Illustrations of Exotic Entomology Vol. III

ILLUSTRATIONS

OF

EXOTIC ENTOMOLOGY,

CONTAINING

UPWARDS OF SIX HUNDRED AND FIFTY

FIGURES AND DESCRIPTIONS

OF

FOREIGN INSECTS,

INTERSPERSED WITH

REMARKS AND REFLECTIONS ON THEIR NATURE AND PROPERTIES.

BY DRU DRURY.




A NEW EDITION,

BROUGHT DOWN TO THE PRESENT STATE OF THE SCIENCE,
WITH THE SYSTEMATIC CHARACTERS OF EACH SPECIES, SYNONYMS, INDEXES,
AND OTHER ADDITIONAL MATTER.

BY J. O. WESTWOOD, F.L.S.

SOC. CÆS. NAT. CUR. MOSQ. SOC.
ETC. ETC.




VOL. III.




LONDON:

HENRY G. BOHN, 4, YORK STREET, COVENT GARDEN.

MDCCCXXXVII.

MR. DRURY'S PREFACE

TO THE FIRST EDITION.




VOL. III.


Grateful for the favourable reception the two preceding volumes of this work have met from the lovers of Natural History, it is with pleasure that I now present them, though late, with this my third and last volume, which has been completed in opposition to greater disadvantages and disappointments than attended either of the others.

It may not be superfluous to inform my readers, that this publication is the result of such leisure hours only as could be spared from an indispensable assiduity to immediate business, and a necessary attention, at that time, to an impaired constitution.

This being taken into consideration, little apology will be required for the length of time I have been in bringing it out, by those who know what trouble we must necessarily have with the various artists, who are employed in executing the different parts of such a work, and with what scrupulous exactness and care every minute part ought to be examined and corrected. This unavoidable delay, however, has been productive of another circumstance, which compels me to entreat all their candour and indulgence.

I have always made it a rule of my conduct to promote Natural History by every method in my power. My cabinet has therefore been open to all those gentlemen, from whatever part of the world they came, who made Entomology their study. In consequence of this permission, descriptions of many of the insects now published have got abroad some time since, and even figures of several of them have made their appearance. This I did not expect, as many of my plates were entirely finished some months, and even years, before those above-mentioned could have got forth. This will account for the seeming contradiction in many places, upon comparing the descriptions with the Index, where many insects are described and mentioned as new ones, but in the Index have their synonyms given in various authors. The truth is, the descriptions were made about the year 1775, between which time and the present those authors published their respective works.

But who can foresee disappointments, or avoid their effects? It may be urged, that these plates might have been omitted, and others substituted. In so doing, however, I could not have been justified, either to the purchasers of the former volumes, or to myself. Many of them, there is no doubt, would not have the figures of those insects alluded to, unless in this work; and, as to my part, without considering the loss, neither my business, my health, nor my leisure, would have enabled me to supply their place. This very circumstance I have mentioned in the Preface to my last volume, wherein I bespoke the candour of my readers for an anticipation of a similar kind, which got abroad before I could bring out that volume. In the present case, I have the greatest reason to request the same indulgence from a motive still stronger, which is, that almost all the figures given by other authors, and which I have quoted in the index, were taken from specimens originally in my possession. As it is, I hope, the novelty, the beauty, and the curiosity of the other insects herein published, will, by affording large gratification to the inquisitive naturalist, make some amends, and that the nature of my situation will procure me a full acquittal from any kind of premeditated imposition.

In regard to the manners and economy of the insects now published, I have been able to get little information. There are very few, even of those who collect abroad, who will give themselves the trouble of making observations; and such as do not want inclination or ability, and even travel expressly for the purpose, find great, and to us almost inconceivable impediments.

Mr. Smeathman, who has been many years in Africa and the West Indies, has furnished me with a few remarks on this subject, together with observations on some particular insects, published in the preceding volumes as well as this. These observations, I am of opinion, will afford information and entertainment to my readers, and, at the same time, throw some light on the nature, qualities, or dispositions of many kinds of insects, of which, hitherto, we know nothing more than the external figure. He informs me, that in hot climates, especially such as are not well settled, the difficulties attending every kind of study, and every species of collecting, are infinitely greater than those who have not visited them can possibly suppose. In those countries, either from the scarcity and high price of the materials, or the dearness of labour, the traders or settlers are obliged to calculate for little more than necessary house-room, with such conveniences only as are absolutely necessary for their different occupations and pursuits; in which they are, from these circumstances, frequently much cramped and embarrassed. If this is the case with those who have all the best means in their power of providing for themselves, how must it be with transient persons and speculative travellers, who are seldom profitable visitors, and whose studies consequently meet with little partiality from such as are assiduously engaged in the sole pursuit of wealth or power?

As to the breeding of insects, and observing their changes and dispositions with care and circumspection, it seems almost impossible in the nature of things to be practised, except, comparatively speaking, with a very few.

(The ravages of the tropical ants and cock-roaches are then detailed from the information given by Mr. Smeathman, which I have thought it more interesting to introduce with the descriptions of those insects in the second volume.)

The termites are another genus of insects, which some time or other injure the traveller, and at least add to the number of his cares. These wonderful creatures were little known till Mr. Smeathman developed their extraordinary history. They were generally supposed to be a species of ant, and in consequence so frequently confounded with the natural history of that great genus of insects, that it has thrown much obscurity into both.

The ravages of these insects are so insidious, that travellers frequently suffer irreparable damage before they are aware of them. When they are previously informed, the depredations of those insects may be greatly prevented; but constant care and caution are required, which is no small addition to the number of cares that a collector must always have upon his mind. I shall not pretend to go any further into the history of this genus of insects, as I must necessarily borrow it from my ingenious friend's very entertaining account of them, published last year in the seventy-first volume, Part I. of the Philosophical Transactions, to which I refer my reader.

To these obstacles, Mr. Smeathman adds others, some of which we can have little idea of in these climates. The Norway rats are so numerous and so bold, that they will come and feed by the side of the table at supper, and during the still hours of night, search every corner for plunder, making a continual uproar, and often, in a kind of furor, carry away small utensils, and other articles, which they can turn to no advantage either for food or shelter. They are very mischievous to the naturalist's collection of plants and seeds, tearing them and the books, in which they are kept, to pieces, as it were in wantonness, and carrying away such as are edible, in which they are often assisted by the land-crabs. These amphibious insects frequently make holes for themselves, or use those made by the rats under ground, and enter through the floors of the negroes' cottages.

In the rainy seasons many small animals are apt to take shelter in the thatch; among others, various species of snakes, who most probably get there in pursuit of the rats. Mr. Smeathman when on the African shore observed, that the former were very harmless; and, as he found the latter very mischievous and destructive, he would not suffer the snakes to be killed or hunted out. The patient natives there, it seems, as well as the rational travellers, are not without consolation amidst this heterogeneous crowd of inmates. They see with pleasure the spiders always on the watch for the wasps and cock-roaches, the last of which are intolerable. The lizards, again, attack all sorts of insects, the large Tarantula, as it is called, not excepted. The lizards not unfrequently fall a prey to the fowls, and the rats to the snakes. Hence lizards, rats, snakes, and land-crabs occasionally serve as delicious repasts to the improvident inhabitants, who thus "thrive under evil."

Sometimes indeed the land-crab becomes, as in the West Indies, a part of the stock of the provident and luxurious inhabitants, who inclose a small piece of ground in the manner of a yard, and feed them with fruit, herbs, Indian corn, and other grain, on which they fatten exceedingly, and stewed in any manner are most delicious eating.

Thus a speculative man can find few opportunities of securing his collections, or of making observations, while surrounded by the hospitable chief, the trader, the planter, and their families, who scarce finding room enough in their houses for themselves, think all time lost that is not spent in lucrative business, active pleasures, or social festivity. If to this we add frequent sickness, the want of boats or cattle for conveyance in cases where moving without is impracticable; the want of information, of guides, of assistance, the means of transporting things, of candlelights, or even a table to write on, it will not be surprising we have so little knowledge of the uncultivated tropical regions. Even travellers, who go expressly to make observations, have other great difficulties to encounter. They are sometimes obliged to pass much of their time in providing the mere necessaries of life, and some in securing themselves from danger, while their industry is always exposed to the avarice, the neglect, or the ill-will of ignorant people, whose services, though poor, are not to be easily dispensed with.

Sometimes the cottages have no windows, and the larger houses, which they contrive to form in such manner as to receive the breezes, are generally without glass; so that the student frequently has his subject, his pen, or his paper blown away, with various other disappointments and vexations too numerous and too trivial to mention, but altogether distressing, and in many instances insurmountable.

As this is the case, we have not much reason to wonder that our accounts of some foreign countries, and their natural productions, are so short and imperfect. We must content ourselves with slight sketches, which, repeated and corroborated by various travellers, may at last amount to one great descriptive and useful work, of which those contained in this Preface are offered only as so many scattered seeds.

(The various observations upon the economy of different species figured in these Illustrations, and inserted in this Preface, have been respectively introduced under the species to which they belonged.)

ILLUSTRATIONS

OF

EXOTIC ENTOMOLOGY.




PLATE I.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 01.jpg

PAPILIO ANTIMACHUS.

Plate I.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna, Latr. Family: Papilionidæ, Leach.

Genus. Papilio, Linn. (Section Equit. Troj.) &c.

Papilio Antimachus. Alis nigris, anticis elongatis maculis fulvis, posticis subdentatis disco radiato rufo, nigro punctato; apice nigro lunulis marginalibus fulvis. (Expans. Alar. 8½ unc.)

Syn. Papilio Antimachus, Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. 3. pt. 1. p. 11. No. 31. Donov. Nat. Repos. pl. 100. & 101. God. and Latr. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 28. No. 8. Esper. Aus. Schm. t. 22. f. 2. Boisd. Hist. Nat. Lep. 1. p. 188.

Habitat: Sierra Leone (Drury).
Upper Side. Antennæ brown. Head black, with eight whiteish spots on the top. Thorax black, with four white spots at the base of the anterior wings. Abdomen black at the base and at top, clay-coloured on the sides and extremity. Anterior wings black at the base, but at the extremities more of a brown colour, with eighteen different shaped marks and spots; those next the body dark orange, the others yellow clay-coloured, some being so faint as to be hardly discernible. Posterior wings slightly dentated, the inner scollops being edged with clay-coloured crescents. These wings, next the body, are of a dark orange; the remainder clay-coloured, with a broad black border running round each wing, from the upper corners to the abdominal ones; the inner sides being deeply indented, and the outer ones scolloped, with eight roundish black spots near the middle of each wing, one of which is supposed to be hid in the figure. Under Side. Head black, with two white spots in front. Palpi scarcely discernible. Breast and sides black, spotted with yellow. Abdomen clay-coloured. The middle of the superior wings has a black patch, on which are three orange-coloured spots, answering to three on the upper side; a long angular dark orange mark joins the anterior edges next the body, close to which are two roundish black spots; the extreme parts of these wings are of a dark greyish ash colour, the ribs being black. Posterior wings clay-coloured, with eight black spots, answering to those on the upper side: the black border being narrower on this side, and the inner edges much deeper indented.

This magnificent butterfly is so exceedingly rare that M. Boisduval, whose knowledge of the European Collections is very extensive, questions whether there exists any other specimen than that originally figured by Drury. Mr. Jones also, whose splendid Collection of Drawings are so frequently quoted by Fabricius, copied this insect, figuring both the upper and under sides, which figures have been lately published by Mr. Donovan in his Naturalist's Repository. Mr. Donovan also adds, that from the manuscripts of Mr. Drury, "we find that he received this insect in 1775, from Mr. Smeathman, an assiduous and very intelligent naturalist stationed at Sierra Leone."

"From the observations of Mr. Smeathman it may be imagined that this insect is not unfrequent in that particular part of Africa, but that its capture is attended with considerable difficulty, as well from the manner of its flight, as the time when it appears on the wing; it is seen only in mid-day, when every exertion under the direct influence of a vertical sun must be painful to an European. Its flight is also remarkable for its velocity, and to increase the difficulty of taking it, the insect frequents only the upper branches of the trees, from whence it darts and glances from one branch to another, and never descends nearer to the ground than the height of eight feet. Mr. Smeathman observes also, that it turns its head about instantly to the glade or path, and will not suffer any person to approach within 'striking distance' of it, but will dart away on the least motion of the body; if the naturalist however exerts his patience, it will at last become more familiar and careless, and is then to be caught upon some particular branch, to which it will appear more attached than to another."

Mr. Donovan however suggests, that the insect must be not only exceedingly local, but also of great rarity.


PLATE II.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 02.jpg

HEPIALUS CRASSUS.

Plate II. fig. 1.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Hepialidæ, Steph.

Genus. Hepialus, Fabr. Hepiolus, Illiger. Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Hepialus Crassus. Alis anticis albis, fusco, cinereo, badioque variis, apice irregulariter albo, lunulâ magnâ fuscâ; posticis griseo-fuscantibus. (Expans. Alar. 7 unc.)

