson and Mr. Sterling B. Allen for many kindnesses, and to Mr. J. A. Hooper, of the "Gould system" of Southwestern Railways, for official courtesies in traveling.

At El Paso I was the recipient of many gracious attentions from Mr. R. F. Campbell and family and Mrs. Fannie D. Porter and family.

To Major Joseph Magoffin and family I am specially indebted for unbounded hospitality and assistance on my journey both in going and returning. Major Magoffin presented to me Señor J. Escobar, Mexican Consul, and together they rendered me invaluable aid by having circulars printed, stating my object and commending me to the Mexican people. Señor Escobar also gave me letters of introduction to Señor Mariscal, Mexican Minister for Foreign Affairs, and anticipated every need in my introduction at the capital.

Señor Mariscal received me with true Mexican courtesy and appointed Señor José J. Jimenez to accompany me to various public institutions. During my stay Señor Mariscal rendered me many other valuable services.

To Mr. Frederick P. Hoeck, who personally presented my letters, and to Mr. Charles E. Cummings, both of the Mexican capital, I am happy to make acknowledgments.

Our minister, General Henry R. Jackson, and his estimable wife received me with warm encouragement and kindness, showing me distinguished attentions at the legation.

The editor of The Two Republics, Mr. J. Mastella Clark, and his charming wife bestowed on me many kind favors and hospitalities.

Among other kind American friends were Mr. and Mrs. E. J. Gould, Mr. and Mrs. G. F. Mayer, Mrs. J. L. Corella, Rev. J. J. Gribbin, Mr. H. G. Payne, Major Robert Gorsuch, Mr. S. J. Bloodworth, Mr. F. R. Guernsey, and Mr. and Mrs. R. F. Pitten.

I am indebted for many courtesies to Major E. W. Jackson, Managing Director of the Mexican Central Railway, to Mr. R. C. Peeples, Superintendent of the Mexican National Railway, and to Mr. Thomas Braniff, Managing Director of the Mexican Railway, and for courtesies from railway officials in all my travels.

The Mexican Press Association appointed three of its most accomplished members, Señores Augustin Arroyo de Anda, Alberto G. Bianchi, and Bernabe E. Bravo, to show me attentions in the name of the association. To these gentlemen I am deeply indebted for continual courtesies.

To Dr. Semelider my thanks are due for valuable information, and to Dr. Ocadiz, Secretary of the San Carlos Academy, Judge Ignacio Sepulvida, and Señor Zazzimende, for various attentions.

Dr. Antonio Peñafiel, of the National Museum, gave me access to his splendid library and collection of Mexican antiquities, and jointly with his brother-in-law, Señor Lamberto Asiain, presented me with valuable scientific works.

The family of Señor Tirso Calderon, with whom I resided in the City of Mexico, will ever be held in grateful remembrance for their untiring attentions and tender regard. I am specially indebted to Señora Calderon for introductions into the homes of many distinguished people.

To His Excellency L. S. Ross, present Governor of Texas, I make my grateful acknowledgments.

The book has been illustrated principally by Miss Isabel V. Waldo, a portrait painter of New York, who was in the City of Mexico during my stay there. Her portraits of the various types are taken from life, and are faithful delineations of the characters they represent.

The illustrations on pages 65, 265, 429, and opposite page 183, were kindly sketched for me by Ramon Casteñada, a young student of the San Carlos Academy.

The initals and outline sketches were drawn by P. G Cusachs.

While the body of the work has been the result of my personal experiences and observations among the Mexican people, in the historical chapters I have availed myself of the researches of Hubert Howe Bancroft in his histories of Mexico from 1804 to 1861; Prescott's Conquest of Mexico; also Brantz Mayer's Mexico: Aztec, Spanish and Republic, and Mexico as It Was and as It Is; also Humboldt's works on Mexico.

F. C. G.

CONTENTS.


 

 

A NEW HOME AND NEW FRIENDS.

