History of England (Froude)/Table of Contents

CONTENTS OF VOLUME I.




CHAPTER I.
 
SOCIAL CONDITION OF ENGLAND IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY.
 
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Stationary character of Mediæval Civilization 2
Population of England in the Sixteenth Century 3
Slowness of the Rate of Increase 4
Encouragement of Manufactures 5
The 'Great Sin' of Idleness 6
Decay of Towns 8
Laws of Landlord and Tenant 10
The Feudal System 11
Regiments of Labour 13
Distribution of Property 14
Sumptuary Laws 15
Their Value as morally declaratory 16
Wages and Prices 20
State Interference 26
General Prosperity of Labour 28
Labour and Capital 30
The Rights of Property 31
The Commercial Spirit 33
Interference with the Rights of Property in Defence of the Poor 34
Prosperity of the People 36
Incomes and Duties of the Higher Classes 38
Cost of the Royal Establishment 39
The Country Gentlemen and the Clergy 40
Country Houses in England 42
Habits of the People 44
The 'Glory of Hospitality' 45
Habits of Country Gentlemen 46
The Clergy and the Laity 47
Education 48
Organization of Trade 50
The London Companies 51
Organization of Trade 52
Education of the Poor 54
Illustrative Statutes 55
The Handloom Weavers 57
Organization of Manufacturers 58
The System decays 59
The Change 61
Military Training 62
English Archery 65
Military Training 66
Games and Amusements 67
Rise of the English Drama 69
A Masque at Greenwich 75
English Poor Laws 78
Neglect of Duty by the Religious Houses 77
English Poor Laws 78
Organization of Charity 79
Act of 1531 80
Concluding Summary 89
 

 
CHAPTER II.
 
THE LAST YEARS OF THE ADMINISTRATION OF WOLSEY.
 
Struggles between Clergy and Laity 93
The Monasteries in the 15th Century 95
The Warnings 96
Intended Reformation by Wolsey 100
The one Resident Bishop 102
General Condition of the Church 104
The Supplication of the Beggars 105
Divorce of Catherine of Arragon 108
The Succession 109
Recollections of the Wars of the Roses 111
Possible Claimants for the Crown 113
Legitimacy of the Princess Mary questioned 116
Marriage of Henry and Catherine 116
Character of Catherine 120
Henry's own Feelings 123
Letter of Henry 124
The Spanish Alliance 126
Policy of Wolsey 128
Wolsey's Scheme of Church Reform 131
Wolsey will save Europe and the World 132
The 'Divorce' submitted to the Pope 135
The Papal Jurisdiction on its Trial 137
Difficulties of the Pope's Position 140
Death of De Lautrec 144
Conduct of Charles 146
Wolsey proposes to retire 148
Proposals of Campeggio 150
Attitude of Catherine 152
Public Acknowledgment of Anne Boleyn 154
Premature Intrigues 156
The Great Council 158
The Pope's Promise 160
Failure of Wolsey's Policy 162
Temper of England 164
The Crisis 165
The Fall of Wolsey 166
The Third Estate 169
Persecution 171
Parties in England 173
Early Character of Henry VIII. 174
Early History of Anne Boleyn 179
 

 
CHAPTER III.
 
THE PARLIAMENT OF 1529.
 
The Consistory Courts 190
The Discipline of the Clergy 195
Temper of London 200
Meeting of Parliament 204
Speech of Sir Thomas More 204
Liberties of the House of Commons 206
Petition to the Crown 208
The Petition is referred to the Bishops 220
Reply of the Bishops 223
Character of the Defence 241
Proceedings in Parliament 243
Probate and Mortuary Act 243
Clergy Discipline Act 245
Residence and Pluralities Act 246
Opposition in the House of Lords 246
The Bills are passed 248
Humiliation of the Bishops 249
Prorogation of Parliament 250
Inhibition issued by the Pope 251
Appeal from the Pope to Christendom 252
Charles V. at Bologna 254
Clement the Seventh 255
The European Powers and the Papacy 256
Mission of the Earl of Wiltshire to the Emperor 258
Attitude of Clement 260
The Opinions of the Universities 263
Bribery and Intimidation 263
Conduct of the Lutherans 265
The University of Paris 267
Letter of Reginald Pole 272
Oxford and Cambridge 273
The King's Remedy 276
Submission of Oxford 278
Similar Proceedings at Cambridge 278
A Sunday at Windsor 279
Results of the Collection of Opinions 283
The King's Book 285
 

 
CHAPTER IV.
 
CHURCH AND STATE.
 
Change in the Position of the Clergy 287
The Statutes of Provisors 289
The Clergy in the Premunire 294
They are Fined 295
The King must be called Head of the Church 296
Resistance of the Clergy 298
They are compelled to submit 299
Attempt to poison the Bishop of Rochester 301
Poisoning declared High Treason 303
Punishment of the Poisoner 305
General Excitement in the Country 308
Act against the Gipsies 310
John Scott the Edinburgh Prophet 311
Story of the Nun of Kent 312
The Opinions of the Universities read in Parliament 327
The Address of the Lords to the Pope 328
The King and Queen Catherine separate 335
The Party of Insurrection 336
Perils of the Nation 337
Levy of the Fine upon the Clergy 338
Scene at St Paul's 339
Convocation and the Body of Tracy 342
Benefit of Clergy 344
Reform of the Court of Arches 347
Evasion of the Mortmain Act 350
Payment of Annates 351
Petition of the Clergy against the See of Rome 354
The Annates Act passed conditionally 355
The Convocation surrender their right of Independent Legislation 357
Conclusion of the Legislative Revolution 359
Effects of the Change 360
Sir Thomas More resigns the Seals 360
Protest and Death of Archbishop Warham 363
 

 
CHAPTER V.
 
MARRIAGE OF HENRY AND ANNE BOLEYN.
 
Liberty of Opinion 364
General Espionage 365
Information forwarded to the Government 366
The Greenwich Observants 368
Father Peto's Sermon 370
Religious Orders in England 375
Position of Parties in Europe 376
Meeting of the Kings 382
The Interview at Calais 387
Henry returns to England 397
Vatican Diplomacy 399
Interview between the Emperor and Pope 402
The Bologna Conference 406
The King marries 411
Recapitulation 411
Papal Brief and Menace of Excommunication 414
Intrigues of Charles at Paris 419
Francis inclines to the Pope 420
Isolation of England 422
Meeting of Parliament 423
Economic Legislation 423
Act of Apparel 424
Act of Appeals 426
Double Aspect of this Act 434
The Divorce Question before Convocation 439
Cranmer applies for License to proceed with the Cause 441
Terms of the Application 442
The King's Reply 443
The Meaning of that Reply 445
The Court at Dunstable 446
Cranmer's Sentence 447
Preparations for the Coronation of Anne 451
Scene upon the Thames 451
Pageant in the City 452
The Procession 453
The Appearance of the Queen 454
Westminster Abbey 458
The King's Letter to the Emperor 461
The Emperor's Reply 463
Prospects in England 464
The Princess Dowager 466
Royal Proclamation 467
Symptoms of Disaffection in the Northern Counties 468
Queen Catherine and the Deputation of the Council 469
The Title of Princess Dowager 470
Catherine's Protest 474
Letter of Archbishop Cranmer to the English Ambassador in Germany 477
Martyrdom of Frith and Hewett 478
Retribution 479
 

 
CHAPTER VI.
 