Syn. Phalæna (Noctua) crassa, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Upper Side. Antennæ filiform, whiteish at the base, black at the tips. Head whiteish, small. Thorax whiteish, having two black tufts of hair on the shoulders, and two next the abdomen; upper part yellowish brown. Abdomen dark brown, almost black, being ringed and edged with dark grey. Anterior wings whiteish, intermixed with many patches and irregular spots of grey and dark brown. Posterior wings darkish grey brown, but lighter along the posterior edges. Under Side. All the parts on this side are of a dark yellow brown, of the same colour with the upper side of the inferior wings. Abdomen rather lighter, with a dark brown line running along its middle from the thorax to the anus.


SPHINX IDRIEUS.

Plate II. fig. 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Crepuscularia. Family: Sphingidæ, Leach.

Genus. Sphinx, Linn.

Sphinx Idrieus. Corpore alisque anticis viridibus, posticis fulvis margine nigro. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

Syn. Sphinx Idrieus, Drury, App. vol. 3. (1783.)

Sphinx Medea, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 363. No. 23. (1793.)

Habitat: Africa (Drury). "Africa æquinoctiali" (Fabr.).
Upper Side. Antennæ yellow brown. Head olive green, with a cream-coloured stripe running on each side to the wings. Thorax and abdomen olive green; the latter having six small cream-coloured spots on each side near the anus. Anterior wings entirely olive green. Posterior orange-coloured, edged with black. Under Side. Tongue spiral. Sides, breast, and abdomen paler green than on the upper side. Wings next the shoulders dark orange, but green at the extremities. Posterior wings greenish and mottled, the fringes being yellow.


ÆGERIA? PLUMIPES.

Plate II. fig. 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Crepuscularia? Family: Ægeriidæ, Steph.

Genus. Ægeria, Fabr.? Sesia, Latr. Sphinx, Drury.

Ægeria? Plumipes. Alis cyaneis, abdomine fulvo-cingulato, apice barbato; pedibus fulvis, femorum posticorum apice plumoso. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Sphinx plumipes, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Africa.
Upper Side. Antennæ black, smallest at the tips. Eyes grey and shining. Palpi black. Head and thorax black. Abdomen black, with orange-coloured rings; the extremity being very small and long, and furnished with a tuft of hairs expanding like a star. Under Side. Tongue spiral. Head and palpi orange. Breast black. Legs orange, furnished with long tibial spurs; the two hinder thighs having tufts of black hairs issuing from the tips above. Abdomen orange, sides black.


PLATE III.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 03.jpg

COSSUS LAOCOON.

Plate III. fig. 1.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Hepialidæ, Steph.

Genus. Cossus, Fabr. Phalæna (Bombyx), Linn.

Cossus Laocoon. Alis rufo-badiis, apice obscurioribus maculâ mediâ albidâ, nigro punctatâ, lunulisque submarginalibus pallidis. (Expans. Alar. 6 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Attacus) Laocoon, Drury. Cramer, pl. 117. B.?

Habitat: Rio Janeiro, Brazil.

Upper Side. Antennæ brown, and filiform. Head brown, with two white spots beneath the antennæ. Thorax cream-coloured, with a red-brown spot arising at the head. Abdomen red-brown, with cream-coloured rings. Wings red-brown; the anterior ending along the external edges in a greyish brown, where there is a row of faint cream-coloured crescents; at the shoulders there is also a round cream-coloured spot, and in the middle, near the anterior edges, is another large patch of that colour, with darker marks thereon; several other spots are likewise dispersed on these wings. Posterior wings, along the external edges, grey brown; but next the body cream-coloured, with a row of faint cream-coloured crescents along the bottom, and two small spots on the abdominal edges. Under Side. Breast and legs red-brown; the two fore legs having two cream-coloured spots on the fore joints. Abdomen red-brown, and cream intermixed. Wings, next the body, cream-coloured, but towards their extremities red-brown, more strongly marked than on the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.


ARCTIA? MENEA.

Plate III. fig. 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Arctiidæ, Stephens.

Genus. Arctia? Schrank. Callimorpha, Latr.? Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Arctia? Menea. Flava, alis anticis basi, fasciâ latâ mediâ apiceque margineque postico posticarum nigris. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

Syn. Phalæna (Noctua) Menea, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Brazil.
Upper Side. Antennæ filiform and black. Head, thorax, and abdomen yellow. Wings yellow and black. Anterior having two round black spots at the shoulders, and two long ones at the tips. Posterior having a broad black border, beginning at the abdominal corners and running round the wings, crossing the fore wings and ending at the anterior edges. Under Side. Palpi and tongue black. Legs black. Breast and abdomen yellow. Wings coloured as on the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.


CALLIMORPHA? MOPSA.

Plate III. fig. 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Arctiidæ, Steph.

Genus. Callimorpha? Latr. Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Callimorpha? Mopsa. Alis anticis fuscis fasciâ rectâ subapicali; posticis sanguineis, basi, fasciâ mediâ undatâ margineque nigris. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Noctua) Mopsa, Drury, App. vol. 2.

Habitat: Madras.
Upper Side. Antennæ filiform and black. Thorax and abdomen chocolate, the latter edged with red. Anterior wings entirely of a dun chocolate colour, having a lemon-coloured streak crossing them from the lower corners to near the middle of the anterior edges. Posterior wings next the body almost black; the remainder carmine, with a waved black line crossing them from the upper to the abdominal corners. Under Side. Palpi grey. Breast red, with two black spots on each side. Legs grey. Wings coloured as on the upper side; the red colour on the inferior ones reaching to the body. Margins of the wings entire.


PLATE IV.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 04.jpg

VANESSA ANACARDII.

Plate IV. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Vanessa, Fabricius, Latr. God. Hamadryades, Hübn. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.) Drury. (Dan. Cand.) Linn.

Vanessa Anacardii. Alis subdentatis; suprà margaritaceis extimumque versùs nigro punctatis, anticis falcatis, posticis extùs caudatis ocelloque ad angulum ani notatis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Dan. Cand.) Anacardii, Linn. Syst. Nat. 11. 758. No. 74.? Fabr. Ent. Syst. 1. p. 183. 567.?

Papilio (Nymph. Gemm.) Parrhasius, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Papilio Æthiops, Pal. Beauv. Lep. pl. 3. fig. 1. 2.

Papillon Opale, Pal. Beauv. texte. p. 22.

Vanessa Aglatonice, Latr. God. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 299. 8.

Habitat: Sierra Leone (Drury). "In Anacardio Americes," (Linn.) an recte?
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen dark green, the sides being white. Wings of a beautiful changeable colour, exhibiting, according to the direction in which the light falls upon them, a purple, red, blue, green, and white, the two latter being the predominant colours. Anterior wings, along the external edges, black, with two pale blueish spots thereon near the tips, and two round black spots on the light part of the wings near the lower corners. Posterior wings with two tails, and edged with a border of a brownish blue running from the upper to the abdominal corners, having thereon a row of small black angular marks placed between the tendons; three round black spots are also placed near the upper corners, the lowest being the smallest; and at the abdominal corners is a small eye, whose pupil is red, and iris black. Under Side. Palpi, breast, legs, and abdomen white. The beautiful changeable colour is not seen on this side, all the wings being of a pale green. The anterior having two small eyes, the pupil being red, the iris white; the smallest of which is placed near the tips, the other lower, and towards the middle of the wing. A round black spot is also placed on these wings near the body, which in the figure is hid. A shade of a darker green, resembling a line, rises on these wings near the middle, and, crossing the inferior ones, meets below the abdomen. Posterior wings with two little eyes, placed near the upper and abdominal corners, having a faint resemblance of a border of a brighter green placed along the external edges. Wings angulated.

Linnæus appears to have confounded this African insect with an American butterfly, figured by Mad. Merian, giving the name to the African species, with the additional habits of the American one. The copy of Drury's work, which belonged to Linnæus, late in the library of Sir J. E. Smith (by whom the collections of the great Swede were purchased), and now in that of the Linnæan Society, contains a pencil note, by its late possessor, of reference of this figure to the Anacardii of Linnæus.


PLATE V.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 05.jpg

CALLIMORPHA? CAFRA.

Plate V. fig. 1.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Arctiidæ, Steph.

Genus. Callimorpha? Latr. Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Callimorpha? Cafra. Alis albis, anticis strigis duabus transversis, unâ humerali alterâ mediâ, apiceque marginali nigricantibus, posticis lunulis punctisque submarginalibus atris. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc.)

Syn. Phalæna (Bombyx) Cafra, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Upper Side. Antennæ deeply pectinated and brown. Head white. Thorax and abdomen yellowish grey. Anterior wings white, edged with a dull blackish colour, and a large patch of the same at the tips, with two streaks also running from the anterior edges almost across the wings; one near the shoulders, the other in the middle, both narrowing as they go, and ending in points. A little group of spots is also placed at the lower corners. Posterior wings white, but next the body yellow, with a very irregular dark border running along the external edges, on which are several white spots unevenly dispersed, and of various forms. Under Side. Palpi white, tipped with black. Fore legs red underneath, and black above, the ends being black: the other legs grey, the tips black. Breast and abdomen yellow grey. Wings coloured as on the upper side, but fainter. Margins of the wings entire.


CALLIMORPHA? NERINA.

Plate V. fig. 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Arctiidæ, Steph.

Genus. Callimorpha? Latr. Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Callimorpha? Nerina. Alis anticis nigris, nervis basalibus luteis, fasciis duabus punctisque submarginalibus albidis, posticis fulvo-brunneis apice nigro, punctis submarginalibus albis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Bombyx) Nerina, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Upper Side. Antennæ strongly pectinated and brown. Head brown, the front being white. Thorax brown, with two white streaks along it. Abdomen brown. Wings black, streaked with light brown from the shoulders along the tendons, and two light yellowish patches, almost crossing the wings from the anterior edges, with a row of white coloured spots placed along the external edges. Posterior wings dark yellow, with a deep black border running along the external edges from the upper to the abdominal corners. Under Side. Palpi black. Mouth white. Neck and breast yellow. Legs brown, and yellow at top, and white beneath. Abdomen white, streaked longitudinally with brown. Anus yellow. Wings coloured as on the upper side, but brighter. Margins of all the wings entire.


PLATE VI.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 06.jpg

NYMPHALIS DECIUS.

Plate VI. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.), Drury.

Nymphalis Decius. Alis supra fuscis, fasciâ communi albâ; posticis caudatis, ad angulum ani rufis ocellis duobus. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio Decius, Cram. pl. 114. A. B. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 67. No. 210. Herbst. tab. 56. f. 112. Nymphalis D., Enc. Méth. ix. p. 363. Donovan Nat. Repos. 4. 109.

Habitat: Sierra Leone (Drury). Interior, near the Gold Coast (Donovan).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Eyes, head, thorax, and abdomen brown. One-third of the superior wings next the body brown; apical half brownish black. These two colours divided by a white band or bar, which, beginning at the anterior edges, crosses these wings, and runs half way down the posterior ones, being edged with blue. Posterior wings furnished with two tails, the lower part of them being of a dark orange; next the body brown, and next the upper corners almost black. There are also two small eyes on these wings; one near the abdominal corners, the other at the middle of the external edges. Under Side. Palpi and tongue yellow brown. Breast and abdomen brown. Legs next the body brown, the extreme joints almost white. Wings next the body brown for about half an inch, when they suddenly become white, and gradually alter in colour to a blueish, and then to a dark brown all along their external edges, where the inferior wings have several small spots and eyes. Wings dappled with an innumerable quantity of small streaks. Wings angulated.

Mr. Smeathman states that this species was taken at a considerable distance from the coast, and that it is exceedingly scarce.


NYMPHALIS EUPALE.

Plate VI. fig. 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.), Drury.

Nymphalis Eupale. Alis supra argenteo-virescentibus, apice saturatiore, subtùs gramineis, punctis marginalibus nigris ocellatis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Pleb. Urbic.) Eupale, Drury, App. vol. 3. (1783.)

Papilio (Nymph.) Amasia, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 136. No. 419. (1793). Encyclop. Méth. ix. p. 389. (Nymphalis A.)

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Head and thorax dark greenish brown. Abdomen light green. Half the anterior wings next the body pea-green, the other half much darker green. The posterior wings also pea-green, but next the body paler, with a row of small different shaped brown spots placed along the external edges. Under Side. Palpi white. Tips black. Tongue green. Legs, breast, and abdomen white. Wings beautiful pea-green, with some different shaped silver spots, very small and dispersed over different parts, particularly two near the tips. Abdominal groove white. These wings are slightly dentated. The anterior ones are entire.

Mr. Smeathman states, that this species was obtained at a considerable distance from the coast, and that it is frequently seen in company with the groups of Nymph. Erithonius described in vol. ii. pl. 15. fig. 1.


NYMPHALIS CAMILLUS.

Plate VI. fig. 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.), Drury.

Nymphalis Camillus. Alis albis, fasciis fulvis nigro-marginatis, posticis bicaudatis angulo ani fulvo, punctis nigris albo marginatis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio N. Camillus, Fabr. Spec. Ins. tom. 2. p. 11. No. 42. (1781). Enc. Méth. ix. p. 361. No. 39. (Nymphalis C.)

