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Flora Australiensis/Volume 5/Proteaceae/Adenanthos

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3. ADENANTHOS, Labill.

Flowers hermaphrodite. Perianth regular or nearly so, the tube slender, usually splitting more or less on the lower side; laminæ equal, the perianth usually falling off entire, leaving a very short persistent annular base. Anthers all perfect and free or the lower one linear and sterile, sessile within the segments of the limb, the connective tipped with a small appendage. Hypogynous scales or glands 4, often shortly adnate at the base to the persistent perianth-ring but protruding beyond it. Ovary sessile, with a single laterally attached amphitropous ovule. Style elongated, usually arched and protruding above the middle from the slit of the perianth-tube before the end is set free by the opening of the limb, finally erect and longer than the perianth, usually attenuate below the end, which is more or less thickened or dilated elliptical or linear, with a stigmatic slit descending from the apex to the middle or nearly to the base of the lower side. Fruit a small oblong or rarely ovoid obtuse indehiscent nut (or drupe?) with a single erect seed.—Shrubs sometimes almost growing into small trees, sometimes low and prostrate, often silky-villous. Leaves entire or divided, often rather small and crowded, flat or terete, rarely rigid and pungent-pointed. Flowers red or greenish, terminal or axillary, each flower sessile within a short involucre of 4 to 8, usually 6, imbricate bracts, the inner ones the longest, the involucres solitary or in clusters of 3 or 4, shortly pedunculate or nearly sessile. Perianth usually pubescent or villous outside, the laminæ bearded inside behind the anthers or in a few species almost beardless. Torus with a tuft of hairs round the ovary within the glands.

The genus is limited to Western extratropical Australia, and is not closely allied to any other one hitherto known, although with the inflorescence of the uniflorous species of Lambertia.

Sect. 1. Eurylæma.Perianth tube obliquely dilated and recurved above the middle. Lower anther linear and sterile. Style end ovate or elliptical. Leaves flat, entire. Flowers axillary.

Leaves elliptical, oblong, or lanceolate, 34 to 2 in. long

1. A. barbigera.

Leaves obovate, 12 to 34 in. long

2. A. obovata.
Sect. 2. Stenoæma.Perianth-tube nearly straight, not enlarged above the middle. Anthers all four perfect. Style end slightly thickened.

Flowers axillary. Young shoots hoary-tomentose.

Leaves flat, cuneate, toothed at the broad end

3. A. cuneata.

Leaves divided into narrow linear, obtuse, flat, or concave segments

4. A. Cunninghamii.

Leaves terete, rigid, pungent-pointed, entire, bifid or trifid

5. A. pungens.

Flowers terminal. Leaves entire.

Leaves sessile, obovate or broadly elliptical, 12 to 34 in. long

6. A. venosa.

Leaves petiolate, oblong-linear or spathulate, under 12 in long

7. A. Dobsoni.

Leaves narrow-linear, 12 to 1+12 in long

8. A. linearis.

Flowers terminal. Leaves divided into narrow terete, not pungent segments, usually crowded, at least round the flowers.

Laminæ of the perianth densely bearded inside behind the anthers. Shrubs usually tall and erect.

Leaves not very dissimilar. Perianth fully 1 in. long.

Perianth silky-villous outside

9. A. sericea.

Perianth sparingly glandular-pubescent outside

10. A. Meissneri.

Floral leaves usually twice as long as those on the branches, all filiform. Perianth 34 in. long, the tube nearly glabrous, the laminæ hairy

11. A. filifolia.

Laminæ of the perianth glabrous inside, or with few hairs behind the anthers. Shrubs usually procumbent.

