Open main menu

Farmers of forty centuries

CONTENTS




chapter page
Introduction 1
I.  First Glimpses of Japan 14
II.  Grave Lands of China 48
III.  To Hongkong and Canton 60
IV.  Up the Si-kiang, West River 81
V.  Extent of Canalization and Surface Fitting of Fields 97
VI.  Some Customs of the Common People 118
VII.  The Fuel Problem, Building and Textile Materials 137
VIII.  Tramps Afield 167
IX.  The Utilization of Waste 193
X.  In the Shantung Province 216
XI.  Orientals Crowd Both Time and Space 261
XII.  Rice Culture in the Orient 271
XIII.  Silk Culture 311
XIV.  The Tea Industry 323
XV.  About Tientsin 330
XVI.  Manchuria and Korea 345
XVII.  Return to Japan 376
Message of China and Japan to the World.


LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS




Portrait of Professor King Frontispiece
No. Page
1.  Rainy weather costume 16
2.  Girl on rainy-day wooden shoes 18
3.  Drying seaweed 20
4.  Growing seaweed 20
5.  Trellised pear orchard in winter 22
6.  Pear trees at Akashi Experiment Station, Japan 22
7.  Pears protected by paper bags 23
8.  Street in country village, Japan 24
9.  Crowded store 25
10.  Chinese country village along canal 26
11.  Japanese rice paddies 28
12.  Rice fields in Korea 29
13.  Rice fields in Yangtse delta, China 30
14.  Readjusted rice fields in Japan 32
15.  Rice in paddies, crops on the dikes 33
16.  Crowded peach orchard 34
17.  Cucumbers trellised, over greens 36
18.  Chinese farmer in winter dress 38
19.  Prince Ching 39
20.  Gardens crowded about buildings, Japan 41
21.  Vegetable vender, Japan 43
22.  Japanese vegetable market 44
23.  Terraced gardens at Nagasaki 46
24.  Graves in Yangtse delta, China 49
25.  Graves near Shanghai and Canton 51
26.  Graves on river bank and in garden 52
27.  Graves in barley field 54
28.  Family group of graves 54
29.  Temporary burial 55
30.  Graves decorated 56
31.  Group of grass-grown graves 58
32.  Wheelbarrow freighters in China 59
33.  Sawing lumber in China 63
34.  Happy Valley 64
35.  Scene in florist's garden, Hongkong 65
36.  Garden in Happy Valley 66
37.  Receptacles for human waste 67
38.  Water piped from mountain side to garden 69
39.  Terraced garden 71
40.  Winter gardening 73
41.  Boat load of human waste 74
42.  Chinese foot-power 79
43.  Mulberry field fertilized with mud 84
44.  Fuel on the Sikiang 86
45.  Fields of rice and matting rush 88
46.  Fork shaped from limbs of tree 89
47.  Landscape at Samshui, near Canton 91
48.  Winter grown peas after rice 92
49.  Fields flooded and fertilized for rice 94
50.  Fields of ginger 95
51.  Map of canals in Chekiang province 98
52.  Map of 2700 miles of canal 100
53.  Map showing plains and Grand canal 102
54.  View across valley of rice fields 103
55.  Terraced and flooded rice fields 105
56.  Graded fields 111
57.  Graded fields 114
58.  Collecting reservoir 115
59.  Compost pits beside path 116
60.  Trenched fields 117
61.  Shanghai carryall 119
62.  Sewing circle 120
63.  Eating lunch 122
64.  Stone mill 123
65.  Laying warp 124
66.  Dye pits 125
67.  Whipping cotton 126
68.  Salted cabbage 129
69.  Chinese clover 131
70.  Vegetable market 132
71.  Lotus pond 133
72.  Charcoal balls 139
73.  Country woman in winter dress 141
74.  Boat loads of fuel 144
75.  Cotton stem fuel 145
76.  Rice straw fuel 146
77.  Steaming tea leaves 147
78.  Dairy herd of water buffalo 149
79.  Water buffalo and calf 150
80.  Pine bough fuel 151
81.  Houseboat on Chinese canal 153
82.  Forest cutting on hillsides 154
83.  Pine and oak bough fuel 155
84.  Pine nursery 156
85.  Dried grass fuel 157
86.  Kaoliang fuel 158
87.  Fuel coming from the hills 160
88.  Millet-thatch and mud plaster 161
89.  Air-dried earth brick 162
90.  House building 163
91.  Brick kiln 164
92.  Fertilizing with canal mud 168
93.  Stairways used in carrying mud from canal 171
94.  Mulberry orchard 172
95.  Snail shells in canal mud 174
96.  Chinese incubators 178
97.  Boat load of eggs 181
98.  Carrying compost 182
99.  Compost pit 183
100.  Compost pit and clover 184
101.  Composting 185
102.  Building clover compost stack 186
103.  Dredging canal mud 187
104.  Compost stack 188
105.  Fitting for rice 191
106.  Manure boats in Shanghai 195
107.  Map of Shanghai region 196
108.  Japanese cart 197
109.  Receptacles for human waste 199
110.  Storage pits for liquid manure 200
111.  Carrying pails for liquid manure 201
112.  Applying liquid manure with dipper 202
113.  Results 204
114.  Laborious green manuring, Japan 208
115.  Returning from Genua lands 210
116.  Chart issued by Nara Experiment Station, Japan 212