Tradition and founding of Saltillo—Origin and derivation of the name—Opinions vary—Coahuila—Origin of the name—Saltillo, the seat of important industries—Making a new home—Beautiful scenery—Calle Real, the historic seat—Architecture—Home in an old Mexican mansion—Doors, roof, windows, floors, keys—Adobe roofs—Water spouts—Relics of Mexican grandeur—Absence of modern conveniences—Fears of ghosts and hobgoblins—A nocturnal adventure—Interesting discoveries—Visit from a Mexican youth—Scenes from my window

………….33


IN MOTHER NOAH'S SHOES.

Primitive housekeeping—The indispensable mozo—Extraordinary culinary arrangements—The metate or mill—Pancho's wit and intelligence—Daily revelations. Wrestling with a foreign tongue—Primitive practices—Going to market—Mexican articles of food—Street scenes—A familiar face in a strange land—The burros—Retail venders—A cooking-stove—The disgust of the natives—The stove's oration.

………….60


NO ES COSTUMBRE.

The lack of a broom—A friend in need—The escobero, broom-vender—House-cleaning—Astonishing the natives—Pancho's amiability gives out—He leaves me for his "sick grandmother"'—Pancho's successors—Courteous insubordination—Greek meets Greek—Pancho's successors depart—Peculiar names and characteristics of servants—"Little John"—Wifely devotion—Marital tyranny—An undressed fowl—Knotty points

…………84


THE LOAN OF A MOZO AND A TRIP TO PALOMAS.

Successive departures of successive mozos—Cosme, our borrowed mozo—We set out for Palomas—Cosme in the van—His John Gilpin ride Palomas—A typical Mexican home—A surgical operation—Inquisitive hospitality—Inherent courtesy—A Mexican dinner—Embroidery and fancy work—The "Pass of the Doves"—Our ride home—Poor Cosme!—He takes a mournful departure—His pious adios

………….102


FROM BORDER TO CAPITAL ALONG THE MEXICAN CENTRAL.

The Mexican "All aboard!"—El Paso and Paso del Norte—Chihuahua—Santa Rosalia, its manners and customs—Dr. Tarver and family—Strange notices in a meson—Stations and scenery along the road—Zacatecas—Mines and mining—Aguas Calientes—Historic associations—National Palace—Public bathing of the common people—Bridge at Encarnacion—Queretaro—Maximilian's monument—Other towns along the road—Memorial crosses and stone-heaps—Nochistongo Pass—Arrival at Mexico City—Hotel San Carlos—The all-important camarista

………….127


TENOCHTITLAN—THE AZTEC CAPITAL.

The founding of the city—Invasion by the Spaniards—The three great causeways—The Spaniards' defeat—"Noche triste"—Atzcapotzalco—Mexico City—The Zocalo—Street—"Street of the Sad Indian"—Street cars—Pulque shops—Inundations and earthquakes—The Rome of America—Churches—Monuments—Industrial art and public schools—Public gardens—Markets—Charitable institutions—Pawn-shops—Theaters—Dry-goods stores—House-renting—Mexican flora—Art gallery and museum—The Viga Canal—Chapultepec—Climate—The Alameda—Funerals—Valley of Mexico—Popocatapetl—Iztaccihuatl

………….155


THE MEXICANS IN THEIR HOMES.

Characteristics—Sincerity and faithfulness in friendship—Hospitality—How to meet them—Manners and customs—Middle class—Forms of greeting—Etiquette—Gesticulations—Family ties—Their charity and benevolence—Religion—Hospitality—Household rrangements—The Palacio mansion—Music—Poetry—Manners of speech—Courtesy—Pollas and pollitasGallos and gallinos—Domestic tastes of the women—Their beauty, their education and accomplishments—The children—Their beauty and precocity—Little Alfonso—Boys and girls—Home discipline—Courtesy to elders.—The dear babies
...198


FASTS AND FESTIVALS AND SOCIAL FORMS.

