Gesenius' Hebrew Grammar/65. Verbs Third Guttural

§65. Verbs Third Guttural, e.g. שָׁלַח to send.[1]

a 1. According to §22d, when the last syllable has a vowel incompatible with the guttural (i.e. not an a-sound), two possibilities present themselves, viz. either the regular vowel remains, and the guttural then takes furtive Pathaḥ, or Pathaḥ (in pause Qameṣ) takes its place. More particularly it is to be remarked that—

(a) The unchangeable vowels ־ִי, וֹ, וּ (§25b) are always retained, even under such circumstances; hence inf. abs. Qal שָׁלוֹחַ, part. pass. שָׁלוּחַ, Hiph. הִשְׁלִיחַ, imperf. יַשְׁלִיחַ, part. מַשְׁלִיחַ. So also the less firm ō in the inf. constr. שְׁלֹח is almost always retained: cf., however, שְׁלַח, in close connexion with a substantive, Is 589, and גְּוַע Nu 203. Examples of the infinitive with suffixes are בְּבָרְחֲךָ Gn 351; בְּפִגְעוֹ Nu 3519; לְרִבְעָהּ Lv 1823, &c.

b (b) The imperfect and imperative Qal almost always have ă in the second syllable, sometimes, no doubt, due simply to the influence of the guttural (for a tone-long ō, originally ŭ), but sometimes as being the original vowel, thus יִשְׁלַח, שְׁלַח, &c.; with suffixes יִשְׁלָחֵ֫נִי, שְׁלָחֵ֫נִי, see §60c. Exceptions, in the imperfect אסלוח Jer 57, Keth. (אֶסְלַח Qe); in the imperative טְבֹחַ Gn 4316. On such cases as אֶפְשֳׂעָה Is 274, cf. §10h.

c (c) Where Ṣere would be the regular vowel of the final syllable, both forms (with ēa and ă) are sometimes in use; the choice of one or the other is decided by the special circumstances of the tone, i.e.:—

d Rem. 1. In the absolute state of the participle Qal, Piʿēl and Hithpaʿēl, the forms שֹׁלֵחַ (with suff. שֹֽׁלְחִי, but שֹׁלֵֽחֲךָ), מְשַׁלֵּחַ (with suff. מְשַׁלּֽחֲךָ), and מִשְׁתַּגֵּעַ are used exclusively; except in verbs ל״ע where we find, in close connexion, also נֹטַע ψ 949, רֹגַע Is 5115, Jer 3135, רֹקַע Is 425, 4424, רוֹקַע ψ 1366, שֹׁסָע Lv 117, all with the tone on the last syllable.—The part. Puʿal is מְרֻבַּע Ez 452 according to the best authorities (Kittel מְרֻבָּע).

e 2. Similarly, in the imperf. and inf. Niphʿal, and in the perf. inf. and imperf. Piʿēl the (probably more original) form with ă commonly occurs in the body of the sentence, and the fuller form with ēa in pause (and even with the lesser distinctives, e.g. with Dehi ψ 864 in the imperative Piʿēl; with Ṭiphḥa 1 K 1232 in the infinitive Piʿēl; Jer 431 imperfect Hithpaʿēl; Jer 166 imperfect Niphʿal), cf. e.g. יִגָּרַע Nu 274, with יִגָּרֵעַֽ 363; וַיִּשָּׁבַע Dt 134, even with retraction of the tone in the inf. abs. Niphʿal הִשָּׁבַע Nu 303 (elsewhere הִשָּׁבֵעַ Jer 79, 1216 twice, in each case without the pause); תְּבַקַּע־ Hb 39, with תְּבַקֵּֽעַ Ez 1311; בַּלַּע to devour Hb 113, Nu 420 with בַּלֵּ֑עַ La 28; for infinitive Hithpaʿēl, cf. Is 2820. The infinitive absolute Piʿē̇l has the from שַׁלֵּחַ Dt 227, 1 K 1122; the infinitive construct, on the other hand, when without the pause is always as שַׁלַּח except לְשַׁלֵּחַ Ex 104.— יְזַבֵּחַ Hb 116 has ē, though not in pause, and even וַיְזַבֵּחַ 2 K 164, 2 Ch 284; but a in pause in the imperative Niphʿal הֵֽאָנַ֑ח Ez 2111; jussive Piʿēl תְּאַחַר ψ 4018; cf. §52n. An example of ă in the imperative Piʿēl under the influence of a final ר is כַּתַּר־ Jb 362, in the imperfect Niphʿal וָתֵּֽעָצַר Nu 1713, &c.—In יַפְרִחַ Jb 149 (cf. ψ 9214, Pr 1411), Barth (see above, §63n) finds an i-imperfect of Qal, since the intransitive meaning is only found in Qal.

f 3. In the 2nd sing. masc. of the imperative, and in the forms of the jussive and imperfect consecutive of Hiphʿîl which end in gutturals, a alone occurs, e.g. הַצְלַח prosper thou, יַבְטַח let him make to trust, וַיַּצְמַח and he made to grow (so in Hithpalpel יִחְמַהְמַהּ, &c., Hb 23); even in pause וַיַּצְלַ֑ח 1 Ch 2923, and, with the best authorities, וְיוֹכָֽח 1 Ch 1217; וְישַֽׁעֲכֶ Is 354 is perhaps to be emended into וְישִֽׁעֲ׳ (=וְיוֹשִׁיע׳).—In the infinitive absolute Ṣere remains, e.g. הַגְבֵּהַּ to make high; as infinitive construct חוֹכַח also occurs in close connexion (Jb 626); on הוֹשֵׁעַ as infinitive construct (1 S 2526.33), cf. §53k.

g 2. When the guttural with quiescent Še stands at the end of a syllable, the ordinary strong form remains when not connected with suffixes, e.g. שָׁלַ֫חְתָּ, שָׁלַ֫חְתִּי. But in the 2nd sing. fem. perfect a helping-Pathaḥ takes the place of the Še, שָׁכַ֫חַתְּ Jer 1325 (§28e); also in, 1 K 143, לָקַ֫חַתְּ is to be read, not לָקַחְתְּ.

h Rem. The soft combination with compound Še occurs only in the 1st plur. perfect with suffixes, since in these forms the tone is thrown one place farther forward, e.g. יְדַֽעֲנ֫וּךָ we know thee, Ho 82 (cf. Gn 2629, ψ 4418, 1326). Before the suffixes ךָ and בֶם, the guttural must have ־ֲ, e.g. אֶשְׁלָֽחֲךָ I will send thee, 1 S 161; וָֽאֲשַׁלֵּֽחֲךָ Gn 3127; אַשְׁמִֽיעֲךָ Jer 182.

On the weak verbs ל״א, see especially § 74.

  1. Verbs ל״ה in which the ה is consonantal obviously belong also to this class, e.g. גָּבַהּ to be high, תָּמַהּ to be astonished, מָהַהּ (only in Hithpalpel) to delay.