Perianth 1 in long, sparingly glandular pubescent

10. A. Meissneri.

Perianth 34 in. long, pubescent or villous. Stem-leaves short and appressed; floral ones twice as long

12. A. terminalis.

Perianth 34 in long, villous, the laminæ yellow-plumose. Leaves very silky

13. A. flavidiflora.

Perianth 12 in. long, villous with short hairs. Leaves very fine, the floral ones much longer than the others

14. A. apiculata.

Sect. 1. Eurylæma.—Perianth-tube very obliquely dilated and recurved above the middle. Lower anther (on the back of the style) linear and sterile. Style-end ovate or elliptical, compressed, the stigmatic slit descending along the centre of the upper face. Leaves flat, entire. Flowers axillary.

1. A. barbigera, Lindl. Swan Riv. App. 36. Stems erect, nearly simple and 1 to 2 ft. high, or with several erect virgate branches and attaining 3 or 4 ft., tomentose-pubescent and hirsute with long fine hairs, the adult foliage often glabrous. Leaves from elliptical-oblong and under 1 in. to lanceolate and 2 in. or linear-lanceolate and nearly 3 in. long, obtuse or with a callous point, contracted into a very short petiole, prominently veined, the primary veins few and almost longitudinal. Peduncles solitary in the axils, 1 to 3 lines long. Bracts lanceolate, acute, villous, the inner ones often 14 in. long Perianth villous with fine hairs, rather above 1 in. long, the tube dilated and recurved above the middle, the short laminæ long-cohering, the 3 upper segments ultimately separating to about 13 of the perianth, each with a perfect anther in the lamina, the lower segment with a sterile anther and separating lower down. Style glabrous or sparingly bearded with fine hairs, the dilated end elliptical, compressed but thick, the stigmatic slit descending to about half way down the inner face and bordered by slightly raised margins.—Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 510 and in DC. Prod. xiv. 311.

W. Australia. Swan river, Drummond, 1st coll. n. 591, Preiss, n. 792; Harvey; Gordon and Harvey rivers, Oldfield.

2. A. obovata, Labill. Pl. Nov. Holl. i. 29, t. 37. A shrub of 3 or 4 ft. with erect virgate branches, glabrous or minutely hoary-pubescent when young. Leaves rather crowded, entire, obovate, obtuse or with a callous point, contracted at the base but usually sessile, 12 to 34 in. long, obscurely 3-nerved, the nerves converging at the apex and usually visible only on the under side. Peduncles axillary, solitary, 1 to 2 lines long. Inner bracts 2 to 3 lines long and almost acute, outer ones short and obtuse. Perianth about 1 in. long, silky-pubescent or villous, the tube dilated above the middle, then recurved and constricted at the base of the laminæ. Lower anther linear and sterile. Style bearded with few hairs, the dilated end broadly elliptical, compressed but thick, the stigmatic slit descending about half way down the upper face and bordered by raised margins. Fruit oblong, obtuse, about 3 lines long, glabrous or nearly so.—R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 151; Prod. 367; Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 511, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 311.

W. Australia. King George's Sound and neighbouring districts, Labillardière, R. Brown, A. Cunningham, and many others; Blackwood river, Oldfield; Swan river? Drummond, 1st coll. n. 592; near Guildford, Preiss, n. 790.

Sect. 2. Stenolæma.—Perianth-tube nearly straight, not enlarged above the middle. Anthers all four perfect. Style-end slightly thickened, not compressed, the stigmatic slit or line descending down the upper side.

Meissner describes one anther as abortive in A. cuneata and in A. Meissneri, which must have been accidental in the flowers examined. I have found all four perfect in all the buds I opened in both species as in all others of this section.

3. A. cuneata, Labill. Pl. Nov. Holl. i. 28, t. 36. A shrub of 3 to 6 ft., the branches and foliage silky-tomentose. Leaves cuneate, the broad end truncate, with 3 to 7 obtuse crenatures, contracted at the base into a short petiole, the whole leaf 34 to 1 in. long, rather thick, veinless or obscurely 3- or 5-nerved. Peduncles solitary in the axils, slender, often longer than the petioles. Bracts acute, the inner ones enlarged to 3 lines long under the fruit. Perianth about 1 in. long, silky-pubescent, the tube slender and straight or slightly enlarged below the middle after flowering, the laminæ bearded inside behind the anthers which are all perfect. Style-end scarcely thickened. Fruit oblong, about 14 in. long.—R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 152; Prod. 367; Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 511, ii. 247 and in DC. Prod. xiv. 312; A. flabellifolia, Knight, Prot. 96; A. crenata, Willd. in Spreng. Syst. i. 472.