THE PROTESTANTS.
 
Ecclesiastical Agitation in the Fourteenth Century 480
Disputes with the Papacy 481
Presentations to Benefices 482
Statute of Carlisle 483
First Statute of Provisors 485
Limitation of the Papal Prerogative 486
Boniface IX. 487
Excommunication of the Bishops 487
Conduct of the Two Houses of Parliament 489
Concessions of the Pope 490
The Lollards 491
Life of Wycliffe 492
Translation of the Bible 493
Lollard Theory of Property 494
Insurrection of Wat Tyler 495
Decline of the Influence of Wycliffe 496
Act de Heretico comburendo 498
Sir John Oldcastle 501
Termination of the Lollard Movement 502
New Birth of Protestantism 504
The Christian Brothers 504
Luther and Tyndal 508
The Antwerp Printing Press 510
Composition of the Protestant Body 510
Their Doctrines and Character 513
Feeling towards them of Henry VIII. 516
Wolsey's Persecution 517
Barnes and Latimer prosecuted 518
Barnes does Penance at St Paul's 521
Story of Anthony Dalaber 522
Heresy at Oxford 524
Books introduced from Germany 525
Order for the Arrest of Thomas Garret 525
Garret's Capture and Escape 528
Vespers at Frideswide's 531
Dalaber seized and imprisoned 535
Search for Books 539
The Heads of Houses consult an Astrologer 540
Second Capture of Garret at Bristol 543
The Bishop of Lincoln 545
Extinction of the Movement at Oxford 547
The History of Protestantism the History of its Martyrs 547
Chancellorship of Sir Thomas More 550
Laws for the Prosecution of Heretics 551
Case of Thomas Philips 552
Case of John Field 556
Contrast between Wolsey and More 559
Martyrdom of Bilney 560
Martyrdom of James Bainhain 561
Feelings of the People 564
Pavier the Townclerk 565
Roods and Relics 567
The Rood of Dovercourt 568
Early Life of Latimer 571
Latimer's training at Cambridge 573
His Fame as a Preacher 574
Practical Character of his Mind 575
He is cited before the Bishops 579
The King interposes to save him 582
History of Thomas Cromwell 583
His wandering Youth 584
His Services to Wolsey 588
He becomes Henry's Secretary 588
Will of Thomas Cromwell—1529 590

CONTENTS OF VOLUME II.




CHAPTER VII.
 
THE LAST EFFORTS OF DIPLOMACY.
 
Effect of the King's Marriage at Brussels 2
The King is cited to appear at Rome 3
Secret History of the Conduct of Clement 4
France and the Papacy 5
English Embassy at Paris 6
Henry appeals to a Council 9
Terms of the Appeal 11
Cranmer's Sentence is known at Rome 14
Indignation of the Cardinals 14
The Pope declares the Divorce illegal 16
Henry calls on the King of France to fulfil his Engagements 18
He urges him not to meet the Pope 21
The English Embassy is recalled 22
Intended Catholic Triumvirate 23
Mission of Sir Stephen Vaughan into Germany 25
Cold Reception by the Elector of Saxe 25
Birth of Elizabeth 27
The Pope arrives at Marseilles 29
Dr Bonner at the French Court 31
He presents the King of England's Appeal 33
The Appeal is rejected 36
The Pope's Promises 37
Proposal for a Legate's Court to sit at Cambray 38
Suspicions of Henry 39
He refuses the Pope's Overtures 40
State of England 42
The Princess Mary 44
Queen Catherine and the Friars 50
The Nun of Kent 51
The Countess of Salisbury and the Marchioness of Exeter 56
Danger of a White Rose Confederacy 56
Conspiracy to dethrone the King 58
D'Inteville to Cardinal Tournon 59
The Nun and Five Monks brought to Trial 65
Disgrace of Mary 66
The Countess of Salisbury 66
The Nevilles 69
General Superstition 74
Suggestion of a Protestant League 76
Mission of the Bishop of Paris to England and Rome 78
The Court of Brussels 79
Meeting of Parliament 80
Peculiarity of Cromwell's Genius 82
Opening Measures of the Session 84
The Congé d'Elire 85
Conditional Abolition of the Papal Authority in England 89
Attainder of the Nun and her Accomplices 90
Apology of Sir Thomas More 91
Obstinate Attitude of Fisher 92
The Bill of Attainder is passed 94
Execution of the Nun 95
The Act of Succession 97
The First Oath of Allegiance 101
Final Judgment pronounced by the Pope 105
The Imperialists undertake to execute the Sentence 105
Obscurity of the Papal Diplomacy 107
The Duke of Guise sent to warn Henry 108
The French Fleet watch the Channel 109
Commission at Lambeth to receive the Oath 111
More and Fisher refuse to swear 113
Debate in the Council 115
They are sent to the Tower 118
Proclamation on the Abolition of the Pope's Authority 119
Circular to the Sheriffs 120
Death and Character of Clement VII. 123
 

 
CHAPTER VIII.
 
THE IRISH REBELLION.
 
The Vision of the Holy Brigitta 124
State of Ireland 125
The Norman Conquest 125
The Irish Reaction and its Causes 127
Assimilation of the Normans to the Native Population 129
Perplexity of English Statesmen 131
Irregular Character of the English Administration 133
Peculiarities of the Irish Disposition 134
Division of the Country 137
Independence of the Chiefs 141
Wretchedness of the People 142
English and Irish Estimates of Anarchy 143
Ireland for the Irish 145
Coyne and Livery 145
The Geraldines of Kildare 146
Deputation of the Earl of Surrey 151
Exhortation of Henry to the Irish Chiefs 151
Surrey's Successes and Recall 154
Deputation of Lord Ormond 155
Intrigues of the Geraldines with the French 156
Deputation and Disgrace of the Earl of Kildare 161
Allen, Archbishop of Dublin 163
Restoration of Kildare 164
Ireland in its ideal Condition 165
The Irish declare for the Pope 167
Kildare is committed to the Tower 168
Desmond and the Emperor 169
Corney O'Brien 170
The Holy War of the Geraldines 172
Speech of Lord Thomas Fitzgerald 172
Pillage and Massacre 173
Siege of Dublin 174
Murder of the Archbishop of Dublin 176
Fitzgerald's Address to the Pope 177
Dublin saved by the Earl of Ormond 178
Second Siege of that City 180
Delay of the English Army 181
Ormond again saves Dublin 181
Arrival of the Fleet 183
Sir William Skeffington Deputy 184
Mistake and Incapacity 185
Burning of Trim and Dunboyne 185
Illness of Skeffington 187
Despondency and Disorganization of the English Army 188
The Campaign opens in the Spring 191
Siege of Maynooth 192
Storm of the Castle 193
The Pardon of Maynooth 194
The Rebellion collapses 195
Arrival of Lord Leonard Grey 196
Surrender of Lord Thomas Fitzgerald 197
Dilemma of the Government 198
Fitzgerald is executed 200
 

 
CHAPTER IX.
 