Papilio (Eq. Ach.) Pantheus, Drury, App. vol. 2. (1783.)

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen brown, streaked with white. Wings white, edged with black. Anterior ones having a yellow streak next the shoulders, edged with black. Two others a little broader also rise at the anterior edges, and crossing these wings, are continued down the posterior ones almost to the abdominal corners, where they end in points; tips of these wings brown, edged with black, forming six square white spots. Posterior wings having two tails, abdominal corners yellow, with two round extensions of the wings like tails, with a singular group of small, black, white, and blue spots prettily contrasted. Under Side. Palpi yellow above, and white beneath, tipped with black. Breast, abdomen, and legs white. Wings nearly coloured as on the upper side; posterior having two remarkable oval black velvety spots at the abdominal corners. Wings dentated.


PLATE VII.

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NYMPHALIS ISIS.

Plate VII. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.), Drury.

Nymphalis Isis. Alis fusco-nigris, anticis integris utrinque maculâ disci chermesinâ; posticis dentatis, suprà strigâ marginali albidâ. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Dan. Fest.) Isis, Drury, App. vol. 3. (1783.)

Papilio N. Isis, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 124. No. 377. (1793.) Donovan Ins. India, pl. 7. fig. 1. 2.

Habitat: Rio Janeiro.
Under Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen brownish black. Wings very dark brown; the anterior having a large triangular patch of carmine red situated near the posterior and external edges. The posterior have also a narrow white streak at the abdominal corners. Upper Side. Palpi black above, white beneath. Breast, abdomen, and legs ash-coloured. Wings lighter brown than on the upper side; a pale flesh-coloured bar crossing the wings from the anterior to the external edges, being about half an inch broad, between which and the body are several small bloody spots and streaks. Anterior wings entire, the posterior dentated.

It is by mistake that Donovan has introduced this Brazilian species into his work upon the Insects of India.


NYMPHALIS ANTIOCHUS.

Plate VII. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.), Drury.

Nymphalis Antiochus. Alis supra holosericeo-nigris, fasciâ communi nitidè aurantiâ; anticarum abbreviatâ. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Dan. Fest.) Antiochus, Linn. Mant. 1. 537. Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabricius Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 44. No. 134. Don. Ins. China, pl.

Papilio Eupalemon, Cramer, tab. 143. fig. B. C. Le Velonté Daubenton pl. Eulum. 68. f. 3. 4.

Habitat: Brazil.
Upper Side. Antennæ, head, thorax, and abdomen black. Wings fine velvety black. An orange-coloured bar, about one-fourth of an inch broad, rises in the middle of the superior wings, running circularly and crossing the inferior ones, meeting about the middle of the abdominal edges. Under Side. Palpi white. Tongue brown. Breast and legs white. Abdomen yellow-brown. Wings shining brown, exhibiting various shades of changeable colours; the tips terminating in an ash colour. Wings scarcely dentated.

Donovan has, in like manner, introduced this species into his work on the insects of China.


HIPPARCHIA CLUENA.

Plate VII. fig. 5, 6.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Hipparchia, Fabr. Satyrus, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.), Drury.

Hipparchia Cluena. Alis teneris, cinerascenti-violaceis, posticis dentatis utrinque ocellis quinque atris, subtùs lineis tribus fasciâque brunneis a costâ anticarum deductis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Cluena, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Papilio (Satyrus) Clueria, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 229. No. 716. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 492.

Habitat: Brazil. "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ brown. Thorax and abdomen grey-brown. Wings blueish grey-brown, with two narrow dark lines crossing the anterior ones from the anterior to the posterior edges; one in the middle of the wings, the other near the thorax; the posterior ones having five oval eyes placed near the external edges, the pupil being white, the iris dark, almost black. Under Side. Palpi, legs, breast, and abdomen grey. Wings blueish flesh-colour, with a line crossing them, rising at a small distance from the tips, ending a little above the abdominal corners, the external part of it being brown. A small eye is placed near the tips of the superior ones, having a black and yellow iris and white pupil. Five eyes of the same kind are also placed on the inferior ones along the external edges. Margins of the wings slightly dentated.


PLATE VIII.

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NYMPHALIS ARETHUSA.

Plate VIII. fig. 1, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.), Drury.

Nymphalis Arethusa. Alis integris suprà nitidè atris, virescenti-cœruleo multimaculatis; posticis subtùs punctis baseos angulique ani rubris ♂. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio Arethusa, Cramer, pl. 77. E. F. (♂.) pl. 130. fig. A. (♀ Pap. Laodamia.) Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 43. No. 130.

Nymphalis Arethusus. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 427. Donovan Nat. Repos. 2. pl. 48. fig. super.

Habitat: Brazil.
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen black, spotted with light blue. Wings black, having a great number of small light blue spots sprinkled over every part, and variously shaped. Under Side. Palpi black, with a white streak on each. Tongue, legs, and breast black, the latter with bloody streaks on the side. Abdomen dark brown. Wings reddish dark brown; the anterior ones having two faint blue spots near the lower corners; and the posterior having a little group of bloody spots at the shoulders, with a row of the same coloured spots (five in all) placed along the external edges near the abdominal corners. Margins of the wings entire.


ERYCINA JARBAS.

Plate VIII. fig. 2.

Order. Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Lycænidæ? Steph.

Genus. Erycina, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Dan. Fest.), Drury.

Erycina Jarbas. Alis integerrimis atris, cœruleo micantibus singulis utrinque fasciâ fulvâ, transversali, mediâ. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Dan. Fest.) Jarbas, Drury, App. vol. 3. (1783.)

Hesperia (rur.) Perditus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 323. No. 222.

Erycina Perditus, Enc. Méth. ix. p. 590. No. 127.

Habitat: Brazil. "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen nearly black. Wings brownish black. An orange-coloured bar, about a quarter of an inch broad, crosses the anterior wings from the middle of the anterior edges to the lower corners, from whence another of half that breadth crosses the posterior wings, meeting just below the anus. Under Side. Tongue, legs, breast, and abdomen dark brown, the latter having a small orange streak on each side. Wings coloured as on the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.


ERYCINA MENETAS.

Plate VIII. fig. 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Lycænidæ? Steph.

Genus. Erycina, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Dan. Fest.), Drury.

Erycina Menetas. Alis chermesinis, limbo tenuissimo nigro, margine antico et externo anticarum latiori, flavoque maculato, posticis triangularibus. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Pleb. urb.) Menetas, Drury, App. vol. 3. (1783.)

Hesperia R. Tacitus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 308. 168. (1793.)

Erycina Tacitus, Enc. Méth. ix. p. 588. Donovan Nat. Reposit. 4. 134.

Habitat: "Brazil, Mr. Bonifas, 1776" (Drury's MSS.). Surinam (Fabricius).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Front of the head yellow. Thorax black, with two yellow streaks at the base of the wings. Abdomen dark brown. Half of the superior wings black, beginning at the shoulders, and running to the external edges, on which are seven cream-coloured spots variously shaped. The other half of these wings is scarlet, without any marks. Posterior wings entirely scarlet, edged with black. Under Side. Palpi cream-coloured. Breast and abdomen light yellow. Legs black, but underneath pale yellow. Wings coloured as on the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.

Mr. Donovan has lately published figures of the upper and under side of this butterfly (which closely resemble each other) in his Naturalist's Repository. These figures do not however represent the peculiar character of the posterior pair of wings, neither is the author correct in his chronological account of this species, as Drury's account and figure were published ten years previous to the Entomologia Systematica, in which work alone of Fabricius is the species mentioned. I have consequently retained the specific designation imposed by Drury, and adopted by the authors of the Encyclopédie Méthodique.


PLATE IX.

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PAPILIO ASCANIUS.

Plate IX. fig. 1.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Papilionidæ, Leach.

Genus. Papilio, Auct. Papilio (Equit. Troj.), Linn.

Papilio Ascanius. Alis nigris, fasciâ communi albâ, posticarum rubro inquinatâ; his caudatis, maculis marginalibus chermesinis. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc.)

Syn. Papilio Ascanius, Cramer, pl. 14. fig. A. Fabricius Spec. Ins. tom. 2. p. 2. No. 6. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 3. No. 8. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 73. Boisduval Hist. Nat. Lepid. 1. 306. 141.

Habitat: Brazil. "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Head, thorax, and abdomen black, the latter tinged with orange. Anterior wings sootty black, having a broad white bar rising near the middle of the anterior edges, which crossing them and the anterior ones, meets just below the abdomen. These wings are furnished with two tails, and scolloped, the scollops being white. All the lower part of these wings is of a fine deep black, whereon are placed five red streaks between the tendons, running along the external edges. This black margin is separated from the white bar before mentioned by a carmine red one, and the space between the white bar and the shoulders is of a soot black. Under Side. Palpi reddish. Tongue and legs black. Breast black, with red spots on the sides. Abdomen black, with the sides and anus red. Wings on this side coloured as on the upper side, but rather more brilliant.


ERYCINA AMPYX.

Plate IX. fig. 2, 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Lycænidæ? Steph.

Genus. Erycina, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Dan. Fest.), Drury.

Erycina Ampyx. Alis subintegris supra fuscis, anticarum maculis duabus flavis; subtus omnibus flavis, maculis ferrugineis auro-pupillatis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Pl. urb.) Ampyx, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Erycina Ampyx, Latr. & God. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 586. No. 105.

Habitat: Brazil. "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ white, brown at their extremities. Thorax, abdomen, and wings brown; the anterior wings having two oval straw-coloured spots placed near the middle, and the anterior edges of the posterior ones streaked with the same colour. Under Side. Palpi, breast, legs, and abdomen straw-coloured. Wings straw-coloured, being spotted and streaked with red brown, each of these markings appearing to have a gold spot or streak in its centre, forming a very beautiful and singular appearance. Margins of the anterior wings entire, but of the posterior ones a little dentated.


PAPILIO AGAVUS.

Plate IX. fig. 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Papilionidæ, Leach.

Genus. Papilio, Auct. Papilio (Equit. Troj.), Linn.

Papilio Agavus. Alis atris concoloribus; anticis fasciâ, posticis disco, albidis; his caudatis lunulis marginalibus anguloque anali chermesinis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Eq. Achiv.) Agavus, Drury, App. vol. 3. Stoll. Suppl. Cram. pl. 32. 1. 1. A. Latr. & God. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 73. Boisd. Hist. Nat. Lep. 1. p. 306. 142.

Papilio Lysander? Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 9.

Habitat: Brazil.
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Neck red. Thorax, abdomen, and wings black. A narrow straw-coloured bar runs from the anterior edges of the superior ones near the tips, and, crossing the posterior edges, terminates in a large spot of the same colour on the posterior wings, situated near the shoulders. Posterior wings furnished with two short and two longer tails, and having two large carmine-coloured spots placed near the abdominal corners, and three others, that are smaller, along the external edges. Under Side. Palpi and tongue black. Breast the same, the sides having streaks of red on them. Abdomen black, and the sides streaked with red. Wings nearly the same colour as on the upper side; the red spots on the posterior ones being more numerous, and those at the abdominal corners not so large.


PLATE X.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 10.jpg

NYMPHALIS (CHARAXES) ETESIPE.

Plate X.

Order: Lepidoptera, Linn. Section: Diurna, Latr. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swainson.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Eq. achiv.) Linn. Drury. Papilio Nymphalis, Fabr. (Subgenus: Charaxes, Boisduval.)

Nymphalis (Charaxes) Etesipe. Alis supra atro-cœruleis, subtus albo griseo nigro ferrugineoque marmoratis; utrinque fasciâ albâ, mediâ, anticarum interruptâ. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Nymphalis Etesipe, Latr. & God. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 355. No. 19.

Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Etheocles, Drury, App. vol. 3. (nec Fabricius.)

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen nearly black. The external part of the wings black, but next the body of a blueish cast. A blueish white bar, about a third of an inch in breadth, rises in the superior wings, and, crossing the inferior, meets just below the abdomen. At the tips of the former are five small oblong whiteish spots, and two larger, placed close to the forementioned bar, but separated from it by the tendons of the wing. Posterior wings furnished with four short tails of equal length, having four small white spots at the abdominal corners, and a small yellow crescent about the middle of the external edge. Under Side. Palpi, legs, and breast white. Abdomen brown. Anterior wings next the body of a blueish ash-colour, which becomes darker as it approaches the external edges. Half these wings next the body, is adorned with many differently shaped spots of a dirty red, verged with black. A range of not less than seven oblong black spots is situated along the external edges, and the whiteish bar, visible on the upper side, is here to be seen, but not so regular. The ground of the posterior wings is the same colour as the anterior, with several reddish spots differently shaped, and verged with black. Anterior edges white, and along the external edges are a number of small black spots and streaks not to be distinctly described.

The name of Etheocles, which Drury applied to this insect, without any reference to Fabricius, had been previously employed by that author for a distinct but nearly allied species, which he indeed regarded as identical with Drury's insect. The distinctions between the two species were first pointed out in the Encyclopédie Méthodique, in which work the name adopted above was given to Drury's insect.