Harmony of the subjects—Change from Paganism to Christianity—Power of the Roman Catholic Church—Rupture of Church and State—All Saints' Day—All Souls' Day—Feast of the Virgin of Guadalupe—Weird sights and sounds—Celebration of a dia de santa—Celebrations at Morelia and Queretaro—Christmas—PosadasPiñates—Festivities—La China Poblana—Pastorela in the rural districts—Feasts of the Epiphany, Candlemas, etc.—Carnival—Lent—Palm Sunday—Holy Week—Good Friday—Sabado de Gloria (Saturday of Glory)—Floral festival—Feast of St. John the Baptist—Funeral notices—Wearing of mourning—National feasts—Courtship and marriages—Cards: wedding, birth, and baptismal—Social ceremonies—Dress—The gorgeous hacendado—Gallantries—The danza— Outdoor amusements—Chapultepec military academy.

…242


FROM MEXICO TO MORELIA ALONG THE MEXICAN NATIONAL.

A delightful journey—Charming views—Toluca—Institute Literario—Public school—Hacienda de la Huerta—Distinguished hospitalities—Touching street scenes—From Toluca to Morelia—Tepeji del Rio—Reminders of Ocampo's tragic death—Hotel de Michoacan—Characteristic hotel regulations—Rambles among the convents—A startling apparition—A unique bachelor establishment—Climate—Minerals—Fruits—Scenery—Peculiar lacquer ware—College of San Nicolas—Prisons and penitentiaries—Architecture—Visit to the Legislature—Morelian hospitality—Tribute from Mary Halleck Foote—Adios to Morelia.

….293


ACTORS AND EVENTS IN MEXICAN HISTORY.

Mexico's struggles for independence—Hidalgo, the Washington of Mexico—Midnight scene and grito of Dolores—Stirring events and closing scenes in the life of the patriot—His execution—Morelos, the successor of Hidalgo—Joined by Matamoras—Siege of Cuantla—Defeat and execution—His house in Morelia—The Emperor Augustin de Iturbide—The mysterious portrait—Iturbide's brilliant record—Honors shown him—Abdication and exile—Return and capture—Execution—The grandson of the Emperor adopted by Maxmilian and Carlotta—The mother regains possession of her son—Madame Iturbide—Vicente Guerrero—Guerrilla warfare—Capture and execution—The Bravos, father and son—Magnanimous conduct of Nicolas Bravo—Guadalupe Victoria, first President of Mexico—General Santa Anna—His wonderful career—Exile, return and death—Promulgation of the Federal Chart—Benito Juarez, the Indian President—Tomb of Juarez—His glorious career—Don Melchor Ocampo—His tragic end—Distinguished patriots—Bancroft's criticisms on the American war—Helen Hunt Jackson—Intermarriages of Americans and Mexicans—Causes of the Mexican war—Congress—Madam Diaz and Mrs. Cleveland—General Diaz—Sketch of his life and adventures.
...315


A GLANCE AT MEXICAN LITERATURE.

Primitive literature—The twelve Franciscan friars, the pioneers of Mexican literature—Toribio Benavente—Bernardino de Sahagún—Las Casas and other early writers—Literary Association—General Palacio as a writer—Literary entertainment at his mansion—Altamirano—Guillermo Prieto—Juan de Dios Peza, the "Mexican Longfellow"—Francisco Sosa—Members of the literati—Mexican journalism—The Liceo Morelos—Mexican Press Association—Women writers—"Maraposa Indiana"—A pleasing token.

….374


MORE ABOUT THE COMMON PEOPLE.

"The Silent Aztec Child of the Sun"—Poetical contribution by Joaquin Miller—Contrast between the Mexican and American Indian—Ingenuity of the former—Contentment of the laboring class—Clothing—Fine needlework—Advancement in education—Types—Courtesy among the poor—Their love of music—The lepero—The China Poblana—Making a portrait under difficulties—Social life and courtship—Marriage ceremonies—Bridal costumes—Street conversation—Mexican mole—Servant—Their devotion to their employers—Wages—Novel methods of keeping accounts Hospitality among the poor—Sewing-machines—Babies—Beauty of the juveniles—The evangelista (letter writer)—Annoying peddlers—An ingenious trick—Various avocations—Characteristic conversation—The lavanderas—The aguador, or water-carrier—Ancient superstitious beliefs—Modern superstitions—The tamalera—The curandera, or doctor—"I became a doctor by my natural intelligence"—Pharmacy extraordinary

….395


CHAPTER XIII.