THE CATHOLIC MARTYRS.
 
England in the Summer of 1534 201
Disposition of the Clergy 202
The Order for Preaching 204
Secret Disaffection 207
The Confessional 208
Confession of John Staunton 210
A Priest's Opinion of the Obligation of an Oath 211
Catholic Treasons 212
Persecuting Laws 214
Effect of Circumstances on Policy 215
The Act of Supremacy 217
The new Act of Treason 221
Consent to the Royal Supremacy required of all Subjects 223
Election of Cardinal Farnese to the Papal Chair 225
Anxiety of the Emperor 226
Proposals for a Catholic Coalition 227
Counter-overtures of Francis to Henry 229
Change in Henry's Character 230
Distrust of France 231
England and the Papacy 233
The Charterhouse Monks 236
Story of Maurice Channey 237
John Haughton, Prior of the Charterhouse 239
The Monks take the Oath of Allegiance 241
They hear that they will be required to acknowledge the Supremacy 242
The Prior's Resolution 243
The Brethren prepare for Death 244
Hesitation of the Government 245
Resistance of the Clergy to the Royal Injunctions 245
Necessity of enforcing the Treason Act 246
The Prior of the Charterhouse before the Council 249
He is tried with Three other Monks and condemned 251
They are executed in their Habits 251
Further Executions 253
The House remains refractory 254
They are crushed 255
The Court is ordered into Mourning 255
The Anabaptist Martyrs 257
Fisher and More 258
The Council call on them for their Submission 261
They refuse 262
Fisher nominated a Cardinal 264
He is brought to trial and sentenced 266
Execution of Fisher 267
Conduct of More in the Tower 267
True Bill found against him by the Grand Jury 268
His Trial at Westminster 269
Substance of the Indictment 270
He declines finally to submit 271
The Chancellor passes Sentence 271
He returns to the Tower 272
Margaret Roper 272
The Last Days 274
The First of July 275
The Scaffold 275
Effect of the Executions in Europe 277
General Displeasure 278
Remonstrances of Francis 280
Answer of the English Government 281
Letter of Cromwell to Sir Gregory Cassalis 283
The Pope's Reply to that Letter 287
Bull of Deposition 288
Intrigues of Francis in Germany 290
Mission of the Bishop of Hereford 293
England and the Lutherans 297
 

 
CHAPTER X.
 
THE VISITATION OF THE MONASTERIES.
 
Exemptions of the Religious Houses 298
Original Character of Monasticism 299
Abuses of Administration 301
Neglect of Duties 302
Dishonest Administration of the Lands 303
Precedents of Suppression 304
The Abbey of St Alban's 304
The Visitation of Archbishop Warham 309
Issue of a Royal Commission 310
Objects of the New Visitation 311
Inhibition against the Bishops 311
The Visitors at Oxford 312
Condition of the University 312
Revolution of Studies 314
Fate of Duns Scotus 314
The Animus Improbus 316
Abuses of the Confessional 317
Visitors' Reports 318
Langden Abbey 318
Nunnery at Lichfield 319
The Abbot of Fountains 320
Fraudulent Concealment of Property 321
Scene at Norton 322
Desire of Monks to be released from their Vows 324
Father Beerley, of Pershore 324
Nature of the Argument against the Monasteries 326
General Directions of the Visitors 327
Presentation of the Report in Parliament 331
Substance of its Contents 332
Debate in the House 333
Different Opinions of the Reformers 335
Theory of the Duties of Property 336
Acts of Dissolution 338
Conduct of the Bishops 341
Letter of Thomas Dorset 343
State of London 343
The Firstfruits of the Suppression 344
Favour shown to the Universities 346
Dissolution of Parliament 347
Summary of its Labours 348
 

 
CHAPTER XI.
 
TRIAL AND DEATH OF ANNE BOLEYN.
 
Last Days of Queen Catherine 351
Effects of her Death upon the King 352
Guilt or Innocence of Anne Boleyn 354
Nature of the Question 355
Conduct of Anne since her Marriage 356
Secret Investigation by a Committee of the Privy Council 359
Writs issued for a new Parliament 360
Arrest of the Queen 361
Examination of Norris, Weston, and Smeton 362
The Queen committed to the Tower 363
Reported Conversations 364
Cranmer writes to the King 367
Cranmer sent for to the Star Chamber 370
Postscript to his Letter 370
The Queen asserts her Innocence 373
Preparations for the Trial 377
The Special Commission 377
True Bills found by the Grand Juries 379
The Indictment 380
Opposing Improbabilities 382
The Court opens for the Trial of the Four Commoners 386
Norris, Western, Smeton, and Brereton found guilty 386
List of the Peers summoned to try the Queen 388
Account of the Proceedings in the Baga de Secretis 388
Weight of the Peers' Verdict as an Evidence 388
The Facts in favour of the Queen 391
The Facts against her 391
Mysterious Acknowledgment made by her to Cramner 395
She is pronounced Divorced 396
The Execution 399
New Danger to the Succession 400
Lord Thomas Howard and Lady Margaret Douglas 401
The King's Third Marriage 402
Meeting of Parliament 404
Speech of the Lord Chancellor 405
The Speech digested into a Statute 407
Second Act of Succession 408
The Parliament endorse all the Proceedings in the late Trials 409
Opinion of Parliament upon the King's Third Marriage 410
Power is granted to the King to bequeath the Crown by Will 412
 

 
CHAPTER XII.
 
FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC ASPECTS OF THE
REFORMATION IN ENGLAND.
 
Attitude of the Catholic Powers 416
Animosity against England in Spain 417
Schemes for a Holy War 419
Persecution of Protestants in France 420
Effects of the Death of Queen Catherine 424
War between France and the Empire 425
The Emperor and the Pope make advances to England 426
The French occupy Piedmont 429
Scene in the Consistory at Rome 430
The Emperor invades France 432
Message of Paul the Third to Henry the Eighth 436
Prospects of a Reconciliation 437
History of Reginald Pole 438
His Opinion is required on the Supremacy of the Crown 440
The 'Liber de Unitate' written in Italy 444
Pole's Advice to the Pope 446
He sends his Book to England 447
The Contents of that Book 448
He is required to return to England 465
He sends Explanations, and is allowed to remain abroad 467
England seen from within 469
Convocation of 1536 470
Sermon preached by Latimer 471
Spirit of the Clergy 475
Complaints of the Growth of Heresy 476
Protestant Excesses 477
First Articles of Religion 481
The Sacraments 482
Customs and Rituals 485
Purgatory 486
Judgments on General Councils 488
Injunctions of the Vicar-General 489
Translation of the Bible 491
Dedicatory Epistle of Coverdale 494
Description of the Frontispiece 496
Martyrdom of Tyndal 498
 

 
CHAPTER XIII.
 