PLATE XI.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 11.jpg

NYMPHALIS (CHARAXES) BERENICE.

Plate XI. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera, Linn. Section: Diurna, Latr. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swainson.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Eq. achiv.) Linn. Drury. Papilio Nymphalis, Fabr. (Subgenus: Charaxes, Boisduval.)

Nymphalis (Charaxes) Berenice. Alis supra nigris, fasciâ communi rufâ, disco nigro maculato; posticis subtus albo, flavo ferrugineoque maculatis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Berenice, Drury, App. vol. 3. (1783.) Fabr. Mant. Ins. 2. p. 48. No. 471. (1787.)

Papilio Zingha, Cramer, pl. 315. fig. B. C. Herbst. t. 151. fig. 3. 4. Donovan Nat. Repos. 3. 107.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).

Upper Side. Antennæ black, with four white spots at the base and four on the sides of the neck. Thorax and abdomen yellow brown. Wings black, like velvet; anterior having the middle occupied by a large triangular space of a deep orange, crossing the posterior ones, and meeting at the body: on the anterior edges of this orange division are two distinct black spots, and a third very faint, situate in the middle of these wings. Posterior wings having two projections at the abdominal corners, like the rudiments of tails, with four yellow spots, and two very small white ones above them. A range of red spots, some of them very small, runs along the external edges of these wings, reaching from the upper to the abdominal corners. Under Side. Palpi yellow. Breast black, with yellow and white streaks and spots on its side and front. Fore legs very short and black, the tips being white. Anterior wings along the anterior edges of a dark yellowish grey, the tendons being black; posterior parts of these wings reddish, verged with black, and having a number of different shaped black spots on them. Posterior wings black, but along the anterior edges cream-coloured, with five distinct round black spots on each; the remaining parts of these wings being beautifully adorned with a variety of different colours running among each other. Wings dentated.


BIBLIS ARIADNE?

Plate XI. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Biblis, Fabr. Latr. God.

Biblis Ariadne? Alis denticulatis, anticarum apice truncato, griseis, strigis nigris undulatis; subtus rufescenti-fuscis nigro variis, anticis apice puncto costali albo. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 5 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph.) Ariadne, Linn. Syst. Nat. 2. 778? Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 383.?

Papilio Coryta, Cramer, pl. 86. E. F.

Papilio Merione, Cramer, pl. 144. G. H.?

Biblis Ariadne, Enc. Méth. ix. 327.

Habitat: Coromandel, Java (Enc. Méth.). "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen grey brown. Wings grey, and appearing mealy, shaded with blackish brown, particularly the anterior ones along the external edges, and next the body along the anterior margin. Posterior ones also strongly shaded along the external edges. Under Side. Palpi rather long, and dark brown, almost black. Breast, legs, and abdomen dark brown. Wings dark reddish brown, faintly shaded with streaks and marks of a darker brown, having two small white spots at the anterior edges of the anterior wings near the tips. Wings dentated.

Drury refers this insect to the Linnæan Ariadne, which is from Java. It is therefore with doubt that I give it the preceding synonyms, especially as Lepidopterists have neglected to cite Drury's figures.


PLATE XII.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 12.jpg

NYMPHALIS ELEUS.

Plate XII. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.), Drury.

Nymphalis Eleus. Alis utrinque testaceis, apice suprà æneo, anticarum fasciâ, posticarum punctis in simplici serie, albis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Eleus, Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 51. No. 156. Encycl. Méth. ix. 391.

Nymphalis Eleus, Donovan Natur. Repos. 4. 113.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1774" (Drury's MSS.). "America" (Fabricius incorrectly).
Upper Side. Antennæ black, with two small white spots at the base. Thorax and abdomen black, spotted with two rows of white spots, in pairs, from the neck to the anus; those on the abdomen being the least. Half the superior wings next the tips black, with two white streaks thereon placed obliquely; the other half next the body dirty orange, the anterior edges being black. Posterior wings dirty orange, bordered along the external edges with black, whereon is a row of seven oval white spots on each wing, placed at equal distances. Under Side. Palpi and breast orange. Fore legs orange, the rest white. Wings on this side dark orange-coloured. The white streaks near the tips of the anterior ones are very plain. Anterior edges of the posterior wings white, and the row of white spots along the external edges are here very conspicuous, each being verged with black.

Mr. Donovan has satisfactorily proved, from information derived both from Jones and Drury's MSS., that Fabricius erroneously gave America as the habitat of this insect.


ERYCINA BAUCIS.

Plate XII. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Lycænidæ? Steph.

Genus. Erycina, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Pleb. rur.), Drury.

Erycina Baucis. Alis anticis fuscis, ocello minuto apicali, fasciâ communi abbreviatâ albâ, posticis caudatis ocello auriformi externo. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Pleb. rur.) Baucis, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ, thorax, and abdomen black. Anterior wings next the body nearly black, a third next the tips greyish brown, with a circular eye thereon; the iris being black and yellow, the pupil blue. A white streak rises on these wings, which crossing the posterior edges, ends at the middle of the posterior ones in a sharp point. Posterior wings blackish brown, the upper corners being greyish brown, where is a yellow mark, not unlike a human ear, the inner part being tinged with a shining blue colour. These wings are furnished with two broad tails, which suddenly become narrow and short, the tips white, and along the edges streaked with blue. Under Side. Palpi wanting. Feet yellow. Breast white. Anterior wings lighter coloured than on the upper side. The white streaks are very conspicuous, and near the tips is another streak of ash-colour. The eye at the tips is very discernible. Posterior wings lighter coloured on this side, being chiefly ash-colour, with a brown streak longitudinally placed, verged at the bottom with yellow and blue streaks. The ear-like mark is also very plain on this side.


PLATE XIII.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 13.jpg

ACRÆA HYPATIA.

Plate XIII. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Heliconiidæ.

Genus. Acræa, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Helicon.), Drury.

Acræa Hypatia. Alis oblongis integerrimis fulvis, punctis plurimis margineque externo nigris, posticarum eodem margine supra immaculato, subtus flavo maculato. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Helic.) Hypatia, Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 163. No. 504. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 232. (Acræa H.)

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Head yellowish. Thorax and abdomen brown; the former having two white spots near the neck, and two more at a little distance. The latter having several white spots, placed in pairs down to the anus. Wings fine flesh-coloured; anterior tipped with black, and verged with the same colour along their anterior and external edges. They are also clouded with black next the body, and have eleven distinct black spots on each, one of which next the tips is very long. Posterior wings having a broad black fringe along the external edges, and eleven distinct black spots on each, some of which are very small. Under Side. Palpi yellow brown. Legs black and yellow. Breast black, spotted with white on its side. Wings nearly coloured as on the upper side; the anterior being not quite so brilliant, nor so strongly tipped with black. All the black spots on the outside of these wings are also seen here; but the black clouds next the body are wanting. Posterior wings next the body tinged with orange, and the black spots are much larger and more distinct and numerous than on the outside. Black fringe on the external edges, with seven white spots placed regularly, close to each other.

According to Mr. Smeathman, this butterfly and that represented in figures 3 and 4 of this plate, and indeed all the "Heliconii," are found in great numbers in those places where they breed, and are observed to bask and sport as much as possible in the sunshine, retiring towards sunset in great crowds to particular bushes. They breed chiefly in recent plantations, and near towns in general, so that, comparatively speaking, few of them are found in the ancient forests. Such however as inhabit them fly about the tops of the highest trees, seeking the honey from their flowers, and are seldom seen below.


ACRÆA MENIPPE.

Plate XIII. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Heliconiidæ.

Genus. Acræa, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Helicon.), Drury.

Acræa Menippe. Alis oblongis integerrimis, anticis suprà fuscis nigro-punctatis; ad apicem fasciâ abbreviatâ maculisque marginalibus albidis; posticis fasciâ fulvâ latâ transversâ. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Helic.) Menippe, Drury, App. vol. 3. Stoll. Suppl. Cram. pl. 28. fig. 1. Herbst. tab. 81. f. 4. 5.

Papilio H. Zetes? Linn. Syst. Nat. 2. 766. No. 110.

Acræa Zethea, Enc. Méth. ix. p. 236.

Habitat: Sierra Leone, and other parts of the Western Coast of Africa.
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax black, with a row of four faint white spots next the neck. Abdomen at the base black, with yellow spots on the sides, the extremity being yellowish. Anterior wings very dark brown, almost black, clouded with faint dark orange marks and dark yellow spots, particularly along the external edges. Posterior wings deep orange, clouded with black next the body, and a deep black border along the external edges, with a row of eight small red spots running along the middle of it: these wings have also seven, eight, or more black spots on them. Under Side. Palpi yellowish. Breast black, spotted with white on its sides. Anterior wings dusky orange-brown along the external edges, whereon is a row of dark orange oval spots, a whiteish cloud next them, and several different shaped black spots on the other part of the wings. Posterior wings cream-coloured, verged along the external edges with black, whereon is a row of white spots, and above it a row of small and very faint red ones: these wings next the body have a patch of a deep black, spotted with white, and verged with faint orange, and also several black spots.

This insect has been regarded as the Zetes of Linnæus; it does not appear however to agree with the Linnæan description, in which the anterior wings are said to be "nebulosis, punctatis:" nor with the habitat "in Indiis" given of that species.


HELICONIA GAZORIA.

Plate XIII. fig. 5, 6.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Heliconiidæ.

Genus. Heliconia, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Helicon.), Linn. &c.

Heliconia Gazoria. Alis oblongis integerrimis, dimidiatim flavis hyalinisque margine exteriori fusco, posticis subtus (♀) maculâ baseos aurantiacâ. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

Syn. Heliconia Gazoria, Latr. & God. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 214. No. 35.

Papilio (Hel.) Euritæa, Drury, App. vol. 3. (exclus. Syn. Crameri.)

Habitat: Rio Janeiro, Brazil.
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Head black, with small white spots. Neck orange. Thorax black, with grey marks. Abdomen black at top, and grey on the sides. Wings yellowish white, verged and tipped with black, without any marks or spots on them. Under Side. Palpi and breast grey. Legs black. Abdomen white. Anus yellowish. Wings coloured as on the upper side.


PLATE XIV.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 14.jpg

BIBLIS HIARBAS.

Plate XIV. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Biblis, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Nymphal. Phal.), Drury.

Biblis Hiarbas. Alis dentatis, fuscis; fasciâ utrinque communi albâ, posticarum latiore, anticarum abbreviatâ. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Ph.) Hiarbas, Drury, App. vol. 3. Donovan Ins. India, pl. 3. fig. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 128. No. 391.

Biblis Hiarba, Enc. Méth. ix. p. 824. 2.

Habitat: Sierra Leone (Drury). Cape of Good Hope (J. O. W.).
Upper Side. Antennæ, head, thorax, and abdomen black. Wings deep brown, almost black: a white bar rises on the anterior ones near the tips, and running parallel with the external edges crosses the posterior ones, and ends just below the abdomen, gradually widening. Posterior wings at the abdominal corners tipped with orange, and having a double row of narrow white crescents along the external edges; the anterior wings having only a single row. Under Side. Palpi white. Breast and legs grey-brown. Abdomen yellowish. The white bar and row of crescents nearly as on the upper side, but all the brown parts are prettily spotted and variegated with red-brown spots of different shapes; the general colour of the wings being a greyish brown. Wings dentated.

Fabricius cites Drury's collection alone for this species, incorrectly giving India as its habitat. Drury had previously stated it to have been received from Sierra Leone. Donovan, relying upon the former rather than the latter, figured the insect in his "Epitome of the Insects of India."


NYMPHALIS SEMIRE.

Plate XIV. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.), Drury.

Nymphalis Semire. Alis subdentatis fuscis, fasciâ utrinque viridi interruptâ, posticis ad angulum ani ferrugineo maculatis; subtus omnibus basi luteis, nigro punctatis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (N.) Semire, Fabr. Spec. Ins. tom. 2. p. 88. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 114. No. 351. Cramer, pl. 194. fig. B. C.

Papilio (N. Ph.) Hippolyte, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Nymphalis Semire, Latr. & God. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 392.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen yellowish brown. Wings dusky greenish brown, and spotted with round black spots at the base. Anterior having ten distinct spots of a pea-green, of different sizes and forms. Posterior wings with a large central patch of pea-green, which being divided by the tendons appear like six distinct long spots; below this patch is a row of faint reddish triangular spots. Under Side. Palpi and legs pale yellow. Breast grey. Abdomen yellowish. Wings with the black spots much stronger, and the green spots more distinct than on the upper side. The general colour of the wings is much lighter, with a broadish cream-coloured bar running along the external edges, which, being separated by the tendons of the wings, appear like distinct streaks. Wings dentated.


VANESSA DELIUS.

Plate XIV. fig. 5, 6.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Vanessa, Fabr. Latr. God. Hamadryades, Hübn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Drury.

