Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Garbett, Edward

GARBETT, EDWARD (1817–1887), divine, was born at Hereford on 10 Dec. 1817, being the sixth son of the Rev. James Garbett (1775–1857), custos and prebendary of the cathedral. He was educated at Hereford Cathedral School, whence he proceeded to Brasenose College, Oxford (19 May 1837). He proceeded B.A. in 1841, coming out with second-class honours ‘in litt. human.,’ and M.A. in 1847. In early years he had wished to be a doctor, but afterwards showed a decided preference for the work of the ministry. Garbett was accordingly ordained deacon by the Bishop of Hereford in 1841 and licensed to the curacy of Upton Bishop, of which his father was then vicar. In the following year he removed to Birmingham as curate of St. George's, under his cousin, the Rev. John Garbett. At Birmingham he obtained his first preferment, the vicarage of St. Stephen's. An opportunity of removing to London was accepted, and in 1854 Garbett became perpetual curate of St. Bartholomew's, Gray's Inn Road. He had already shown some capacity for journalistic work, and was in the same year appointed to the editorship of the ‘Record,’ a position he filled with marked ability until his resignation in 1867. During this period there were few subjects of ecclesiastical importance upon which he did not write with force and discernment. He was for some time also editor of the ‘Christian Advocate.’ But journalism did not disqualify him for successful work either in the pulpit or the parish. In 1860 he accepted the Boyle lectureship on the nomination of Bishop Tait, and in 1861 was appointed a select preacher at Oxford. In 1863 came a removal to the living of Christ Church, Surbiton, and in 1867 his appointment as Bampton lecturer at Oxford. In the same year he resigned the editorship of the ‘Record,’ but continued for some time to write with more or less regularity in its columns. In 1875 Garbett was appointed an honorary canon of Winchester, and in 1877 he accepted from the lord chancellor the living of Barcombe, Lewes. He had previously declined invitations to succeed Dr. Miller at St. Martin's, Birmingham, and to fill the fashionable pulpit of St. Paul's, Onslow Square, London. During the earlier gatherings of the Church Congress Garbett's aid was often asked. He read a paper at York in 1866, and again at the meetings of 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874, and 1879. Garbett's health was much broken by his work at Barcombe, and on 11 Oct. 1886 he was stricken with paralysis. He never recovered, but the end was deferred until 11 Oct. 1887. In his ecclesiastical views Garbett moved with the evangelical party, whose cause he championed with unfailing vigour. A clever but candid controversialist, widely esteemed in his own circle, he was one of the many men whose friends have anticipated for them honours they never attained.

His works were: 1. ‘The Soul's Life,’ 1852. 2. ‘Sermons for Children,’ 1854. 3. ‘The Bible and its Critics’ (Boyle Lectures), 1860. 4. ‘The Divine Plan of Revelation’ (Boyle Lectures), 1863. 5. ‘The Family of God,’ 1863. 6. ‘God's Word Written,’ 1864. 7. ‘Religion in Daily Life,’ 1865. 8. ‘Dogmatic Truth’ (Bampton Lectures), 1867. 9. ‘Obligations of Truth,’ 1874.

[Record, 14 and 21 Oct. 1887; Foster's Alumni Oxon. ii. 506; information supplied by Mrs. Garbett.]

A. R. B.

GARBETT, JAMES (1802–1879), archdeacon of Chichester and professor of poetry at Oxford, born at Hereford in 1802, was eldest son of the Rev. James Garbett (1775–1857), prebendary of Hereford. He passed from the Hereford Cathedral School to Brasenose College, Oxford, where he was elected to a scholarship, 15 May 1819. He obtained a first class in classics in 1822, along with Lord Shaftesbury and Sotheron Estcourt, and bore through life a high reputation as a classical scholar. He proceeded B.A. 1822 and M.A. 1825; was fellow of Queen's College, 1824–5; fellow of Brasenose College, 1825–36; tutor, 1827; Hulmeian lecturer in divinity, 1828; junior dean, 1832; and Latin lecturer, 1834. The college living of Clayton-cum-Keymer, Sussex, was conferred on him in 1835, and he held it till his death. Garbett was a representative evangelical, and strongly opposed the tractarian movement at Oxford. In 1842 he was Bampton lecturer, and tried to show the needlessness of tractarian changes. In the same year he was elected professor of poetry, in opposition to Isaac Williams, the tractarian candidate. He was re-elected professor in 1847, and held the post till 1852. Some of his lectures, all delivered in Latin, were published, and illustrate his finished scholarship. He is said to have declined the Ireland professorship of exegesis in 1847. He certainly refused a seat on the university commission in 1853. He explained in a published letter to B. P. Symons, warden of Wadham (London, 1853), that he took the latter step, not because he was unfriendly to the commission, but because he objected to the mode of its appointment. He became a prebendary of Chichester in 1843, and archdeacon of the diocese, in succession to the present Cardinal Manning, in 1851. He died at Brighton on 26 March 1879.