117.  Compost house, Nara Experiment Station, Japan 213
118.  View in Reforestation Tract, Tsingtao, China 218
119.  Reforestation, Tsingtao, China 219
120.  Reforestation, Tsingtao, China 220
121.  Wild yellow rose, Shantung, China 221
122.  Shantung plow, China 225
123.  Irrigating outfit 227
124.  Soil erosion in Shantung 229
125.  Water-carrier 230
126.  Chinese farmyard 231
127.  Wheat in Shantung, China 237
128   and 129. Vehicles of forty centuries 238
130.  Wheat in hills and rows 240
131.  Seed-drill 241
132.  Hoeing grain 243
133.  Plastered compost stack 244
134.  Home after the day's work 246
135.  Farm village street 249
136.  Stone mill 256
137.  Peanut cakes and paper demijohn 257
138.  Pulverizing human excreta 258
139.  Fertilizing 259
140.  Foot-power pump and grain in beds 262
141.  Wheat in which cotton is planted 263
142.  Same field, wheat harvested 264
143.  Multiple crops 265
144.  Green manuring 266
145.  Multiple crops in Chihli, China 267
146.  Cutting wheat roots 268
147.  Compost shelter and pig pen 269
148.  Suggested conservation 273
149.  Rice fields in Japan 275
150.  Rice fields in China 276
151.  Terraced rice fields, Japan 278
152.  Steep narrow valley with rice paddies 279
153.  Egg plants between rice paddies 281
154.  Watermelons between rice paddies 282
155.  Watermelons and taro 283
156.  Home of Mrs. Wu 284
157.  Pumping station 285
158.  Pumping plant 286
159.  Nursery rice beds 287
160.  Harrow in plowed field 288
161.  Revolving wooden harrow 289
162.  Women pulling rice 290
163.  Transplanting rice in China 291
164.  Transplanting rice in rainy weather 293
165.  Transplanting rice in Japan 294
166.  Weeding rice 295
167.  Boat load of grass for green manure 296
168.  Applying chaff as fertilizer 297
169.  Irrigation with swinging basket 298
170.  Well sweep and water bucket for irrigation 299
171.  Chinese foot-power and chain pump 300
172.  Fields flooded for rice 301
173.  Japanese irrigation foot-wheel 302
174.  Pump shelter on bank of canal, China 303
175.  Current water-wheel, China 303
176.  Harvesting rice in Japan 304
177.  Curing rice 305
178.  Winnowing rice in Japan 306
179.  Polishing rice 307
180.  Sacking rice 308
181.  Loading rice for shipment 308
182.  Threshing barley 309
183.  Eating rice 310
184.  Preparing silkworm eggs for hatching 312
185.  Feeding silkworms 313
186.  Tending silkworms 314
187.  Sorting cocoons 315
188.  Mulberry orchard 316
189.  Mulberry tree many times pruned 317
190.  Mulberry orchard partly pruned 318
191.  Mulberry trees on embankment 320
192.  Tea garden 324
193.  Tea plantation on hillside 326
194.  Picking tea in Japan 327
195.  Weighing fresh tea 328
196.  Salt stacks and windmills 333
197.  Salt evaporating basins 334
198.  Chinese windmill 335
199.  Village on the Pei ho 337
200.  Hoeing grain 339
201.  Chinese hoe 340
202.  Harvesting wheat 341
203.  Shipping soy beans from Manchuria 348
204.  Wild white rose 352
205.  Millet and beans 360
206.  Manchu lady 361
207.  “Swing day” in Korea 364
208.  Group of Koreans 365
209.  Korean women 366
210.  Korean farm houses 367
211.  Korean rice fields 369
212.  Green manuring 370
213.  Rice paddies in mountain valley 371
214.  Eroding hillside, Korea 372
215.  Swinging scoop for irrigation 373
216.  Green manuring 380
217.  Fukuoka Experiment Station 381
218.  Fukuoka Experiment Station 382
219.  Fukuoka Experiment Station 383
220.  Fukuoka Experiment Station 384
221.  Japanese plows 386
222.  Test rice plats at Fukuoka Experiment Station 387
223.  Public highway in Japan 388
224.  Taking wood to market, Japan 389
225.  Terraced valley in Japan 390
226.  Group of houses among rice paddies 391
227.  Fields of matting rush 393
228.  Japanese girls playing flower cards 394
229.  Well furnished Japanese room 394
230.  Fertilizing rice with old stubble 398
231.  Irrigating with foot-power water-wheel 399
232.  Beauty at home in Japan 401
233.  Old cherry tree 402
234.  Admiring cherry blossoms 403
235.  Entrance to Kiyomizu temple, Kyoto 404
236.  Kiyomizu temple and wooded slope 406
237.  Seats in temple park 407
238.  Iris garden, Japan 408
239.  Street flower vender, Japan 409
240.  Field of indigo, Japan 411
241.  Water wheel in Japan 412
242.  Shizuoka Experiment Station 416
243.  Japanese ladies 418
244.  Landscapes in Tokyo plain 420
245.  Straw mulching 421
246.  Soil study field, Imperial Agr. Experiment Station, Tokyo 423
247.  Equipment for soil studies, Imperial Agr. Experiment Station, Tokyo 426
248.  Toil may not cease 431