Vanessa Delius. Alis dentatis suprà fulvis basi extimoque fuscis, anticis apice strigâ punctorum alborum; posticis maculâ discoidali oblongâ ocellisque duobus analibus nigris, his extus caudatis, illis falcatis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 5 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Delius, App. vol. 3. (1783.)

Papilio N. Eurocilia, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 79. No. 247. (1793.)

Vanessa Demonica, Latr. & God. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 301. No. 14. (1819.)

Habitat: Sierra Leone, with the two preceding (Drury). "In Indiis" (Fabr.). America? (Enc. Méth.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen red-brown. Anterior wings nearly black at the base, and also half of them next the tips, whereon are five small white spots, the middle of them being of a dark orange. Posterior wings also black at the base; each of them is furnished with two tails, the outward ones the longest; the external edges being bordered with dark brown, almost black, and all the middle part of the wing is dark orange. Under Side. Palpi and legs yellowish. Breast dark brown. Abdomen yellowish. Wings with blackish and dark brown spots and marks, not to be distinctly described. Anterior wings with a broad yellowish bar crossing them from the anterior edges to the lower corners; while the posterior are also remarkable for a blueish patch placed between the outer tails and the abdominal corners.

The locality given by our author is evidently correct, because he was furnished with information respecting its habits by Mr. Smeathman, who stated that it breeds chiefly near open and cultivated spots, or in recent plantations, and sports in the sun like the Acrææ.


PLATE XV.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 15.jpg

MORPHO LAERTES.

Plate XV. fig. 1.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Morpho, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Equit. Achiv.), Drury.

Morpho Laertes. Alis subdentatis, utrinque margaritaceo-albis, anticarum fasciâ costali nigrâ, posticis subtus strigâ ocellorum lunulisque marginalibus. (Expans. Alar. 6 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Eq. Achiv.) Laertes, Drury, App. vol. 3. Esper Pap. Exot. tab. 43. f. 2. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 84. No. 262. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 444. (Morpho L.)

Papilio Epistrophus, Fabr. Ind. Alphab. to Ent. Syst. p. 124. Donovan Nat. Repos. 4. 143.

Habitat: Brazil.
Upper Side. Antennæ white. Thorax and abdomen whiteish. Wings blueish white; anterior tipped with dark brown, with half the front edges next the body verged with dark brown, which, at the extremity, joins to a streak about three-fourths of an inch long, running from these edges towards the centre of the wing, near to which is placed two darkish round spots. Posterior wings having a row of dark crescents placed along the external edges, which becomes double near the abdominal corners; and a row of faint whiteish streaks crossing them from the anterior to the abdominal edges, meeting about an inch below the body. Under Side. Palpi, legs, breast, and abdomen white. Wings coloured as on the upper side. The two round spots on the anterior ones are black; and the row of faint-coloured streaks crossing the posterior ones are here very strong; each streak being white, and placed on a brown ground, edged with yellow. Margins of the wings slightly dentated.

Fabricius, in the Entomologia Systematica, described two butterflies under the name of Papilio (N.) Laertes, No. 226. from Surinam figured by Cramer, and No. 262, from South America, figured by Drury. As the former species had the priority in point of date, Fabricius, in the alphabetical index to that work, altered the name of Drury's insect to Epistrophus. By the establishment, however, of the genus Morpho, comprising the insect figured by Drury, the difficulty is obviated, and as the species is universally known under the name of Laertes, it does not appear requisite to adopt the name of Epistrophus.


NYMPHALIS (CATAGRAMMA) HYDASPES.

Plate XV. fig. 2, 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. God. Papilio (Nymphalis), Fabr. Subgenus: Catagramma, Boisduval.

Nymphalis (Catagramma) Hydaspes. Alis subdentatis, nigris, basi suprà nitidè cyaneis, anticis utrinque fasciâ chermesinâ abbreviatâ; posticis subtùs annulis duobus flavis punctisque quatuor ocellaribus. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 10 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Pleb. rur.) Hydaspes, Fabr. MSS. cited by Drury, App. vol. 3. (1783.) nec Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 54. No. 167. (1793.)

Nymphalis Hydaspes, Latr. & God. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 424. (nec Cat. Hydaspes, Boisd. Hist. Nat. Lep. 1. pl. 9. f. 2., Donovan Nat. Repos. vol. 2. pl. 60.)

Biblis Hesperia, Perty Delect. Anim. art. Bras. pl. 30. f. 4. a. b.

Habitat: Brazil.
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Eyes, thorax, and abdomen dark brown, nearly black. Anterior wings black, but of a fine shining blue at the base. A streak of a beautiful red colour crosses these wings from the middle of the anterior edges to the lower corners, stopping at a little distance therefrom. Posterior wings black, with a most beautiful blue patch on them next the body. Under Side. Palpi black. Mouth white. Tongue and breast black. Abdomen white. Anterior wings nearly coloured as on the upper side, but next the body verged with white. A white streak also crosses them near the tips; and at a small distance from the body is placed a small round spot of a most beautiful red colour. Posterior wings black, with white lines running along the abdominal and outer edges. The centre is adorned with four small round spots, three blue, one white, surrounded by a white line in a oval form. Wings slightly dentated.

Drury referred this insect to the then unpublished Papilio Hydaspes, on the authority of Fabricius's handwriting, (his specimen having most probably been thus labelled by that author.) The authors of the Encyclopédie Méthodique also cite Drury's figure under Hydaspes. Fabricius, however, cites only the Banksian Cabinet, and Mr. Donovan's figure taken from the Banksian specimen, and published in the Naturalist's Repository, Vol. 2. Pl. 60. convinces us that Drury's insect is specifically distinct from that described by Fabricius, although evidently identical with the insect described as Hydaspes in the Encyclopédie Méthodique. Under these circumstances I have considered it most advisable to retain the name of Hydaspes for Drury's insect, under which name it was known for the space of ten years before the publication of the Fabrician Hydaspes, to which a new specific name must be applied. As there are several other nearly allied Brazilian species, it is not impossible that Fabricius, from recollection alone, applied the name of Hydaspes to Drury's specimen, having previously described the insect from the Banksian Cabinet, the under surface of which especially is very different from that figured by Donovan.


PLATE XVI.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 16.jpg

NYMPHALIS HIPPONA.

Plate XVI. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. God. Papilio (Nymphalis), Fabr.

Nymphalis Hippona. Alis suprà nigris, anticis fulvo flavoque variis: posticis caudatis basi fulvo apice nigro strigâ marginali punctorum alborum. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph.) Hippona, Fabr. Sp. Ins. 2. p. 54. No. 258. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 180. No. 559. Donovan Ins. India, pl. 35. fig. * Encycl. Méth. ix. p. 362.

Papilio (Nymph. Phal.), Cramer, pl. 90. fig. C. D. Stoll Suppl. Cramer, pl. 2. fig. 1. & 1. A. B. C. Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Brazil (Drury). Guiana, Antilles (Enc. Méth.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black at the base, but yellow at the extremities. Thorax and abdomen greenish brown. Anterior wings angulated, and black, but orange-brown at the base; posterior edges verged with black. An irregular indented yellow bar crosses them from the middle of the anterior edges to the middle of the external ones; and near the tips are placed two white spots, one large, of an oval shape, and a small round one. Posterior wings with two tails, chiefly of a yellow-brown colour, but having a black circular patch placed along the external edges, and reaching nearly from the abdominal to the upper corners, whereon are placed three white crescents and a small round spot. Under Side. Palpi yellowish. Tongue dark brown. Legs yellowish. Breast dark brown. Abdomen yellowish. Wings ornamented with such a variety of soft colours, as renders it impossible to describe them minutely.

The transformations of this curious species have been figured by Stoll in his supplementary volume to Cramer. The caterpillar is of a dark green, with a black dorsal line and lateral spots of the same colour. The head is black, with two yellow spots, and furnished with two short obtuse spines. It lives upon a plant called "poirvier," feeding only by night, remaining during the day concealed in a kind of case, which it forms by rolling up a leaf. The chrysalis is short, and thick, without angular prominences, of a grey colour, with black dots. It attaches itself by the tail to the stem of the plant upon which it feeds.

Fabricius erroneously gives India as the habitat of this species, whence Donovan has introduced it into his work upon the insects of that country.


NYMPHALIS ORSIS ♂.

Plate XVI. fig. 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. God. Papilio (Nymphalis), Fabr.

Nymphalis Orsis. Alis nigris, (in mare cœruleo-micantibus) strigis tribus macularibus albis, prima et secunda corpus secantibus. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Orsis, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Papilio (N.) Oisis, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 124. No. 378. (♂.) Enc. Méth. ix. p. 381. No. 102. (Nymphalis O.)

Papilio N. Blandina, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 129. (♀.) Donovan Ins. India, No. 2. pl. 1. f. 3.

Habitat: Brazil (Drury, &c.). In Indiis (Fabr.). East India (Donovan, erroneously).
Upper Side. Antennæ, thorax, and abdomen brown, the latter having six spots on it. Wings very dark changeable blue; anterior having a pale streak crossing them a little way on each side the thorax, with several other small ones on other parts. Under Side. Palpi very small, hairy, and white. Thorax, legs and abdomen white. Wings pale red-brown, having a shade of darker colour running along their external edges, and on the anterior ones are placed two faint-coloured streaks, running from the external edges towards the middle of the wings. Margins of the wings angulated and dentated.


CASTNIA THAIS.

Plate XVI. fig. 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: ——? (hesperi-sphinges, Latr.) Family: Castniidæ.

Genus. Castnia, Fabr. Latr. God. Dalm. Papilio (Dan. Festiv.), Drury.

Castnia Thais. Alis anticis supra fusco-viridibus, nitidis, basi fasciisque duabus carneo-griseis; posticis rubris fasciis duabus margineque nigris. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Dan. Festiv.) Thais, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Castnia Thalaira, Latr. God. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 800. No. 14.

Habitat: Brazil.
Upper Side. Antennæ brown. Thorax, abdomen, and anterior wings red-brown; the latter having two streaks or bars of a lighter colour crossing them from the anterior edges to the posterior and external ones; one crossing the middle of the wing, the other nearer the tips. Posterior wings orange; the lower part black along the external edge, whereon are placed a row of square orange-coloured spots, those next the upper corners reaching to the edge; a black line also crosses these wings, beginning just below the body, and running almost across to the upper corner. Under Side. Palpi and thorax red-brown. Abdomen yellowish. Anterior wings yellowish clay-coloured, with three black lines crossing them transversely, the middle one being the broadest. Posterior wings orange-brown, with a small white spot placed near the centre. Margins of the wings plain.


PLATE XVII.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 17.jpg

HESPERIA OPHION.

Plate XVII. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Hesperiidæ, Steph.

Genus. Hesperia, Fabr. Latr. Erinnys P. Schr. Papilio (Pleb. Urb.), Drury.

Hesperia Ophion. Alis fuscantibus, anticis utrinque punctis quinque discoidalibus alterisque tribus subapicalibus albis; posticis subtùs albis margine antico nigro 3-maculato serieque punctorum submarginalium. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 10 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Pleb. Urb.) Ophion, Drury, App. vol. 3. Stoll Suppl. Cram. pl. 26. f. 4.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Head with five small white spots. Thorax, abdomen, and wings dark greyish brown; anterior wings having a cluster of five small oval transparent white spots placed near the middle of the wings, and three very small round spots of the same kind nearer the tips. Several faint dark spots are also dispersed on these and the inferior wings. Under Side. Palpi above brown, beneath white. Breast, legs, and abdomen white. Anterior wings coloured as on the upper side. Posterior white, but along the anterior edges brown, where are three black spots placed on each wing. A row of brown spots is also placed along the external edges, and another row of very small ones above them. Margins of the wings entire.

The African species of Hesperiidæ (according to Mr. Smeathman), including those represented in these and the two following figures, sport in the sun, and are remarkable for their very sudden and rapid short flights from bush to bush.


HESPERIA (EUDAMUS) ORION.

Plate XVII. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Hesperiidæ.

Genus. Hesperia, Latr. Fabr. Thymele P. Fabr. (syst. Gl.) Heteropterus, Duméril. Subgenus: Eudamus, Swains. Boisd.

Hesperia (Eudamus) Orion. Alis nigro fuscis, anticis fasciâ tenui maculari subbifidâ punctisque subapicalibus; posticarum limbo externo caudisque albis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

Syn. Papilio Orion, Fabr. Mant. Ins. 2. p. 85. No. 774. Cramer, pl. 155. f. A. B. Drury, App. vol. 3.

Papilio (Pleb. Urb.) Proteus, var. β. Linn. Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 333. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 729. No. 4. (Hesp. O.)

Eudamus Doryssus, Swains. Zool. Illustr. N. Ser. pl. 48.

Habitat: Sierra Leone (Drury, correctly?). Brazil, Surinam (Fabr. Enc. Méth. &c.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax, abdomen, and wings dark olive brown. Anterior wings having a small narrow transparent white line crossing them from the anterior edges to the lower corners, intersected by the brown tendons of the wings. Posterior wings terminating in two white, short, and broad tails. Under Side. Palpi white. Breast, abdomen, and wings coloured as on the upper side; the posterior differing merely in having their outward edges bordered with white.