W. Australia. King George's Sound and adjoining districts, Labillardière, R. Brown, Drummond, 3rd coll. n. 245, Preiss, n. 793, and others; eastward to Phillip's river and Eyre's Relief, Maxwell.

4. A. Cunninghamii, Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 513, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 313. A tall erect shrub, the branches and foliage tomentose and often sprinkled with a few fine spreading hairs, the older leaves less tomentose but hoary. Leaves crowded, once or twice trifid or pinnate with few rather long linear segments, narrow but flat or concave and mostly obtuse, the whole leaf 1 to 2 in. long including the short petiole. Involucres solitary in the axils, on peduncles of 2 to 3 lines. Bracts acute, silky-hairy, the inner ones 2 lines long. Perianth about 1 in. long, silky-villous, the tube straight. Anthers all perfect. Style-end slender.

W. Australia. King George's Sound, Fraser; in the interior, Preiss, n. 2621 {Meissner). I have not seen Preiss's specimen; all others, which I have seen in different collections, appear to have originated in a shrub raised in the Sydney Botanic Garden from Fraser's seeds.

5. A. pungens, Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 515, ii. 248, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 318. A rigid bushy or spreading shrub, the young shoots hoary-tomentose, the adult foliage glabrous. Leaves terete, slightly grooved above, entire or divaricately bifid or trifid above the middle, rather thick, rigid and pungent-pointed, 34 to 1+12 in. long. Involucres solitary in the upper axils, sometimes rather crowded towards the ends of the branches, on peduncles of 1 to 2 lines. Bracts softly silky-villous, the inner ones about 1+12 lines long. Perianth rather under 1 in. long', silky-villous. Anthers all perfect. Style slightly hairy, the end scarcely thickened. Fruit oblong, 2 to 3 lines long.—A. armata, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 313.

W. Australia, Drummond, 3rd coll. n. 256 (with the leaves mostly, but not all, undivided), 5th coll. n. 400 (with the leaves mostly, but not all, 3-fid); in the interior, Preiss, n. 671 {Meissner). Meissner distinguishes A. armata from the divided-leaved specimens of A. pungens, by the leaves divided to below the middle and by the laminæ of the perianth-segments longer in proportion, neither of which characters holds good in our specimens, all from Drummond; I have not seen Preiss's.

6. A. venosa, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 311. A bushy shrub of 3 or 4 ft., the branches and young shoots softly and often densely villous, the older foliage nearly glabrous. Leaves crowded under the flowers, more distant along the branches, sessile, entire, obovate or broadly elliptical, shortly acuminate or mucronate-acute, narrowed at the base, often ciliate on the margins, 12 to 34 in. long, often coriaceous, more or less prominently marked with almost longitudinal veins, the floral ones often rather larger than those below them. Involucres in terminal clusters or umbels of 3 to 6, rarely solitary, on short peduncles; bracts 4 to 6. Perianth about 1 in. long, slender, glandular-hirsute. Anthers all perfect. Style-end scarcely thickened.

W. Australia, Drummond, 4th coll. n. 264; in the interior from Cape Le Grand and summit of W. Mount Barren, Maxwell.

7. A. Dobsoni, F. Muell. Fragm. vi. 204. A prostrate much-branched shrub, spreading to 1 or 2 ft. diameter, the young shoots silky-hairy, the older foliage glabrous. Leaves entire, oblong—linear or spathulate, mostly under 12 in. long, very obtuse, narrowed into a distinct petiole. Involucres terminal, solitary, on very short peduncles; bracts obtuse, the inner ones about 1+12 lines long, Perianth slender, 8 to 9 lines long, silky-pubesccent. Anthers all perfect. Style-end scarcely thickened.