THE PILGRIMAGE OF GRACE.
 
Causes of Popular Disaffection 499
Changes in the Practices of the House of Lords 500
Suppression of the Religious Houses 501
The Statute of Uses 502
Absorption of small Tenures 503
Enclosures of Commons 505
Encroachments upon Local Jurisdictions 507
Conduct of the Monastic Commissioners 510
Extravagant Reports of the Intentions of the Government 512
Procession of the Commons at Louth 514
Outbreak of the Insurrection in Lincolnshire 515
Articles of the Rebellion 518
Murder of the Chancellor of the Bishop of Lincoln 519
Lord Hussey of Sleford 520
Lord Shrewsbury raises his Powers 522
Disposition of the Country 524
The Duke of Suffolk advances to Stamford 525
The King's Answer to the Rebel Petition 527
Scene in the Chapter-House at Lincoln 529
Dissensions among the Insurgents 530
Suffolk occupies Lincoln 531
A Hunting Party in Yorkyswold 533
Robert Aske in Lincolnshire 534
The Rising of the North 535
Scene in Beverley 537
Character and Conduct of Lord Darcy 539
The Rendezvous at Weighton 543
York taken by the Rebels 545
Aske advances upon Pomfret 548
Surrender of Hull 552
Defence of Skipton Castle 553
The Duke of Norfolk goes to Doncaster 556
Lancaster Herald at Pomfret 559
The Gathering of the Northern Nobles 562
Loyalty of the Earl of Northumberland 563
The two Armies at Doncaster 565
Conference on Doncaster Bridge 570
Messengers are despatched to the King 571
Debates in Council 575
Efforts of the King to dissolve the Combination 576
Aske's Measures of Organization 580
Projects to seize or Murder him 581
Rebel Council at York 584
The Parliament of Pomfret 587
Concessions granted by the King 589
Agreement of Doncaster 590
Policy for the future Government of the North 592
Aske goes to London 595
He writes a Letter of Warning to the King 596

CONTENTS OF VOLUME III.




CHAPTER XIV.
 
THE COMMISSION OF CARDINAL POLE.
 
Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve in St Peter's 1
Reginald Pole is commissioned to France and Flanders 3
The Pope's Letters 5
Fresh Disturbances in Yorkshire 8
Insurrection of Bigod and Hallam 9
Divided Counsels 13
The Duke of Norfolk at Pomfret 15
Attack on Carlisle 16
Martial Law and Executions 19
The King of France refuses an Interview to Pole 20
Pole retires to Cambray, and thence to Liège 21
Treasons and Arrests in England 23
Aske, Darcy, and Constable 25
Trials of the Lincolnshire Prisoners 27
Trials in Yorkshire and London 29
Last Petitions of Aske and Darcy 33
Executions on Tower Hill and at Tyburn 34
Death of Aske 38
The noble Catholics and the ignoble 40
Reginald Pole at Liège 40
Cromwell and Michael Throgmorton 43
Illustrative Sketches of the Condition of England 49
The Parish Church at Woodstock 51
The Minstrel of Winandermere 52
The Abbots of Stratford and Woburn 57
Discussions on the Sacraments 59
The Bishop's Book 60
State of the Navy 63
Piracy in the Channel 63
Interruption of Commerce 66
Action in Mounts Bay 67
Action in the Downs 68
Survey of the Coasts 70
Erection of Castles and Fortresses 70
Ill-health of the King 72
Birth of the Prince of Wales 73
Death of Jane Seymour 75
Extravagant Rumours 77
Directions for the Management of the Prince 78
Projection of a fresh Marriage 80
 

 
CHAPTER XV.
 
THE EXETER CONSPIRACY.
 
England, France, the Empire, and the Lutherans 82
Renewed Advances of Charles to Henry 84
Commission of Sir Thomas Wyatt 84
Negotiation for a Marriage between Henry and the Duchess of Milan 88
Doubts of Charles's Sincerity 91
The Pacification of Nice 94
English Society at Villa Franca 95
State of the Abbeys which had escaped Suppression 97
Voluntary Surrenders 98
Images and Relics 99
The Rood of Boxley 102
Friar Forest 105
Anglican Definition of Heresy 107
Dderfel Gadern 108
Execution of Forest 110
Destruction of Shrines 112
St Thomas of Canterbury 113
Returning Coldness of the Emperor 117
The Pope issues the Censures against the King 119
Second Mission of Reginald Pole 120
Recall of the Spanish Ambassador from London 122
Pole's Apology to Charles V. 122
Project for a Spanish Force to be landed in Ireland 126
Political Condition of England 129
The Marquis of Exeter and the Nevilles 131
Quarrel between Exeter and Cromwell 132
The Banner of St Kevern 134
Conspiracy in Cornwall 135
Arrest of Holland 137
Treachery of Sir Geoffrey Pole 138
Lady Salisbury examined by Lord Southampton 141
Trial of Exeter and Lord Montague 143
And of Sir Andrew Neville and Sir Nicholas Carew 146
The Scaffold on Tower Hill 147
Henry makes advances to the Lutherans 150
Persecution of the Ultra-Protestants—Advice of the Landgrave of Hesse 151
Lambert accused of Heresy by Barnes 152
Trial of Lambert 153
Reginald Pole in Spain 156
Rumour of an intended Invasion of England 157
Preparations at Antwerp 160
The Country arms, and the King goes down to Dover 162
The Emperor's Fleet is dispersed 165
Despair of Pole 167
Review of the London Train-bands 171
 

 
CHAPTER XVI.
 
THE SIX ARTICLES.
 
Spirit of Persecution 175
State of Parties 176
The Creed of the King 178
Prospects of Cromwell 179
Appeal of Henry to the Nation 180
General Pardon 183
Difficulties of Protestantism 185
Marriage of the Clergy 186
An Execution at Ipswich 188
Details of the Election of 1539 189
Despotic Interference at Canterbury 191
Meeting of Parliament 194
Appointment of a Committee of Opinion 194
Attainder of the Poles 196
The Duke of Norfolk opens the Discussion of the Six Articles 198
Act of Proclamations 201
Address of the King to the People 203
Final Dissolution of the Monasteries 205
Extension of the Episcopate 207
The Bill of the Six Articles 208
General Approbation of the Country 212
Protest of Melancthon 213
Development of the Statute 216
The King interferes 218
Second Pardon 218
Condition of English Criminal Law 220
The Severity of the Letter and the Laxity of the Execution 223
Specimens in Illustration 226
Description of a Sanctuary 228
State of the Welsh Marches 229
Letters of Rowland Lee to Cromwell 231
Want of Energy among the Magistrates 234
Issue of a Special Commission 237
The Abbots of Reading and Colchester 239
The Abbot of Glastonbury 240
Secretion of Plate and Jewels 241
Evidence of Treason discovered against the Abbot 244
The Abbot is tried at Wells 246
And dies on Glastonbury Torre 247
 

 
CHAPTER XVII.
 