This insect belongs to the subgenus Eudamus proposed by Mr. Swainson, in the new series of his beautiful Zoological Illustrations, and appears in no respect to differ from that which he has figured under the name of Eudamus Doryssus. He observes that the type of this group is the Hesperia Proteus Fabr.; that all the species, of which there are nearly thirty, are from America; that their flight is exceedingly rapid in the morning and evening, and that they rest with their wings perpendicular. Drury, on the other hand, gives Sierra Leone as the habitat, and adds, moreover, on the authority of Mr. Smeathman, that this species, like the last, sports in the sun, and is remarkable for the very rapid short flights it takes from bush to bush, so as to be caught with great difficulty. In his manuscripts, however, I find this species marked as being from "Madras, Mr. Skeene, 1772."


NYMPHALIS JANAIS.

Plate XVII. fig. 5, 6.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurua. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. God. Papilio (Nymphalis), Fabr.

Nymphalis Janais. Alis subdentatis, nigris; anticis utrinque albo-punctatis; posticis supra disco rubro, subtus basi flavo et nigro, punctato. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Janais, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Nymphalis J., Latr. et God. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 392. No. 146.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone" (Drury, in text). "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ, thorax, abdomen, and anterior wings black, the latter with a number of small white spots dispersed over different parts of the wings. Posterior wings black; the middle part fine carmine red, the scolloping next the abdominal corners being verged with white. Under Side. Palpi black. Legs brown. Breast and abdomen black. Anterior wings coloured as on the upper side. Posterior wings as on the upper side, but next the body having a large patch of a yellow colour, on which are several small black spots. The red part of these wings is surrounded by a row of small white spots, placed on the black ground.


PLATE XVIII.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 18.jpg

ACRÆA UMBRA.

Plate XVIII. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Heliconiidæ.

Genus. Acræa, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Heliconii), Fabr. olim.

Acræa Umbra. Alis oblongis integerrimis brunneis, extimo suprà latè fusco, posticis subtùs ad basin nigro punctatis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Dan. Fest.) Umbra, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Papilio (Hel. U.), Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 172. No. 535. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 236. (Acræa U.)

Habitat: Sierra Leone.

Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax black, with several white spots. Abdomen black, with five dark yellow spots on each side, and five rings of the same colour placed between them. Apical half the anterior wings a very dark brown, almost black; basal half, dark yellow-brown. One-third of the posterior wings, next the outer edges, almost black; the remainder of a dark yellow-brown. The black spots described on the under side are discernible on this side. Under Side. Palpi black above, but whiteish underneath. Legs the same. Breast nearly black, with white spots. Abdomen yellowish. Anterior wings a very dark brown of a yellowish tinge; the posterior having a number of small black spots (about 18) situate near the body. Margins of the wings nearly entire.

The minute black spots at the base of the posterior wings, described by Drury and Fabricius, are not represented in the figure.


ACRÆA DICE.

Plate XVIII. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Heliconiidæ.

Genus. Acræa, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Helicon.), Fabr. olim.

Acræa Dice. Alis oblongis integerrimis concoloribus, anticis hyalino-cinerascentibus; posticis fulvis nigro-punctatis, margine exteriori latè hyalino. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 1½ lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Helicon.) Dice, Drury, App. vol. 3. (1783.)

Papilio (H.) Quirina, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 159. No. 492. (1793.) Enc. Méth. ix. p. 231. No. 2. (Acræa Q.)

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1776" (Drury's MSS.). Madras (Fabricius).
Upper Side. Antennæ, eyes, thorax, and abdomen black; the latter having a row of white spots on each side, extending to the anus. Anterior wings thin and diaphanous; with a red streak along their posterior edges, reaching to the body from the lower corners, whereon is a small black line close to the body, with a small black round spot just below it. Posterior wings red, having a diaphanous border running along the external edges from the upper to the abdominal corners. These wings next the body are dark brown, and on the red are dispersed several small black spots, varying in number. Under Side. Palpi brown. Fore legs yellow; the others yellow and brown. Breast spotted black and white. Abdomen ringed with yellow. Wings coloured as on the upper side, but the red is fainter; the dark brown part on this side is grey, and the black spots larger and more distinct. Margins of the wings entire.


ACRÆA CIRCEIS.

Plate XVIII. fig. 5, 6.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Heliconiidæ.

Genus. Acræa, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Heliconii), Fabr. olim.

Acræa Circeis. Alis oblongis integerrimis; anticis hyalinis, nervis margineque fuscis, posticis fuscis fasciâ flavescenti, transversâ mediâ, his subtus basi cinereis nigroque punctatis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

Syn. Papilio Circeis, Drury, App. vol. 3. Herbst. Pap. tab. 81. fig. 6. 7.

Papilio (Parnass.) Mandane, Fabr. Syst. Ent. III. 1. p. 183. No. 565. Encycl. Méth. ix. p. 239. 29. (Acræa M.)

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen black, the latter spotted with white. Anterior wings diaphanous, the edges bordered with brown. Posterior wings russet brown, having a broad yellow bar crossing them about the middle of the abdomen, and reaching almost from one upper corner to the other; above the bar, next the body, are a number of black spots. Under Side. Palpi, legs, and abdomen yellowish. Breast brown. Anterior wings coloured as on the upper side. Posterior wings grey in those parts where they are brown on the upper side; the yellow bar being fainter, but the black spots stronger, and amounting to ten in number. Margins of the wings entire.

Here, as in many places elsewhere, I have reverted to Drury's name, which Fabricius unwarrantably changed in the subsequently published Entomologia Systematica, and which in most cases the authors of the Encyclopédie Méthodique have adopted.


PLATE XIX.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 19.jpg

SATURNIA ALINDA.

Plate XIX.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Bombycidæ, Steph.

Genus. Saturnia, Schrank. Attacus, Germar. Bombyx p., Ochs. Phalæna (Attacus), Drury.

Saturnia Alinda. Alis rufo-brunneis margine saturatioribus signisque nonnullis undulatis obscuris, anticis maculâ discoidali fenestratatâ; posticis ocello magno centrali. (Expans. Alar. 7 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna Attacus Alinda, Drury, App. vol. 3. Oliv. Enc. Méth. 5. p. 26. 10. (Bombyx A.)

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ pectinated. Neck buff-coloured. Thorax and abdomen brownish red, the centre of the former being grey. Anterior wings brown-red, darkest along the external edges, with two faint dark indented lines crossing them from the anterior to the posterior edges. A transparent spot is placed near the middle of the wings, about a quarter of an inch from the anterior edges, without any iris of a different colour. Posterior wings brown-red, and darkest along the external edges, having a few faint waved lines. Near the middle is a small transparent spot, edged with buff at the bottom, surrounded by a dark brown border, and which is also encircled by another quite black. Under Side. Breast red-brown. Legs, abdomen, and wings entirely of a dark buff. All the faint waved lines, hardly discernible on the other side, are here very conspicuous. Close to the transparent spots, on the anterior wings, are two of a dark brown, and two larger are also placed close to the transparent ones in the posterior wings, without any of the circular ones which are on the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.


PLATE XX.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 20.jpg

NYMPHALIS ALTHEA.

Plate XX. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. God. Papilio (Nymphalis), Fabr.

Nymphalis Althea. Alis dentatis suprà fuscis, fasciâ strigâque angulato-dentatis albis; subtùs flavescentibus lituris atris fasciâ strigisque iisdem. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (N.) Althea, Fabr. Spec. Ins. 2. p. 88. No. 389. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 113. No. 347. Cramer, pl. 89. fig. E. F.

Nymphalis A., Enc. Méth. ix. p. 383. No. 111.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ brown. Thorax, abdomen, and wings dark brown; a row of ash-coloured crescents cross the latter from the middle of the posterior to the anterior edges, uniting with a bar of the same colour, which crosses the posterior wings, meeting below the abdomen: another row of ash-coloured marks, like beards of arrows, are placed between the above-mentioned row and the external edges, which are bordered with some faint lightish marks. Posterior wings with an additional row of light arrow beards running along the external edges, which are also bordered with faint lightish marks like the anterior. Under Side. Palpi white. Breast and legs light clay-coloured. Wings paler than on the upper side, being greyish brown. The light-coloured bar, crossing the wings and meeting below the abdomen, is very conspicuous on this side. The markings are much the same as on the upper. Margins of the wings dentated.


VANESSA AMESTRIS.

Plate XX. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Vanessa, Fabr. Latr. God. Hamadryades, Hübn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.), Drury.

Vanessa Amestris. Alis dentatis, anticis falcatis posticis rotundatis; omnibus suprà fuscis ad extimum fasciis tribus macularibus transversis, intermediâ ferrugineâ, (ad apicem maculis duabus albis) cæteris cœrulescentibus subtus marmoratis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (N. P.) Amestris, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Papilio (N.) Amestris, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 116. 360.

Papilio (N.) Zingha, Fabr. loc. cit. No. 358.

Vanessa Erinna, Enc. Méth. ix. p. 315.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1775" (Drury's MSS.). "In Indiis, Dom Drury" (Fabr. sub P. N. Amestris, incorrectly).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen very dark. Anterior wings dark brown, with a row of red crescents inverted, placed near the external edges; above them are several blueish marks and dashes. Two square reddish spots are placed near the shoulders, having blueish borders. Two small round white spots are situated near the tips of each wing, and along the external edges are several blueish spots. Posterior wings nearly corresponding with the anterior. The row of red crescents is continued along these wings, and meets below the abdomen. The rows of blueish spots are also continued along the borders. Under Side. Breast and legs dark brown. Wings very dark brown, variegated with many brown markings, in such manner as not to be described. A single white spot is situate at the tips of the anterior ones, and a series of small round spots run along the borders of all the wings. Margins of the wings deeply dentated.


PLATE XXI.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 21.jpg

NOCTUA TRISTIS.

Plate XXI. fig. 1.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Noctuidæ, Steph.

Genus. Noctua, Auct. Subgenus ——?

Noctua Tristis. Alis fuscis nigro-atomosis, dimidio basali saturatiori strigàque ad angulum internum anticarum nigrâ. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 10 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Noctua) Tristis, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: "Cape of Good Hope" (Drury, in text). "Jamaica" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ brown and setaceous. Thorax and abdomen grey-brown. Anterior wings grey-brown, having a small streak of a very dark colour placed near the lower corners, and two smaller ones at the tips; a large patch of the same colour occupies the middle of the wings, extending some way towards the shoulders. Posterior wings greyish-coloured, without any marks. Under Side. Tongue not observed. Legs, breast, and abdomen greyish. Anterior wings darker on this side than on the upper; the anterior edges being white, and the dark streak at the lower corners very observable. Posterior wings coloured as on the upper side, and having two dark-coloured marks placed near the middle of the wings. Margins of the wings entire.


GNOPHRIA? COLLARIS.

Plate XXI. fig. 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Lithosiidæ, Steph.

Genus. Gnophria? Steph. Lithosia p., Fabr. Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Gnophria? Collaris. Alis nigris, anticarum maculâ pone medium albâ, collari sanguineo. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Noctua) Collaris, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Brazil. "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black and setaceous. Thorax, abdomen, and wings blueish black, immaculate, except an oval white spot placed on the anterior ones, about a quarter of an inch from the tips. Under Side. Palpi black. Tongue and neck yellow. Legs, breast, and abdomen grey. Anus yellow. Wings black, the anterior having a small white longitudinal streak near the shoulders, and the oval spot seen on the upper side. Posterior wings also fringed with white. Margins of the wings entire.


CALLIMORPHA CÆNEA.

Plate XXI. fig. 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Arctiidæ, Steph.

Genus. Callimorpha, Latr. Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Callimorpha Cænea. Alis nigris, anticis fasciâ latâ transversâ, margineque antico posticarum flavescentibus. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna Noctua Cænea, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Drury (incorrectly?) states that he received this insect both from Madras and Brazil. "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black and setaceous. Thorax and abdomen nearly black. Wings deep brown, nearly black; the anterior having a yellow band crossing them from the anterior edges to the lower corners; and the posterior having a broad yellow streak on the anterior edges. Under Side. Coloured as on the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.


GEOMETRA (PÆCILOPHASIA) FULVATA.

Plate XXI. fig. 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Geometridæ, Steph.

Genus. Geometra, Steph. (Subgenus: Pæcilophasia? Steph.)

Geometra (Pæcilophasia) Fulvata. Alis fulvescentibus fasciâ latâ communi dilutiori, anticarum puncto subdiscoidali. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 7 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Geometra) fulvata, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Africa. "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ setaceous and yellow. Thorax and abdomen yellow. Wings deep straw-coloured, the anterior having a small black spot placed near the middle of the anterior edges. A small narrow line of a silverish colour runs along the external edges of these wings, beginning near the tips, and continuing along the edges of the posterior ones, ends at the abdominal corners. Under Side. Breast, legs, and abdomen whiteish. Wings coloured as on the upper side, but dappled with minute reddish streaks. Margins of the wings entire.