Besides numerous sermons, archidiaconal charges, and controversial letters, issued separately, Garbett was author of the following: 1. ‘An Essay on Warburton's “Divine Legation,” a fellowship probationary exercise,’ Hereford, 1828. 2. ‘Christ as Prophet, Priest, and King, being a Vindication of the Church of England from Theological Novelties,’ Garbett's Bampton lectures, 1842, 2 vols. 3. ‘De Rei Poeticæ Idea,’ 1843—lectures delivered as professor of poetry. 4. ‘Parochial Sermons,’ 1843–4, 2 vols. 5. ‘Christ on Earth, in Heaven, and on the Judgment Seat,’ London, 1847. 6. ‘Beatitudes of the Mount in 17 Sermons,’ London, 1854.

[Foster's Alumni Oxon. ii. 506; Guardian for 1879, i. 452, 456, 501, 564; Times, 27 and 28 March 1879; Brit. Mus. Cat.]

GARBRAND, or Herks, JOHN (1542–1589), prebendary of Salisbury and friend of Bishop Jewel, was born at Oxford in 1542. Before that date his father, Garbrand Herks or Herks Garbrand, a Dutch protestant, fled from religious persecution in his native country, and settled as a bookseller at Bulkeley Hall, in St. Mary's parish, Oxford. In 1546 he was licensed to add wine to his commodities. At the beginning of Edward VI's reign he purchased many libraries from the suppressed monasteries, some of which subsequently entered the Bodleian Library. As early as 1551 he regularly supplied books to Magdalen College (Bloxam, Reg. ii. 273). In 1556 his house was ‘a receptacle for the chiefest protestants,’ who worshipped in a cellar there (Wood, Annals, ed. Gutch, ii. 107). The refugee had many sons, some of whom carried on the bookselling business in the later years of the century. Richard Garbrand was admitted a bookseller at Oxford 5 Dec. 1573, and was alive in 1590 (Oxf. Univ. Reg. ii. i. 321). Thomas, born in 1539, was probationary fellow of Magdalen College from 1557 to 1570 (B.A. 1558, M.A. 1562), and was senior proctor 1565–6 (Bloxam, iv. 145). William, born in 1549, was also fellow of Magdalen from 1570 to 1577 (B.A. 1570, M.A. 1574), when he seems to have been suspended for insubordination (ib. iv. 165). Four members of the third generation of the same family are often met with. Ambrose, born at Oxford in 1584, received the privileges of an Oxford citizen in 1601 (Oxf. Univ. Reg. ii. i. 398), and in 1616 was a chief officer of the London Stationers' Company (Arber, Transcript, vol. iii.) John, born in 1585, was a scholar of Winchester in 1596, fellow of New College, Oxford, from 1606 to 1608 (B.A. in 1603–4, M.A. in 1608), and pursued the bookseller's trade at Oxford, dying about 1618, when his widow Martha remarried Christopher Rogers, principal of New Inn Hall (Kirby, Winchester Scholars, p. 157; Oxf. Univ. Reg. ii. i. 323, ii. 269, iii. 279). Tobias, born in 1579 [see under Garbrand, John, fl. 1695)], and Nicholas, born in 1600, were both of Magdalen. The latter was demy 1614–19, fellow from 1619 to 1639 (B.A. 1618, M.A. 1621, B.D. 1631); vicar of Washington, Sussex, 2 Sept. 1638 to 1671, vicar of Patching, Sussex, 1660–71, prebendary of Chichester 1660–9 (Bloxam, v. 43). As late as the end of the seventeenth century the family name was often written Garbrand, alias Herks.

John, one of the younger sons of Herks Garbrand, entered Winchester College in 1556, was admitted probationary fellow of New College, Oxford, 24 March 1560, and perpetual fellow in 1562, proceeding B.A. 22 April 1563, and M.A. 25 Feb. 1566–7. In 1565 Bishop Jewel, who was friendly with Garbrand's father, presented him to a prebendal stall in Salisbury Cathedral, where he subsequently held two other prebends. In 1567 he left Oxford to become rector of North Crawley, Buckinghamshire. In 1568 he was incorporated M.A. at Cambridge, and on 5 July 1582 proceeded B.D. and D.D. at Oxford. Until 1578 he was a prebendary of Wells, and for some time he was rector of Farthingstone, Northamptonshire, to the poor of which parish he gave 5l. (Bridges, Northamptonshire, i. 64). He died at North Crawley on 17 Nov. 1589, and was buried in the church. An inscription describes him as ‘a benefactor to the poor.’ Like his father and patron Jewel Garbrand was a puritan. When Jewel died in 1571 he bequeathed his papers to Garbrand, who by will devised them to Dr. Robert Chaloner and Dr. John Rainolds. Garbrand edited from Jewel's manuscripts three volumes of works by the bishop: 1. ‘A View of a Seditious Bul’ and ‘A short Treatise of the Holie Scriptures,’ London, 1582, with preface by Garbrand. 2. ‘Certaine Sermons preached … at Paules Crosse’ and ‘A Treatise of the Sacraments,’ London, 1583, with dedication by the editor to Lords Burghley and Leicester, and Latin verses before the treatise. 3. ‘Exposition upon Paul's two epistles to the Thes