ANNE OF CLEVES AND THE FALL OF CROMWELL.
 
Impatience of the Country for the King's Marriage 248
Eagerness of Cromwell for an Alliance with the Lutherans 249
Recommendations of Anne of Cleves 251
Cromwell and the Peers 253
Critical Position of Cromwell 255
He prepares for his Fall 257
Dissensions in the Privy Council 259
Intemperance of the Protestants 260
Prosecution of Dr Watts 262
Charles V. at Paris 264
Alarm in England and Exultation at Rome 265
Charles brings with him an English Refugee 266
Angry Interview between Charles and Sir Thomas Wyatt 269
Anne of Cleves lands in England 271
First Impressions on the King 273
Anne arrives at Greenwich 275
Efforts of the King to avoid the Marriage 276
The Marriage is completed 278
Controversy between Barnes and Gardiner 281
Menacing Relations with the Emperor 283
Unsuccessful Overtures of Henry to Francis 286
The German Princes fall away 288
Meeting of Parliament 290
Cromwell's Opening Speech 291
Progress of Legislation 293
A Subsidy Bill 295
Attainders of Romanists 297
Ill Success of the Marriage 298
Hints of a Divorce 300
Conspiracy against Cromwell 302
Cromwell arrested at the Council Table 304
Articles of Accusation 308
Intercession of Cramner 311
The Bill of Attainder 314
Instant Revival of Persecution 316
The King's Marriage submitted to Convocation 318
Depositions of Witnesses 319
The Marriage is declared to be dissolved 322
Settlements on Anne of Cleves 324
Displeasure of the Duke of Cleves 326
Satisfaction of the Emperor 329
Committee of Religion 331
Conspiracy at Calais 332
Barnes, Garret, and Jerome attainted of Heresy 333
Close of the Cromwell Tragedy 335
His Last Words on the Scaffold 337
Character of Cromwell 339
 

 
CHAPTER XVIII.
 
SCOTLAND AND IRELAND.
 
Outlines of Scottish Character 343
English Conquests and Failures 345
Policy of Conciliation 347
Regency of the Duke of Albany 349
Feuds of the Nobles 350
The Queen-Mother 351
English and French Factions 353
War with England 355
Deposition of Albany 357
Intrigues of the Queen-Mother 359
The Earl of Angus 359
Conspiracies among the Lords 363
Angus in Edinburgh 365
Compromise of Parties—the Council of Eight 369
Treaty with England 369
Anarchy 372
Overthrow and Exile of Angus 375
Character of James the Fifth 375
James inclines to the Papacy 376
Proposed Interview between James and Henry 379
Weakness of James 381
Marriage with Magdalen de Valois 384
Misfortunes of Queen Margaret 386
James returns from France 387
Persecution of the Douglases 390
The Catholic Coalition 392
Mission of Sir Ralph Sadler to Edinburgh 392
Protestants in Scotland 397
Birth of John Knox 398
Patrick Hamilton 399
Alexander Ferrier 401
Persecution 404
State of Ireland 407
Lord Leonard Grey is made Deputy 408
Expedition into Munster 410
O'Brien's Bridge 411
Carrigogonnell 411
The Irish Convocation 414
Admonitions of the King 416
Quarrels between the Deputy and the Council 418
An Irish Outrage 420
Despatch for a Commission from England 422
Irish Leanings of the Deputy 423
League of the Irish Chiefs 428
The Deputy goes to Connaught 429
Displeasure of the King 431
Rising of the Clans 434
Defeat of O'Neil 435
Misconduct of Grey 437
He returns to England, and is accused of Treason 439
Trial and Execution of Grey 442
Dissolution of the Irish Abbeys 443
 

 
CHAPTER XIX.
 
SOLWAY MOSS.
 
Effects of the Fall of Cromwell 445
The King marries Catherine Howard 446
Differences between England and France 448
The Treaty of Moor Park 451
The Milan Difficulty 452
Charge of Treason against Sir John Wallop and Sir Thomas Wyatt 455
Insurrection of Sir John Neville 457
The Countess of Salisbury 457
Lord Dacres of the South 460
Royal Progress into Yorkshire 463
Misconduct of Catherine Howard 466
Debate at the Council 468
Partial Confession of the Queen 468
Night Incident at Pomfret 469
The King's Misadventures in Marriage 470
Trial and Execution of the Queen's Accomplices 474
Meeting of Parliament 474
Speech of the Chancellor 475
Prosecution of the Queen 477
The Queen attainted and executed 480
Catherine Parr 483
Sanctuary Laws 485
Question of Privilege 487
Case of Ferrars 488
Condition of England 491
Prospect of a War with France 492
France, Turkey, and the Empire 493
Misfortunes of the Emperor in Africa 495
Surprise of Marano 497
Parties in the French Court 501
French Debts to England 502
Piracy in the Channel 503
Probability of an Anglo-Imperial Alliance 507
French Repudiation 509
War between France and the Empire 510
The Emperor and the Papacy 512
Failures of the French 515
Defeat of Ferdinand by the Turks 516
Scottish Difficulties 517
Halydon Rigg 518
English Manifesto against Scotland 520
The Duke of Norfolk passes the Tweed 525
Intrigues of Cardinal Beton 527
The Gathering of Lochmaben 528
Solway Moss 531
Murder of an English Herald 532
Death of James V. 534
 

 
CHAPTER XX.
 
THE FRENCH WAR.
 
Attitudes of the European Powers 535
Consequences of the Defeat at Solway 538
Imprisonment of Beton 540
Prospect of a Union with England 541
Return of the Solway Prisoners 545
Agitation in France 546
Regency of the Earl of Arran 548
Discussion of the Terms offered by England 549
Character of Beton 550
Meeting of the Scottish Parliament 552
Reviving Jealousy of England 554
Toleration of the Protestants 554
Temper of Parties 556
Mary of Guise 557
Release of Beton 559
Intrigue and Treachery 561
Doubtful Disposition of the Regent 563
The Clergy declare for War with England 566
Second Message from Henry 569
Efforts of the Peace Party 569
Menaces of the Clergy 572
Defeat of French Ships by the English 573
The Queen is carried off by Beton 575
The Regent goes over to the War Party 579
Coronation of the Queen 579
Final Rupture with England 580
A Legate arrives from Rome 582
The Solway Prisoners break their Parole 582
Message of Henry to the Scottish Parliament 585
Rival Factions in London and Paris 588
Attitude of the Howards 589
The Earl of Surrey and the Riot in London 590
Arrest of English Ships in France 593
Treaty between England and the Empire 595
Consternation of the Romanists 600
Alarm of Francis 602
Diet of Nuremburg 604
Formal Demands of England upon France 607
The French invade Flanders 609
An English Contingent is despatched to assist the Regent 609
The Lists of Terouenne 610
The Turks in the Mediterranean 612
Confusion of Parties in Europe 614
The Emperor enters Germany 616
Storming of Duren 617
Submission of the Duke of Cleves 619
The Emperor joins the Army in Flanders 620
Siege of Landrecy 622
Retreat of the French 623
Plans for the ensuing Year 624

CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.