NOCTUA (CALYPTRA) LUGUBRIS.

Plate XXI. fig. 5.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Noctuidæ.

Genus. Noctua, Auct. Subgenus: Calyptra, Ochs. Gonoptera, Latr.

Noctua (Calyptra) Lugubris. Alis anticis dentatis subfalcatis, brunneo-fuscis basi saturatioribus, maculis dentatis submarginalibus. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 7½ lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Noctua) lugubris, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Madras.
Upper Side. Antennæ brown and setaceous. Thorax ash-coloured. Abdomen and wings rusty iron, without marks, except the anterior, which have some faint blueish marks close to the external edges. Under Side. Tongue not noticed. Breast, legs, and abdomen dark red. Wings redder-coloured than on the other side, without marks: anterior wings dentated, the posterior entire.


NOCTUA (ACONTIA) MARGARITATA.

Plate XXI. fig. 6.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Noctuidæ.

Genus. Noctua, Auct. Subgenus: Acontia, Ochs. Steph. Curtis. Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Noctua (Acontia) Margaritata. Argenteo-alba, alis anticis pone punctum ordinarium fuscis, maculâ magnâ albâ costali margineque postico albo, lunulis punctisque nigricantibus, posticarum margine fusco. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 5 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna Noctua Margaritata, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: New York.
Upper Side. Antennae brown and setaceous. Thorax and abdomen silvery white. Anterior wings at the shoulders silvery white, the remainder being of a shining red-brown, with the edges fringed with white; a large spot of silver colour is situate near the tips, on the anterior edges. Posterior wings silvery white, but along the external edges darker coloured. Under Side. Tongue not noticed. Breast, legs, and abdomen white. Anterior wings silvery grey, being edged and fringed with yellow. Posterior wings coloured as on the upper side, without markings. Margins of the wings entire.


PLATE XXII.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 22.jpg

NOCTUA GUTTATA.

Plate XXII. fig. 1.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Noctuidæ, Steph.

Genus. Noctua, Auct. (Subgenus: ——?)

Noctua Guttata. alis griseis punctis nonnullis discoidalibus strigisque apicalibus obscurioribus. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 7½ lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Noctua) Guttata, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: "Brazil" (Drury, in text). "Cape of Good Hope, Mr. Foster, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ setaceous. Thorax and abdomen grey. Anterior wings light-coloured, almost grey, the middle having some dark spots on them, and a few dark streaks near the tips. Posterior wings darker coloured, without spots. Under Side. Palpi, breast, and abdomen grey. Anterior wings coloured as on the upper, immaculate. Posterior wings lighter-coloured than on the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.


NOCTUA? HESIONE.

Plate XXII. fig. 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Noctuidæ, Steph.

Genus. Noctua? Auct. (Subgenus: ——?)

Noctua? Hesione. Alis anticis brunneis strigâ longitudinali subcostali luteâ, fasciâque transversali dilutâ, strigis undulatis nigris marginatis, angulis posticis productis; posticis fulvis margine latè nigro. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

Syn. Phalæna (Noctua) Hesione, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Brazil, "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ brown and setaceous. Thorax clay-coloured. Abdomen reddish. Anterior wings reddish-brown, with two darker bands crossing them; the anterior edges pale clay-coloured; a small narrow clay-coloured line rises near the posterior edges close to the shoulders, and extends in a circular manner to the anterior edges: the lower corners of these wings are remarkably prominent. Posterior wings deep yellow, deeply bordered from the upper to the abdominal corners, with black. Under Side. Palpi orange, remarkably long. Tongue spiral. Legs, breast and abdomen clay-coloured. Anterior wings dark-brown as on the upper side, the anterior edges yellow. Posterior wings paler yellow than on the upper side, and the black border not so distinct. Margins of the wings entire.

This insect is evidently the type of a distinct genus from any hitherto described, especially distinguished by the lively colours of the wings, the produced posterior angle of the anterior pair, and the form of the palpi.


ENDROMIS RHODOPE.

Plate XXII. fig. 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Bombycidæ.

Genus. Endromis, Ochs. Germar. Dimorpha, Hübn. Phalæna (Bombyx), (Drury.)

Endromis Rhodope. Alis albis pellucidis; strigis duabus undulatis parallelis submarginalibus, maculisque nonnullis discoidalibus anticarum virescentibus. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Bombyx) Rhodope, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Brazil, "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ pectinated. Thorax and abdomen dark-brown, with some faint whiteish marks. Wings transparent white, having two rows of greenish crescents running along the external edges, the anterior wings having some faint marks of the same kind in the middle also. The anterior edges are of a yellow hue. Under Side. Palpi white. Tongue not observed. Legs, breast, and abdomen white. Anus dark-brown. Wings coloured as on the upper side; the posterior ones having two brown spots on each near the abdominal corners. Margins of the wings entire.


CALLIMORPHA? DIAPHANA.

Plate XXII. fig. 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Arctiidæ, Steph.

Genus. Callimorpha? Latr. Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Callimorpha? Diaphana. Alis diaphanis, marginibus anticis et externis strigâque transversâ e margine antico ad angulum posticum ductâ, nigris. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Noctua) Diaphana, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Brazil, "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1774" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ pectinated. Thorax brown. Abdomen black, brown above. Wings diaphanous, the edges being bordered with black, a black band also crosses the anterior, from the anterior edges to the lower corners. Under Side. Tongue spiral. Breast and legs black. Abdomen grey. Anus yellowish. Wings coloured on this side as on the upper. Margins of the wings entire.


CALLIMORPHA? PHILETA.

Plate XXII. fig. 5.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Arctiidæ, Steph.

Genus. Callimorpha? Latr. Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Callimorpha? Phileta. Alis anticis oblongis fuscis, fasciâ transversâ pone medium albâ, posticis fulvis margine externo nigro, thorace sanguineo. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Noctua) Phileta, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black and setaceous. Thorax red, spotted, and striped with black. Abdomen yellow, with black streaks crossing it. Anterior wings sooty black, with a white band crossing each from the anterior edges to the lower corners. Posterior wings yellow, with a black border running along the external edges. Under Side. Head and neck red. Legs streaked black and white. Breast and abdomen yellow, the latter spotted with black on each side. Wings coloured as on the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.


CALLIMORPHA? EUCHARIS.

Plate XXII. fig. 6.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Arctiidæ, Steph.

Genus. Callimorpha? Latr. Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Callimorpha? Eucharis. Alis sulphureis, margine postico lato punctoque medio anticarum fuscis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Noctua) Eucharis, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Brazil.
Upper Side. Antennæ setaceous. Thorax and abdomen brown. Anterior wings greyish yellow, with a single spot placed near the middle, almost close to the anterior edge. Posterior wings of the same colour as the anterior, and like them surrounded with a deep black border. Under Side. Tongue spiral. Legs, breast, and abdomen grey. Wings coloured as on the upper side, the borders being fainter. Margins of the wings entire.


PLATE XXIII.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 23.jpg

NYMPHALIS (CHARAXES) TIRIDATES.

Plate XXIII. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera, Linn. Section: Diurna, Latr. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swainson.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Eq. achiv.) Linn. Drury. Papilio Nymphalis, Fabr. (Subgenus: Charaxes, Boisduval.)

Nymphalis (Charaxes) Tiridates. Alis supra atro-cœruleis, margine postico lunulis ochraceis, omnium dimidio apicali punctis cœrulescentibus. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (N.) Tiridates, Fabr. Spec. Ins. 2. p. 11. No. 43. Cramer, pl. 162. f. A. B. Herbst. Pap. tab. 62. f. 3. 4. Donovan Ins. India, 3. pl. 2. f. 3.

Nymphalis T., Enc. Méth. ix. p. 354. 14.

Habitat: Amboyna, Java (Fabr. & Enc. Méth.). Brazil (Drury, in text). "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1766" (Drury's MSS.).

Upper Side. Antennæ black. Head dark brown, with four white spots on the crown. Thorax and abdomen dark brown. Wings fine dark blue, with a number of small light blue spots sprinkled on each wing. The anterior being edged with a row of yellow spots. Posterior wings furnished with four short tails and deeply scolloped, each scollop being edged with yellow. Under Side. Palpi and abdomen clay-coloured. Breast and legs light hair-coloured. Anterior wings hair-coloured, with several small waved and irregular black lines half crossing them, from the anterior edges to the middle of the wing, each line being edged with blue. A black kidney-shaped spot is also situate next the lower corners, being also edged with blue. Posterior wings coloured as the anterior, and furnished with four short tails, having several irregular black lines on them near the body, which are edged with blue as on the anterior ones.


NYMPHALIS PYRAMUS ♂.

Plate XXIII. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Pleb. rur.), Drury.

Nymphalis Pyramus. Alis nigris (in mare supra violaceo-micantibus) anticis utrinque fasciâ latâ miniatâ: posticis subtus irroratis strigâque marginali cœrulescenti. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 7½ lin.)

Syn. Papilio Pyramus, Fabr. Sp. Ins. 2. 130. 590. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 323. 223.

Papilio (Pleb. rur.) Pyramus, Drury, App. vol. 3. Stoll Suppl. Cramer, pl. 32. f. 3. 3e. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 422. (Nymphalis P.) Donovan Nat. Repos. 1. t. 3. f. 2. 2.

Habitat: Brazil, "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1774" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ brown. Thorax and abdomen dark brown. Anterior wings at the extremities black, but next the body red-brown, the middle being occupied by a band which crosses them of a beautiful red, extending to the middle of the posterior ones, the remaining parts of which are of a fine blueish purple. Under Side. Palpi, legs, breast, and abdomen white. Anterior wings next the body yellowish brown, the tips the same. The red band is not so strong on this side as on the upper, neither does it extend to the inferior wings, but is bordered with black on that side near the tips. Posterior wings yellowish brown, prettily variegated with very small lighter marks and spots, with a small faint blueish indented line running along the external borders.

The original Fabrician description of this insect is stated to have been derived from an insect from Cayenne in the collection of Mr. Yeats; and in the Fabrician detailed description, we find the wings characterized thus—"macula magna, in medio, fulva, anticæ subtus concolores." It appears, however, from the observations of Donovan that the celebrated iconographer Jones had made a drawing of Yeats's specimen, from which drawing Donovan published his illustration of the species in the Naturalist's Repository, with the following observations:—"There was a variety of this insect pretty nearly, but not exactly, according with this in the collection of an old and well-known entomologist, a figure of which appeared shortly after the publication of the Fabrician writings as the true Papilio Pyramus. It was not precisely the same as it appeared to us from an inspection of the specimen in the Cabinet of Mr. Drury." Making due allowance for Donovan's over-charged colouring, there is still considerable difference between the figures of Drury and Donovan; in the former the fore-wings being almost entirely red on the under side, whilst in the latter, the upper side of same wings is red, except at the tips. In both these particulars, as will at once be seen from the above quotation of Fabricius, Drury's figure perfectly agrees with the character given of Yeats's specimen; whilst Donovan's differs in each respect. The female of this species is destitute of the purple gloss on the upper surface of the wings, and the red band does not run into the posterior pair.


PLATE XXIV.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 24.jpg

SATURNIA PHÆDUSA.

Plate XXIV. and XXV.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Bombycidæ, Steph.

Genus. Saturnia, Schrank. Attacus, Germ. Phalæna (Attacus), Drury.

Saturnia Phædusa. Alis griseo-fuscis, anticis strigis tribus transversis saturatioribus maculâque-parvà triangulari fenestratâ mediâ; posticis obscurioribus ocello magno nigro, margine carneo-rufo cincto. (Expans. Alar. 7 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Attacus) Phædusa, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Bombyx Saturnus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 409. Oliv. Enc. Méth. 5. 27. 11.

Habitat: Sierra Leone (Drury). "In Indiis" (Fabricius).
Upper Side. Plate XXIV. Antennæ broad in the middle and strongly pectinated, terminating in a point both at the base and extremity, the latter being like a thread. Head dark brown. The neck surrounded with a white collar. Thorax and abdomen greyish clay-coloured. Anterior wings the same, but towards their extremities becoming darker; the tips are angulated, and the edges a little scolloped; a dark line rises near the tips, which running across the wings ends near the middle of the posterior edges, but is there much fainter than at the tips. A small triangular transparent spot is situate near the centre of these wings, about three-eighths of an inch from the anterior edges. Posterior wings a little scolloped, being the same colour with the anterior next the abdomen, but darker towards the external edges. In the middle of these wings is a large eye, the pupil being black like velvet, surrounded with a narrow circle of a dark orange, round which is another cream-coloured circle, and this likewise is surrounded by a large border of a fine red-brown. Under Side. Plate XXV. Tongue not noticed. Thighs of the fore legs dark brown, the other legs lighter. Breast and abdomen light clay-coloured. Anterior wings the same, being next the body paler than towards the extremities; along the external edges is a pale indented border, running from the tips to the lower corners. Two dark brown spots are placed next the transparent one mentioned in the preceding description, and the dark line there mentioned is conspicuous on this side. Posterior wings coloured as the anterior, becoming darker towards the external edges. A pale indented border runs along the external edges, similar to that on the anterior wings. On the middle of these wings are four dark brown spots, two small and two large, being placed opposite to the eyes observed on the upper side; and just below them a dark line runs across from the upper corners to the middle of the abdominal edges.