PUEBLA, CHOLULA, SAN MIGUEL SESMA AND ORIZABA ALONG THE MEXICAN RAILWAY.

Starting for Puebla—San Juan Teotihuacan, the Mexican Pompeii—Arrival at the Casa de las Diligencias—The imperturbable camarista—Puebla—Public buildings—Maternity hospital—Manufactories—"City of the Angels"—Cathedral—Market scenes—Picturesque costumes—Importance and resources of the State of Puebla—Pyramid of Cholula—Pyramids of Xochicalco and Papantla—Beautiful scenery—Incidental kindnesses—Visit to Madam Iturbide's hacienda—Morning song of the peons—A model plantation—Ancient aqueduct—On the road—Places of interest—Storm at Orizaba.

….441


THE VIRGIN OF GUADALUPE.

The tradition—Universal and firm belief in it—How the Virgin appeared to Juan Diego—Her command to build a chapel—Miraculous signs and visions—Building of the Church

….473


AMONG THE CHILDREN.

The story of Gaitagileno—Lullabies, rhymes and nursery tales—Conundrums and games—"El pato"

...476


SCENES FROM MY WINDOW.

Picturesque pedestrians—The gorgeous serape—Novel method of taking home the wash—Venders of various articles—Entertaining panorama—Teatro Principal—Military review—An amusing diversion—A runaway—A perplexed butter-boy—Gritos—The tamalera—Touching incident—Song of the "costumbres"—Newsboys' cries

...485


WHAT THEY EAT AND HOW THEY COOK IT.

Skill of the ancient Aztecs in the culinary art—Primitive kitchens—A unique water filter—Ceremonious table observances—Delicious beverages—Recipes for toothsome dishes

...494


THE AMERICAN COLONY.

"Mother of the American Colony"—Our little band in the sister republic—The American Benevolent Society—Hospital—Protestant churches—Bishop Riley—His labors and sacrifices—Celebration of Christmas among the Americans—Agreeable impressions left by our official representatives—General Henry R. Jackson—Simon Lara, founder of the American Hospital—Laying of the corner-stone—Eloquent speech by Gen. Jackson—Token of esteem to the General from the colony—His departure from Mexico and his farewell speech.

….505


A FEW OF THE POPULAR SONGS AND DANCES OF THE PEOPLE.

The National Anthem—The Danza known as Las Tres Gracias (Three Graces): 1. Aglas; 2. Talia; 3. Eufrasina—La Golondrina, the Mexican "Home, Sweet Home"—Los Naranjos ó Adela—I Ay Que Niquel!—La Paloma.

….519


ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES.

Mutual dependence of the two republics—Causes of misunderstandings—Yankee haste versus Mexican slowness—Steps towards a better understanding—Mexico's wonderful resources—Tact of foreigners in business dealings—John Bull conforming to the "costumbres"—Success in retail trade—Extremes of wealth and poverty—Irrigation—Haciendas—Employees' accounts—Peons—Their intense conservatism—Work retarded by holidays—Mr. Guernsey on foreign labor—Taxes on produce—American miners—Variety of delicious fruits—The maguey plant—Manufacture of pulque, etc.—Tanneries—Shoes—Cattle-breeding—Butter: Its novel manufacture—Minor industries—Transformation of plebeian names—Domestication of American families in Mexico—Education—Naturalization laws—Climate—Police regulations—"Rurales"—Their bravery in rescuing the crew of the "Ranger"—Rewarded by President Cleveland—Judge Crosby on American enterprise and investments in Mexico—Ladies traveling in the Republic—Causes of Mexico's troubles—Her steady progression—Border troubles—The dawn of a new era.

...538


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.