CHAPTER XXI.
 
THE PEACE OF CREPY.
 
Efforts of Gardiner in England 1
The English Bible 2
Intrigue against Cranmer 5
Persecution at Windsor 6
Revision of the Persecuting Acts 9
Money voted for the War by Parliament 12
Remission of a Loan 13
Act of Succession 14
Persecution in Scotland 16
The Protestants of Perth 16
The Earl of Lennox joins the English Party 19
Henry prepares to invade Scotland 23
League with the Lords inclined to the English Alliance 24
Conspiracy to kill Beton 27
The English Fleet at Leith 32
Lord Hertford burns Edinburgh 35
War on the Borders 37
Intrigues of France to separate Charles and Henry 39
Meeting of the Diet of Speyer 41
Quarrels between Catholics and Protestants 43
The Edicts of Speyer 45
Plans for the Campaign in France 46
Henry cannot accede to the Proposals of Charles 48
Treachery of German Mercenaries 51
The Emperor lays Siege to St Dizier 52
Separate Terms of Peace offered to England and refused 54
Ambiguous Attitude of Charles and Granvelle 55
Surrender of St Dizier 58
Secret Overtures to the Emperor 59
The Emperor marches into France 60
His Army is embarrassed, and he desires Peace 60
Mission of the Bishop of Arras to Henry 62
Siege and Capture of Boulogne by the English 63
Return of Arras with Henry's conditional Consent 65
The Emperor makes Peace without securing those Conditions 66
Remarks on the Emperor's Conduct 67
Letter of Remonstrance from the Pope to the Emperor 71
English Indignation at the Peace 75
The French attempt to surprise Boulogne 77
They fail and retreat 78
Conference at Calais 79
Secret Communication of Cardinal du Bellay 81
The Conference dissolves ineffectually 83
Embassy to Brussels 85
Letter of Gardiner to the Bishop of Arras 89
Remonstrances with the Emperor 91
Unfavourable Prospects 93
The German Princes offer their Services to England 95
 

 
CHAPTER XXII.
 
THE INVASION.
 
Expenses of the War 98
Demand for a Benevolence 99
Alderman Reed 101
The French besiege Boulogne 103
Defeat of De Biez by Lord Hertford 104
Battle of Ancram Muir 107
Lord Hertford is sent to the Borders 109
Menacing Relations with the Empire 110
The Elector refuses to consent to an Anglo-Lutheran League 113
Isolation of England 114
Interview between Sir William Paget and the Emperor 116
Lamentations of Paget over the Wickedness of the World 120
The Council of Trent 121
Popularity of Henry in Northern Italy 123
The Diet of Worms 124
Preparations in France for the Invasion of England 126
English Force under Arms 127
The Fleet at Portsmouth 128
Arrival of the French at the Isle of Wight 131
Indecisive Action 132
Loss of the 'Mary Rose' and of 'La Maîtresse' 133
Skirmishes in the Island 135
Skirmish at Shanklin 138
Projected Attack upon the French Fleet 139
Slight Action off Shoreham 142
The Plague in the French Ships 143
Failure and Retreat 143
Inroads into Scotland 145
Siege of Boulogne 147
Francis of Lorraine 148
The French raise the Siege 149
Injuries and Reprisals between England and the Empire 151
Death of the Duke of Orleans 155
Meditated Treachery of the Catholic Powers 156
Conference at Brussels 159
Second Conference at Calais 160
Female Intrigues at Paris 163
Terms offered by France 164
Diplomacy of Sir William Paget 166
Renewal of the War 168
The Closing Conference 171
Final Conditions of Peace 172
English Financial Difficulties 173
Triumph of Beton in Scotland 175
George Wishart 176
St Andrews on the 29th of May 181
Murder of Beton 182
 

 
CHAPTER XXIII.
 
THE DEATH OF HENRY THE EIGHTH.
 
Progress of Internal Reform 185
The Influence of the Bible 187
Publication of the Litany in English 189
An English Prayer Book 190
The Dissolution of Chantries 193
Attempted Heresy Bill 195
The King's Last Speech in Parliament 197
Alarm of the Conservatives 199
Measures of Persecution 200
Examination of Latimer 202
History of Anne Ascue 204
Moderate Tendencies of the King 210
Fresh Offers to the Germans 211
Decay of the King's Health and Prospects of the Kingdom 213
Schemes of the Conservatives 214
Proceedings of the Earl of Surrey 216
Depositions of Witnesses 217
Objects of the Conspiracy 221
General Conclusions from the Evidence 225
Meeting of Parliament and Attainder of Surrey and Norfolk 227
Death of the King 228
His last Will 229
His Character 236
 

 
CHAPTER XXIV.
 
THE PROTECTORATE.
 
Constitution of the Body of Trustees 244
Last Directions of Henry VIII. 245
Lord Hertford is made Protector 247
Proposed Enlargement of the Peerage 249
The King's Will is imperfectly obeyed 251
State of the Currency 251
Reconstitution of the Episcopate 253
Deposition of the Lord Chancellor 254
The Protector takes out a new Commission 255
The Council of Trent 257
War in Germany 261
Dissolution of the League of Smalcalde 263
Proposed Invasion of England by the Emperor 264
The Council of Trent 266
Perils of England 267
Danger of a new War with France 268
England, Scotland, and France 270
The Castle of St Andrew's 271
The Protector proposes to invade Scotland 274
Progress of the Reformation 276
Remonstrances of Gardiner 277
The Purification of the Churches 279
The Homilies and the General Visit 280
Battle of Muhlberg 282
Fall of the Castle of St Andrew's 284
Invasion of Scotland 288
The Protector crosses the Border 289
Battle of Pinkie Cleugh 291
The Visitation 297
Imprisonment of Bonner 299
Remonstrances of Gardiner 300
Gardiner is Imprisoned 302
Return of the Protector 304
Meeting of Parliament 305
Repeal of the Penal Statutes 305
The Proctors of the Clergy demand Seats in Parliament 308
Vagrancy Acts 310
Chantries and Colleges Acts 312
 

 
CHAPTER XXV.
 
THE PROTECTORATE.
 
