Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar/166. Consecutive Clauses

§166. Consecutive Clauses.

166a 1. Consecutive clauses are added by means of simple wāw copulative with the jussive,[1] especially after negative and interrogative sentences, e.g. Nu 2319 לֹא אִישׁ אֵל וִיֽכַזֵּב וּבֶן־אָדָם וְיִתְנֶחָ֑ם God is not a man, that he should lie, and (i.e. neither) the son of man, that he should repent; Is 532 וְנֶחְמְדֵ֫הוּ; Ho 1410 מִי חָכָם וְיָבֵן אֵ֫לֶּה נָבוֹן וְיֵֽדָעֵם who is wise, that he may understand these things? prudent, that he may know them? Jb 512 וְלֹא=so that ... not; in Pr 303 וְ is separated from the predicate by the object. In Gn 1610 a negative consecutive clause comes after a cohortative, and in Ex 105 after a perfect consecutive.—On the other hand, in Jb 932, 33 the jussive in the sense of a consecutive clause is attached without Wāw to the preceding negative sentence (in verse 32 a second jussive follows, likewise without Wāw, for he is not a man, as I am, that I should answer him, that we should come together in judgement). On the imperfect consecutive as expressing a logical consequence, see §111l; on the perfect consecutive as a consecutive clause after a participle, see §112n.

166b 2. Conjunctions introducing consecutive clauses are again (see §157c, note 3) כִּי and אֲשֶׁר=so that; especially again after interrogative sentences, according to §107u; cf. Nu 1611, כִּי with the imperfect, that ye murmur; but in Gn 2010 with the perfect, in reference to an action already completed. On אֲשֶׁר with the imperfect (or jussive) equivalent to so that, cf. further Gn 1316, 2214; with perfect and imperfect, 1 K 312 f., with the demonstrative force clearly discernible, depending on לֵב; on אֲשֶׁר לֹא=ut non, cf. Dt 2835, 1 K 38, 2 K 937.

On מִן with a substantive or infinitive as the equivalent of a consecutive clause, see §119y.

  1. That such examples as וִיֽכַזֵּב are to be regarded as jussive is probable from the analogy of Ho 1410 and Jb 933.