PAGE

1 A Mexican Lady at Home

2

2 Madame Diaz

6

3 President Diaz

10

4 Mexican Plaza, Fountain and Cathedral

32

5 Tradition of Saltillo (Initial Letter)

33

6 Calle Real, Saltillo

36

7 A Few of the Keys

40

8 “Would have been a Load for a Burro"

41

9 Jealous Husband's Windows

42

10 Two Views from One Window

43

11 Water-spouts

44

12 View in a Courtyard

45

13 A Group of my Little Friends

52

14 Portal in Saltillo

58

15 Primitive Housekeeping (Initial Letter)

60

16 Kitchen No. 1

62

17 Kitchen No. 2

63

18 My Household Gods

65

19 The Wood

68

20 Taking their Meals in the Market

69

21 Selling their Little Stockings and Hoods

70

22 Pulque Shop—Patting Tortillas—Selling Flour—Newsboys

71

23 "There goes the Mexican Railroad!"

78

24 Huevos! Huevos!

79

25 "Six for a real!"

80

26 "It will give me Disease of the Liver"

77

27 “No es costumbre!” (Initial Letter)

84

28 "Will you buy a Broom?"

85

29 “No es costumbre!”

89

30 A Typical Market Scene

91

31 A Hungry Purchaser

94

32 No! no hay : (there is none.)

95

PAGE

33 Pio Quinto (Pius V.) as a doorkeeper

97

34 A Street Scene

98

35 "Oh, forgive me, I'll never do so again"

100

36 By the Wayside (Initial Letter)

102

37 "Well, now, I'm going"

103

38 A Country Store

105

39 “Pulque in Sheepskins Filled even to the Feet"

108

40 Bound for Palomas

109

41 A Picturesque Traveler

110

42 As I Looked when Mounted upon the Sofacita

112

43 At Home under the Aqueduct.

115

44 Sweet Contentment at the "Pass of the Doves"

121

45 “Your American Customs are too hard on me!"

123

46 Old Stone Church at El Paso, Texas

125

47 "All Aboard!" (Initial Letter)

127

48 The Street of Guadalupe, Chihuahua

129

49 Water-carrier of Santa Rosalia

132

50 Top of Kitchen Chimney in Santa Rosalia

133

51 Wending their Weary Way
52 City of Zacatecas

135

53 The National Palace at Aguas Calientes

143

54 The Puente Encarnacion

145

55 Monument to Maximilian at Queretaro

147

56 Water-carrier of Queretaro

149

57 The great Nochistoogo Pass

151

58 The "Home, Sweet Home" of the Mozo of San Carlos

153

59 “We never furnish Soap and Matches in this Hotel"

154

60 Past and Present (Initial Letter)

155

61 The Zocalo

159

62 The New and the Old

162

63 The Cathedral

167

64 Water Carrier at the Capital

170

65 Tree of the Little Hands(Colored Plate)

174

66 The Aztec Calendar Stone

178

67 Toltec— Colossal Head in Diorite

179

68 Huitzilopochtli, The Aztec God of War

180

69 An Ancient House on the Viga Canal, and a few of the Passers-by

183

70 Chapultepec, with View of Military College in the Extension

185

71 Scene in the Alameda

189

72 Idlers in the Zocalo

191

PAGE

73 Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl

194

74 The Pet of the Household (Initial Letter)

198

75 Entrance to a Mexican Home

203

76 “One Little Moment"

211

77 "He is too Stingy to pay his Debts"

211

78 "He Plays on the Credulity of his Friends"

211

79 "She's very' rich, has plenty of Money"

211

80 A Very Great Critic

212

81 "Adios"

212

82 “He's a sharper."

212

83 Salutation from Balcony

212

84 "You can't do that now"