Alliance between France and Scotland 316
The English fortify Haddington 318
A French Army lands in Scotland 319
Convention of Haddington 320
Siege of Haddington 322
Fray between the French and Scots in Edinburgh 324
Night Attack of Haddington 325
The English lose ground 327
Differences with France 329
Diet of Augsburg 329
Differences between the Pope and the Emperor 332
The Interim 334
The Protestant Preachers in England 340
Genevan Tendencies of the Reformers 340
Advice of Calvin to the Protector 341
Persecution of Gardiner 342
The Materials of Somerset House 348
The Social Revolution 350
Continued Debasement of the Currency 350
General Distress 352
The Protestant Creed 354
Moral Consequences of the Reformation 355
Landlord and Tenant 359
Luxury and Misery 360
The Enclosures' Commission 364
Lord Seymour of Sudleye 362
Seymour's Marriage with Catherine Parr 371
Seymour makes a Party against his Brother 374
He connects himself with the Channel Pirates 378
Catherine Parr dies 379
Seymour desires to marry Elizabeth 380
The English Prayer Book 382
The Real Presence 384
The First Act of Uniformity 386
Seymour is arrested 389
He refuses to answer the Questions of the Council 391
He is attainted by Act of Parliament 394
He is executed 395
 

 
CHAPTER XXVI.
 
THE FALL OF THE PROTECTOR.
 
Social Disorders 397
Boulogne is menaced by the French 400
Perils of England 402
Spread of wild Opinions 405
The Protector's Mistakes 404
Heresy Commission 407
Popular Riots 408
The Rising of the West 409
The Barns of Crediton 412
Disputes between the Protector and the Council 415
Demands of the Western Rebels 416
The Protector's Dilemma 419
Advice of Sir William Paget 420
The Council act for themselves 423
Persecution of Bonner 423
Lord Grey in Oxfordshire 425
Siege of Exeter 427
Lord Russell at Honiton 429
Skirmish at Ferrington Bridge 429
St Mary's Clyst 430
Defeat of the Rebels 431
Battle of Sampford Courtenay 434
Martial Law 437
The Mayor of Bodmin 438
The Priest of St Thomas's 439
Ket's Rebellion in Norfolk 440
The Camp on Mousehold Hill 441
Defeat of Lord Northampton by the Insurgents 446
The Earl of Warwick is sent to put them down 447
Warwick at Norwich 450
Destruction of the Rebels in Duffindale 452
Close of the Insurrection 454
The Council of Trent 455
Approaching War between France and the Empire 457
The French attack Boulogne 460
Losses of the English 461
Results of the Administration of Somerset 462
The Council resolve to interfere 464
They explain their Intentions to the Emperor 465
The Protector charges the Council with Treason 469
He attempts to raise the Country 470
He carries off the King to Windsor 473
Correspondence and Negotiation 474
Russell and Herbert declare against the Protector 477
Character of the Duke of Somerset 480
Message of Sir Philip Hoby 482
The Protector is sent to the Tower 485
Examination of the Public Accounts 485
Expenses of the Rebellion 487
The Currency 488
 

 
CHAPTER XXVII.
 
THE REFORMED ADMINISTRATION.
 
Expectations of religious Reaction 492
Prospects of the Earl of Warwick 493
Rejection of an Appeal from Gardiner 494
Ecclesiastical Discipline 496
Treatment of Somerset 497
Negotiation for Peace with France 499
The French Exactions 501
Restoration of Boulogne and Conclusion of Peace 503
The Gospel in England 505
Effects of the Reformation 506
Public Corruption 509
Popular Anarchy 509
Latimer on the State of England 511
Sermon of Lever at Paul's Cross 514
Signs of better Times 515
Financial Difficulties 517
The Currency 518
Artificial Prices 525
Burning of Joan Bocher 526
Protestant Persecution 528
Death of Paul III. 529
Cardinal Del Monte elected Pope 532
Charles V. and Germany 533
The Edict in the Low Countries 534
The Princess Mary and the Mass 537
Perils of the Nation 538
Fresh Differences with France 539
The Anti-English Faction at Paris 543
Persecution of Gardiner 546
Death and Funeral of Lady Seymour 551
Persecution of Gardiner 553
The Consecration of Bishops 555
The Vestment Controversy 556
The Princess Mary's Mass 562
Menaces of the Emperor 563
The Princess refuses to yield 565
Edward and the Bishops 567
State of Italy 569
The French Court revives the Policy of Francis I. 570
War in Italy 573

CONTENTS OF VOLUME V.




CHAPTER XXVIII.
 
EXECUTION OF THE DUKE OF SOMERSET.
 
Alliance between England and France 1
Edward is betrothed to a French Princess 3
The Emperor and the Princess Mary 5
Likelihood of War with the Empire 7
The Rise of Prices 9
The Silver Coin is called down 10
Fresh Issue of Base Money 11
Proclamation of Prices 13
Partial Restoration of the Currency 14
The Sweating Sickness 15
Suppression of Bishoprics 18
The Princess Mary 19
Intrigues of Somerset 31
Somerset's Conspiracy 32
Evidence of Sir Thomas Palmer 35
Elevations in the Peerage 38
Arrest of Somerset 38
The Trial 41
Sentence of Death 44
The Execution 51
Conduct of Cranmer 52
The Liturgy 54
Second Act of Uniformity 57
The London Hospitals 58
Statute of Usury 60
Reform of the Law of Treason 61
The Lutheran Preachers are expelled from Augsburg 63
The Emperor goes to Innspruck 65
The Council of Trent 65
Duke Maurice declares against the Emperor 67
Peace of Passau 69
State of Ireland 71
First Administration of Sir Anthony St Leger 71
Deputation of Sir Edward Bellingham 74
Character of Bellingham 79
Results of his Government 82
Return of St Leger 84
The Irish Mint 85
St Leger and the Reformation 87
St Leger and Bellingham's Captains 87
Sir James Crofts is made Deputy 91
The Irish Currency 91
Irish Council of Trade 93
Artificial Famine and General Misery 96
 

 
CHAPTER XXIX.
 
NORTHHUMBERLAND'S CONSPIRACY.
 
Moral Results of the Reformation 99
Character of Edward 101
Edward's Opinions on the State of England 103
Proposed Protestant Synod 105
Church Discipline 106
Continued Disorders in the Country 108
The Antwerp Loans 110
The Crown Debts 112
Differences with France 113
England and the Empire 117
Commissions to raise Money 119
The Churches are again spoiled 120
The Public Accounts 121
A new Parliament to be called 123
A General Election 124
Nomination of the Members 124
The Council and the Estates of the Church 126
The Merchant Adventurers and the Fellowship of London Merchants 130
A Subsidy 134
John Knox and the Duke of Northumberland 136
John Knox preaches before the Court 137
Dissolution of Parliament 139
Prospects of Northumberland 140
The King's Illness 142
Siege of Metz 143
England offers to mediate between France and the Empire 144
Renard and Noailles 148
Anticipations of the King's Death 149
Popular Good Feeling towards Mary 150
Possible Alteration of the Succession 153
Views of France 154
Northumberland determines to set Mary aside 157
He persuades Edward 159
The King's Device for the Succession 160
Opposition of the Council and of the Judges 163
The Letters Patent 164
The Signatures 167
Conduct of Cranmer 169
Cranmer yields to Edward's Entreaties 170
Features of the King's Disease 172
General Discontent 173
Edward dies 175
 

 
CHAPTER XXX.
 
QUEEN JANE AND QUEEN MARY.
 