W. Australia. Point Malcolm, Maxwell.

8. A. linearis, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 311. Apparently procumbent, with slender branching stems of above 1 ft., the young shoots silky-pubescent and hirsute with long fine hairs, the older foliage glabrous. Leaves entire, narrow-linear, obtuse, attenuate at the base, rather thick but flat, to 12 to 1+12 in. long. Involucres solitary or 2 or 3 together at the ends of the branches, on peduncles of about 1 line; inner bracts nearly 2 lines long. Perianth 6 to 7 lines long, softly hairy. Anthers all perfect. Style sparingly bearded, the end narrow-oblong.

W. Australia, Drummond, 4th coll. n. 265.

9. A. sericea, Labill. Pl. Nov. Holl. i. 29. t. 38. A tall shrub or small tree of 10 to 20 ft., the branches and foliage softly silky-pubescent or villous with soft appressed or longer or spreading hairs. Leaves crowded, very shortly petiolate, twice ternately or pinnately divided into linear-terete almost filiform segments, often ending in small glabrous gland-like tips and sometimes the lower segments short, as if mutilated, with dilated almost peltate gland-like tips, the whole leaf 1 to l+12 in. long, the floral ones often rather longer than the others. Involucres terminal, solitary or rarely 2 or 3 together, almost concealed by the foliage, on peduncles of about 1 line, the bracts silky-pubescent, the inner ones 2 lines long. Perianth above 1 in. long, silky-villous, slender, the laminæ densely bearded inside behind the anthers which are all perfect. Style glabrous, the end slightly thickened.—R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 152, Prod. 367; Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 513, ii. 248, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 312; A. apiculuta, Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 614, and in DC. l.c. 313, not of R. Br.

W. Australia. King George's Sound and adjoining districts, Labillardière, R. Brown, and many others, and thence towards Swan river, Drummond, 1st coll. 3rd coll. n. 255, Preiss, n. 787, 788, and others, and eastward to Cape Arid, Maxwell.

The specimens of Drummond's and Preiss's referred by Meissner to A. apiculata appear to me to be undistinguishable from the common A. sericea, except perhaps in the rather more rigid foliage with more spreading hairs, but even this distinction is very inconstant. I havc not secn in any of them the truly lateral gland at the ends of the leaf-segments as in the true A. apiculata, Br. (A. procumbens, Meissn.).

Var.? brevifolia. Leaves rather shorter but silky-villous and the perianth-laminæ densely bearded inside as in the typical A. sericea.—A. barbata, F. Muell. Herb.

S. Australia. Kangaroo Island, F. Mueller, Waterhouse.

The four following species may perhaps hereafter prove to be varieties only of A. sericea.

10. A. Meissneri, Lehm. Pl. Preiss. i. 512, ii. 248. A procumbent or irregularly spreading shrub of 3 or 4 ft., the branches pubescent or villous, the foliage hirsute pubescent or almost glabrous. Leaves mostly twice trifid but varying either more divided or less so, with terete rather rigid segments, more spreading than in A. sericea and mostly short,the whole leaf often scarcely above 12 in. long, those clustered round the flowers however usually twice as long and often plumose at the base. Involucres terminal, usually 3 or 4 together. Perianth 34 to 1 in. long, glandular-pubescent and not silky, the laminæ with few hairs inside behind the anthers which are all perfect.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 312.

W. Australia, Drummond, 2nd coll. n. 301, Preiss, n. 791; Point d'Entrecasteaux, Walcott; Cape Leschenault and near Bunbury, Oldfield.

Var. velutina. Softly and densely villous, leaves rather longer and the laminæ of the perianth more bearded inside, showing an approach to A. sericea, but the perianth glandular-pubescent only outside as in the typical A. MeissneriA. velutina, Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 312.—W. Australia, Drummond, 4th coll. n. 266.