213

85 Interior of Chapel on the Hacienda of Sra Guadalupe Bros

216

86 The Palacio Mansion

219

87 Stairway in the Palacio Home

223

88 The Sala Grande in the Palacio Home

226

89 Corridor in the Palacio Home

229

90 Washstand in a Mexican House

233

91 An Orchid

235

92 Little Alfonso. "I know English"

238

93 The Tulipan (Initial Letter)

242

94 Flor de la Noche Buena (Colored Plate)

246

95 Ready for the Fiesta

250

96 An Orchid with Pink Centre

250

97 A Few of those who Attended the Feast of Guadalupe

253

98 Cathedral of Guadalupe and the Chapel on the Cerro del Tepayac

255

99 Bits from Guadalupe

262

100 His Stock in Trade of Gay Pinates

265

101 The Pretty "China Poblana"

270

102 Love-making from the Balcony

278

103 Hacendados

287

104 Floripondio, with its Snowy Bells (Initial Letter)

293

105 The Indian Village of San Francisquita

295

106 Nevada de Toluca

298

107 Water-Carrier of Guanajuato

302

108 An Object of Horror

305

109 College of San Nicolas

309

110 Monument to Morelos, Calle Real

311

111 First Patio in College of San Nicolas

313

112 Soldiers of 1821 (Initial Letter)

315

PAGE

113 The Patriot Hidalgo

317

114 José Maria Morelos

323

115 The Emperor Augustin de Iturbide

328

116 Madame Iturbide and Son

338

117 Vicente Guerrero

340

118 Guadalupe Victoria

343

119 General Santa Anna, when President for the Third Time

345

120 Manga de Clavo, the Hacienda of Santa Anna

346

121 Santa Anna at the Time of his Death

348

122 Benito Juarez

350

123 Tomb of Juarez

352

124 Gomez Farias

357

125 Ignacio Mariscal

361

126 Matias Romero

366

127 General Ramon Corona

371

128 The Language of the Sword and the Work of the Good Friars (Initial
Letter)

374

129 Bernardino de Sahagun

375

130 Las Casas

378

131 Vicente Riva Palacio

380

132 Francisco Sosa

383

133 Guillermo Prieto

390

134 Sitting in the Zocalo {Initial Letter)

395

135 A Typical Indian Village

398

136 Before her Humble Cottage Home

400

137 A Chicken Vender

402

138 The Artist's Revenge

407

139 A Mountaineer

411

140 Petate, Jarana and Pottery-venders

418

141 Debit and Credit Accounts of Servants

422, 423

142 "Your Obedient Servant"

424

143 Miguel Mondregon

424

144 Cradle of a Poor Baby

426

145 A Tortilla Establishment

429

146 Gregoria Quiros

430

147 Wash-house at the Capital

432

148 Washerwomen in the Country

432

149 Water carrier

433

150 Celestial Monopoly

436

151 Vicenta: "I became a doctor by my natural intelligence"

439

PAGE

152 A Bunch of Graniditas (Initial Letter)

441

153 A Hay-rick

442

154 Corn-crib

443

155 Casa de Maternidad

444

156 Street in Puebla

446

157 Street and Arcade in Puebla

452

158 Pyramid of Cholula

457

159 El Castillo, or "Hill of Flowers"

459

160 Pyramid or Papantla

461

161 Aqueduct

467

162 Scenes in the Tropics

470

163 The Virgin Appearing to Juan Diego (Initial Letter)

473

164 The Nana and the Children (Initial Letter)

476

165 The Good Nana

480

166 Listening to the Stories

481

167 "El Pato"

483

168 My Window (Initial Letter)

485

169 Carrying the Clothes Home

486

170 Potato Vender

486

171 A Familiar Type

487

172 Basket Venders

488

173 Indian Mother and Child

490

174 Venders of Cooked Sheep's Heads

493

175 Montezuma's Culinary Artists (Initial Letter)

494

176 The Estiladera

495

177 Kitchen at the Capital

501

178 American Enterprise (Initial Letter)

505

179 Interior of Mexican Episcopal Cathedral

508

180 Simon Lara

512

181 Gen. Henry R. Jackson

516

182 A Stray of Cactus (Initial Letter)

538

183 The Old and New Civilization

539

184 National Palace at the Capital

541

185 The City of Durango

549

186 El Capitan

552

187 A Mexican Ploughman

553

188 Adobe Houses

554

189 An American Miner

557

190 Basket of Fruit

558

191 Mango and Seed

559

PAGE

192 Yellow, Black and White Zapotes

560

193 Mamey and Seed

560

194 The Tlachiquero

562

195 A Street Shoemaker

563

196 "On Account of the Air"

569

197 Policeman on Duty

570

198 A Company of Rurales

571

199 Church of Sacro Monte, Amecameca

577

200 The City of Mexico

576

201 Scene in Mexico

582

202 The Flags of the two Republics

583


This work was published before January 1, 1925, and is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.