Flight of Mary 177
Advice of the Flemish Ambassadors 177
Position of Northumberland 180
Lady Jane Grey 181
Proclamation of Queen Jane 186
Letter of Mary to the Lords 187
Guilford Dudley and the Crown 190
Mary's Party gains Strength 193
Northumberland levies Troops 194
Lord Pembroke 197
The Council prepare to declare for Mary 199
Revolt of the Fleet and Army 200
Sunday during the Crisis 200
Northumberland invites a French Invasion 203
The Meeting at Baynard's Castle 205
Proclamation of Mary in London 207
Arrest of Northumberland 210
The Emperor and the Queen's Marriage 213
Funeral of Edward VI. 216
The Emperor's Advice 218
Gardiner returns to the Council 220
The Ambassador Renard 222
Mary enters London 224
Advice of Renard 226
Restoration of the deprived Bishops 227
Reduction of Expenditure 229
The Hot Gospeller 229
Mass at the Tower 233
Disputes in Council 233
Sermon at Paul's Cross 235
The Marriage Question 236
Northumberland's Trial 238
Northumberland under Sentence 241
The Recantation 243
The Executions 245
The Reaction 249
The Purging of Convocation 252
Arrest of Latimer 253
Arrest of Cranmer 256
General Restoration of the Mass 257
Reginald Pole 258
England and the Papacy 260
Visit of Commendone to the Queen 261
Difficulties in restoring the Papal Authority 263
The Prince of Spain proposed as the Queen's Husband 265
Parties in England 266
Elizabeth and the Mass 270
Lord Courtenay and the Queen 270
The Coronation Oath 273
The Coronation 275
The Spanish Marriage 276
The Queen and Renard 278
Philip's Virtues 279
Reginald Pole 280
Meeting of Parliament 283
Preliminary Discussion 285
The Queen's Legitimacy and the Authority of the Pope 285
Convocation 287
Debate on the Real Presence 288
The Spanish Marriage 290
Mary's Prayer 292
Views of Gardiner and Paget 293
Impending Fate of Cranmer 295
Petition of the House of Commons 296
The Queen and Council 298
The Succession 299
Menace of Rebellion 301
The Queen and Elizabeth 302
 

 
CHAPTER XXXI.
 
THE SPANISH MARRIAGE.
 
Conflicting Parties 304
Advice of Pole 307
The Marriage Articles 309
Opposition of the People 312
Arrival of Count Egmont 314
The Marriage Treaty 315
Alarm of France 316
Conspiracies 317
Plans for a General Insurrection 318
Commencement of Disturbance 319
Flight of Sir Peter Carew 322
Conference at Allingham Castle 323
Rising in Kent 323
The Duke of Suffolk 326
Sir Thomas Wyatt 326
Intercepted Despatches of the French Ambassador 329
The Queen's Troops join Wyatt 331
Alarm at the Court 333
The Queen at the Guildhall 336
Success of Suffolk in the Midland Counties 338
Storming of Cowling Castle 339
State of Coventry 340
Suffolk is taken 342
Wyatt at Southwark 343
Agitation of the Council 344
Wyatt crosses the Thames 347
The Night at Whitehall 349
Advance of Wyatt 351
The Insurrection fails 354
The Queen's Revenge 355
Lady Jane Grey the first Victim 357
General Havoc among the Prisoners 361
Arrest of Elizabeth 363
Parties in the Council 366
The Proxy Marriage 367
Gardiner and the intended Persecution 370
Creation of Catholic Peers 371
The Refugees in France 372
Perils of Elizabeth 376
Sentence of Wyatt 377
Elizabeth writes to the Queen 379
The Tower 382
Protest of the Lords 384
Renard and the Queen 384
Meeting of Parliament 385
The Marriage Bill 387
Execution of Wyatt 389
Trial and Acquittal of Throgmorton 391
The Succession 392
The Persecution Bills 393
Resistance of the Lay Lords 393
The Bills are lost 396
The Court and Lord Howard of Effingham 398
Elizabeth is sent to Woodstock 399
The Queen's Troubles 401
Philip sails from Spain 404
Philip at Southampton 405
The Wet Ride to Winchester 409
The Marriage 410
War in Belgium 412
Charles V. at Namur 413
 

 
CHAPTER XXXII.
 
RECONCILIATION WITH ROME.
 
Pole and the Emperor 416
The Church Lands 419
The Papal Commission 420
Objections to Pole's Return 422
Pole appeals to Philip 423
The Spaniards in London 426
Philip is weary of England 428
Bonner's Articles 429
Agitation in the City 430
A New Parliament 432
The Elections 433
The Roman Question 434
An Embassy is sent to Pole 437
Pole's Return 441
The Journey 441
Pole at Canterbury 442
The Salutation 444
The Queen enceinte 446
Speech of Pole at Whitehall 448
Parliament petitions for Absolution 454
St Andrew's Day 454
Absolution and Reconciliation of England 458
Pole writes to the Pope 460
Catholic Exultation 462
Petition of the Clergy 464
The Act of Reconciliation 465
The Passing of the Heresy Acts 466
Impenitence of Parliament, and Discontent of Pole 468
The Act of Reconciliation 470
Regency Bill 478
Dissolution of Parliament 480
The Limits of the Catholic Reaction 481
The Legate's Injunctions 484
Commencement of the Persecution 486
Trials of Hooper and Rogers 486
Rogers is burnt at Smithfield 490
Hooper is sent to Gloucester 491
Martyrdom of Hooper 494
Effect upon the People 497
Conspiracy and Failure 499
Renard's Advice to Philip 500
 

 
CHAPTER XXIII.
 
THE MARTYRS.
 
The Persecution continues 504
Burning of William Hunter 508
Ferrars, Bishop of St David's 508
The Crimes of Ferrars 509
Ferrars is burnt 512
Prospects of European Peace 514
Proposed Conference 515
The Queen's expected Confinement 516
Litanies and Processions 516
The Child is not born 518
Condition of the Queen 520
Fresh Stimulus to the Persecution 522
Burning of Cardmaker and Warne 524
The Child is not born 525
Change in the Queen's Prospects 526
Release of Elizabeth 528
Interview between the Sisters 529
Intended Abdication of the Emperor 532
Philip leaves England 533
Views of the Spaniards 536
Philip on the Continent 539
The Persecution 540
Trial of Cranmer at Oxford 542
Trials of Ridley and Latimer 550
Ridley and Latimer are burnt 557
Effects of the Persecution 560
Paul IV. and the Church Lands 562
Death and Character of Gardiner 564
Meeting of Parliament 566
The Subsidy and the First-fruits 567
First-fruits cannot be restored to the Pope 569
Irritation of the Queen 571
Further Failures and Dissolution 571
Correspondence of Mary with Philip 573
Fate of Cranmer referred to the Pope 574
Sentence arrives from Rome 576
The Archbishop is condemned 578
Pole writes to him 578
He wavers and recants 583
The Court nevertheless will kill him 587
Cranmer at St Mary's Church 588
The Sermon 589
The Archbishop's last Speech 592
His Penitence 598
His Death 599