11. A. filifolia, Benth. A shrub of 5 or 6 ft. with pubescent branches. Leaves glabrous or nearly so, twice or even thrice pinnately divided into filiform segments, those of the stem-leaves short, those of the floral leaves much longer and slightly plumose at the base, the whole leaf on the branches not above 12 in. long, round the flowers 34 to 1 in., all glandular at the point. Involucres terminal, solitary or 2 or 3 together. Perianth fully 34 in. long, the tube somewhat angular, glabrous or slightly hairy in the upper part, the laminæ darker coloured, hairy outside, bearded inside behiud the anthers which are all perfect.

W. Australia. Stirling Range, F. Mueller; Kojonerup hills, Maxwell.

Var. sericifolia. Leaves silky-pubescent.—W. Australia, Drummond, n. 69.

12. A. terminalis, R. Br. in Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 152, Prod. 367. A procumbent shrub, extending to 3 or 4 ft., tomentose-pubescent and more or less sprinkled with fine spreading hairs. Leaves divided into 3 to 7 linear-terete segments, those along the branches usually appressed and 3 to 5 lines long, those around the flowers crowded and twice as long. Involucres terminal, solitary or 2 or 3 together, the inner floral leaves less divided with a dilated ciliate petiole, or even reduced to a simple filiform leaf. Bracts plumose at the base. Perianth about f in. long, hirsute outside. Anthers all perfect, with very few hairs on the perianth-laminæ behind them. Style-end slender.—Meissn. in DC. Prod. xiv. 313; Endl. Iconogr. t. 110.

Victoria. Wimmera, Dallachy; N.W. districts, L. Morton.

S. Australia. Port Lincoln, R. Brown; Onkaparinga and Encounter Bay, F. Mueller; Penola, Woods; Kangaroo Island, F. Mueller.

Preiss's West Australian specimens here included by Meissner are probably referrible to some of the varieties of A. sericea. The only ones I have seen are in leaf only.

13. A. flavidiflora, F. Muell. Fragm. i. 157. A procumbent much branched shrub, the branches and foliage silvery-tomentose and more or less hirsute with spreading hairs. Leaves divided into 3 to 7 linear-terete obtuse segments without terminal glands, those along the branches 14 to nearly 12 in. long, those crowded round the flowers nearly 34 in. Involucres terminal, solitary or clustered, on very short pedicels, the bracts silky-hairy. Perianth 34 in. long, villous outside, the laminæ densely plumose outside with yellow hairs, glabrous inside or nearly so. Anthers all perfect. Style-end narrow..

W. Australia. North of Stirling Range, F. Mueller; W. Mount Barren, Maxwell.

14. A. apiculata, R. Br. Prot. Nov. 9, not of Meissn. A procumbent shrub spreading to 2 or 3 ft., the branches slender, silky-villous when young. Leaves divided into 3 to 5 filiform segments usually with a depressed lateral gland at the end, those of the branches often short and nearly glabrous, the floral leaves crowded, often 1 in. long, and ciliate with a few long fine glabrous hairs. Involucres 2 or more together in terminal clusters and nearly sessile, the bracts nearly glabrous. Perianth not above 12 in. long, villous with short spreading hairs, the laminæ glabrous inside or with very few hairs behind the anthers which are all perfect. Style-end oblong.—A. procumbens, Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 512, ii. 248, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 312; A. Drummondii, Meissn. in Pl. Preiss. i. 514, and in DC. Prod. xiv. 313.

W. Australia. King George's Sound or to the eastward, Baxter, Preiss, n. 589; towards Cape Riche, Harvey; between Swan river and King George's Sound, Drummond, 1st coll. n. 593, 3rd coll. n. 253.

Independently of the fine nearly glabrous foliage and lateral glands (which are not quite constant), this species is readily distinguished from the four precediug ones by the short flowers.