PLATE XXV.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 25.jpg


In Mr. Drury's manuscripts I find the insect referred to these two figures is stated to have been obtained from the Duchess of Portland's Museum, and to be an inhabitant of New York.


PLATE XXVI.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 26.jpg

NYMPHALIS LAODICE.

Plate XXVI. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Pleb. rur.) Drury.

Nymphalis Laodice. Alis supra atro-cœruleis, limbo postico serie lunularum cœrulescentium; subtus fascià mediâ communi saturatiori, posticis punctis marginalibus albis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Laodice, Drury, App. vol. 3. (1783.)

Papilio Lycurgus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 67. No. 209. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 364. No. 49.

Nymphalis Lyc., Paul. Beauv. Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Lep. pl. 4. f. 2.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax black. Abdomen dark brown. Wings very dark blue, almost black, the edges being dark brown; the anterior ones are angulated, and the posterior ones furnished with two short tails. A row of blue crescents, forming a line, runs along the posterior wings near the external edges, extending along part of the anterior ones, which also have two small oval blue spots, almost joined together, placed at the middle of the anterior edges, and one single one near the tips. Under Side. Palpi not noticed. Legs brown above, and white beneath. Breast and abdomen dark brown. Wings soft brown, with some irregular and indented bands of a darker colour crossing them, particularly the posterior ones, which have a rather broad one running from the upper to the abdominal corners. These wings have also seven very small white spots placed along the external edges.


THECLA PHALEROS ♂.

Plate XXVI. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Lycænidæ, Steph.

Genus. Thecla, Fabr. (Syst. Gloss.) Polyommatus, Latr. God. Hesperia p. Fabr. (olim.) Papilio (Pleb. rur.), Drury.

Thecla Phaleros. Alis ♂ violaceo-cœruleis nitidis, ♀ albidis apice fusco, subtus albis fasciis transversis margineque nigris ad angulum ani conjunctis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Pleb. urb.) Phaleros, Linn. Syst. Nat. 2. p. 796. No. 272. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 628. (Polyomm. Ph.)

Hesperia R. Chiton, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 262. Donovan Ins. India, 1. pl. 3. f. 1.

Papilio Silenus, Cram. pl. 282. E.

Papilio Agis, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Brazil (Drury, in text). "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1775" (Drury's MSS.). Surinam (Enc. Méth.). India (Linn. Fabr. Donov.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen dark blue. Wings blue, without marks. Posterior furnished with four small black tails, the tips of which are white. The abdominal corners are also edged with white. Under Side. Palpi long, thin, and black, white at the base, as is the neck. Legs brown above and white beneath. Breast yellow. Abdomen blue. Wings yellow; the anterior having some brown, irregular, and uneven lines crossing them from the anterior to the posterior edges. The external edges are also verged with brown, and at the lower corners have an orange-coloured patch. Posterior wings with three dark brown lines crossing them from the anterior edges to the abdominal corners, and externally edged with dark brown.


PLATE XXVII.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 27.jpg

VANESSA PELARGA.

Plate XXVII. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Vanessa, Fabr. Latr. God. Hamadryades, Hübn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Drury.

Vanessa Pelarga. Alis anticis falcatis, posticis intùs subcaudatis, omnibus suprà fuscis, fasciâ cœrulescenti-albâ, nigro-punctatâ, extrorsumque fulvo inductâ; subtùs xerampelinis lineâ fuscâ communi mediâ. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (N.) Pelarga, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 513. No. 296. Drury, App. vol. 3. Stoll Suppl. Cram. pl. 27. f. 2.

Vanessa P., Enc. Méth. ix. p. 313. No. 37.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ brown. Thorax and abdomen dark brown. Wings at the base dark olive brown; the anterior having two red and one blue crooked lines, a quarter of an inch long, placed near the anterior edges, which are also red. A white bar encircles all the brown part, beginning at the anterior edges, meeting just below the anus; the lower part of it being tinged with red or orange, on which are eight small round black spots, three on the anterior and five on the posterior wings. The external edges of all the wings are deeply bordered with olive brown, and near the tips are placed three small white spots, one larger than the rest. Abdominal groove orange. A few blue streaks are placed at the abdominal corners. Under Side. Palpi long and white, but reddish above. Legs white. Breast and abdomen orange. Wings dark reddish brown, with very little variegations. The three white spots near the tips of the anterior wings are observable, and the five black spots on the posterior ones are faintly seen. Wings deeply angulated. The under side varies considerably in different specimens.


NYMPHALIS MELEAGRIS.

Plate XXVII. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Pleb. rur.), Drury.

Nymphalis Meleagris. Alis suprà olivaceo-fuscis, subtùs lutescentibus; utrinque albo, in triplici serie, multipunctatis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 4½ lin.)

Syn. Papilio Meleagris, Cramer, pl. 66. f. A. B. Herbst. t. 145. f. 1. 2. Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 128. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 387. (Nymphalis M.)

Habitat: "Sierra Leone" (Drury, in text). "Brazil, Mr. Skeene, 1772" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ brown. Thorax, abdomen, and wings olive-brown, spotted with a number of round white spots edged with black; the anterior wings having twenty-five, the posterior eighteen, besides those placed on the external edges. Under Side. Palpi white. Legs white. Breast yellowish. Abdomen olive-brown. Wings dusky orange; the white spots described on the upper side being here very discernible with the addition of a few others next the body. Margins of the wings entire.


NYMPHALIS (CHARAXES) ANTICLEA.

Plate XXVII. fig. 5, 6.

Order: Lepidoptera, Linn. Section: Diurna, Latr. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Eq. achiv.), Linn. Drury. Papilio Nymphalis, Fabr. (Subgenus: Charaxes, Boisduval.)

Nymphalis (Charaxes) Anticlea. Alis suprà fuscis fasciâ terminali fulvâ, in anticis maculari et abbreviatâ, in posticis ocellis 4, anali sesquialtero. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Anticlea, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Nymphalis Ant., Enc. Méth. ix. p. 353. No. 9.

Habitat: Sierra Leone (Drury, in text). "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1766" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen dark brown. Anterior wings chocolate-coloured; the lower corners being tipped with orange, to the upper part of which joins a spot of the same colour, and another small one is placed nearer the tips. The basal parts of the posterior wings chocolate, the apical parts orange; they are doubly angulated, and at the abdominal corners have a black ocellus with two white pupils, and a small orange spot below them; three other small eyes are also placed along the external edges. Under Side. Palpi and legs buff-coloured. Breast russet. Abdomen dark orange. Wings russet-coloured, with bands of lighter and darker shades running from the anterior edges of the anterior wings, and ending below the body on the abdominal edges, some of the bands being verged with black. Anterior wings having three small black spots placed near the shoulders, and the posterior with two small white spots at the abdominal corners, and four others placed along the external edges, growing fainter as they approach the upper corners, till at length they are quite lost.


PLATE XXVIII.

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ACRÆA HORTA.

Plate XXVIII. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Heliconiidæ.

Genus. Acræa, Fabr. Latr. Papilio (Heliconii), Fabr. olim.

Acræa Horta. Alis oblongis integerrimis, supra fulvis; anticis ad extimum hyalino-cinerascentibus, posticis utrinque nigro punctatis subtusque albidis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 7½ lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Helic.) Horta, Linn. Syst. Nat. 2. p. 755. No. 54. Drury, App. vol. 3. Cramer, Pap. pl. 298. fig. F. G. Herbst. Pap. tab. 83. f. 1. 2. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 231. 1.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1776" (Drury's MSS.). Cape of Good Hope, and other parts of Africa (Enc. Méth.).
Upper Side. Antennæ, thorax, and abdomen black, the latter spotted on its sides. Anterior wings, next the body dark orange, but at the tips about two-fifths are pellucid. Near the middle, towards the anterior edge, is a small black spot, and a streak of the same colour. Posterior wings dark orange, black at the base, with a narrow border of orange and black running along the external edges, and a group, consisting of fifteen different shaped black spots, occupying the middle. Under Side. Palpi hairy and light coloured. Legs and breast black. Abdomen light brown. Anterior wings very glossy, the marks on the upper side being so faint as to be scarcely discernible. Posterior wings cream-coloured, with the same number of black spots, but stronger and more distinct than those on the upper side. The external edges bordered with orange, within which is a small narrow black border, with light cream spots. Margins of the wings entire.


ACRÆA GEA ♂.

Plate XXVIII. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Heliconiidæ.

Genus. Acræa, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Heliconii), Fabr. Olim.

Acræa Gea. Alis oblongis integerrimis, anticis utrinque fuscis, fasciis duabus fulvis aut albidis, unâ versus apicem, alterâ connexâ disco posticarum, his subtùs rufescentibus, basi nigro-punctatis, postea striatis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc.)

Syn. Papilio (Hel.) Gea, Fabr. Spec. Ins. 2. p. 32. No. 136. ♂. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 238. (Acræa G.)

Papilio (H.) Jodutta, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 175. No. 554. ♀.

Papilio (Hel.) Hirce, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Papilio Epæa, Cramer, pl. 230. f. B.C.

Habitat: Sierra Leone (Drury). "Calabar, in Africa, Capt. Parker, 1771" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax black, with four white spots on each side. Abdomen dark orange, spotted on the sides with black, and a black streak running along the top. Anterior wings fine dark brown, almost black. A large patch of dark orange is placed at the middle of the posterior edges, and between that and the tips is a streak of the same colour, divided into three parts by the tendons of the wings. Near the body are six round black spots hardly discernible, on one of which, nearest the body, is a very small white one. Posterior wings near the body orange, but along the edges black, the space between being covered with rays, composed of those two colours. Next the body are ten round black spots, some larger than others, on one of which is a small white one, as on the upper wings. Under Side. Palpi orange. Thorax black, spotted with white. Legs black above and white beneath. Abdomen orange. Anterior wings much lighter on this side than on the upper, the orange-coloured marks being, on this side, of a dark yellow. All the black spots on this side are more distinct than on the other, as is that with the small white one on it. Posterior wings next the body orange, from whence to the edges issue rays of a dusky yellow and black, there being no black border. The black spots next the body are also very strong. The edges of the posterior wings are a little dentated.


NYMPHALIS HOSTILIA.

Plate XXVIII. fig. 5, 6.

Order: Lepidoptera, Linn. Section: Diurna, Latr. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swainson.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Eq. achiv.), Linn. Drury. Papilio Nymphalis, Fabr.

Nymphalis Hostilia. Alis dentatis subconcoloribus, fulvis, basi nigro-maculatis; anticarum apice fusco punctis flavescentibus. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Dan. Fest.) Hostilia, Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 130. No. 399.

Nymphalis H., Latr. God. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 393.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).

Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen dark brown. Anterior wings next the body dark tawny orange, but next the tips dark brown, almost black, the darkest part of the wings having several dusky yellow spots, while the orange part has a number of black ones. Posterior wings dark orange, and next the body streaked with black, and a black zigzag border running along the external edges. Under Side. Palpi, neck, legs, and breast pale yellow. Abdomen orange. Anterior wings much lighter than on the upper side, being, next the body, cream colour; the part next the tips dark russet. All the spots are very discernible on this side, the yellow ones being here much lighter. Posterior wings cream-coloured, having the black border and streaks equally as strong and discernible as on the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.


PLATE XXIX.

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SATURNIA ARGUS.

Plate XXIX. fig. 1.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Bombycidæ, Steph.

Genus. Saturnia, Schrank. Attacus, Germ. Phalæna (Attacus), Drury.

Saturnia Argus. Alis pallidè testaceo-albidis punctis ocellaribus fenestratis numerosis, caudis longissimis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 5 lin.)

Syn. Bombyx Argus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 414. No. 24. Donovan Nat. Repos. 5. 173. Oliv. Enc. Méth. 5. 29. 22.

Phalæna (Bombyx) brachyura, Cramer Ins. tab. 29. f. 1. Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ almost black, and pectinated. The neck and head flesh-coloured. Thorax ash-coloured. Abdomen pale flesh-coloured. Wings dingy flesh-coloured, the anterior ones having five or six small transparent spots situated in the centre of them. The posterior ones furnished with two long tails about two inches and three-quarters long, the extremities being cream-coloured, the upper part red-brown; with five small yellowish round spots, edged with black, placed in the centre of the wings. Under Side. Palpi brown. Tongue concealed. Legs red-brown. Breast, sides, and abdomen cream. Wings coloured as on the upper side.

I have adopted the Fabrician specific name, notwithstanding its subsequent date, that proposed by Cramer being exceedingly inapplicable. Drury states, on the authority of Mr. Smeathman, that this curious insect was found on the island of Banana. Its flight is exceedingly slow, and its tails seem rather to impede it. Mr. Donovan states that several specimens of this insect had been received from Sierra Leone (which habitat is given by Drury in the body of his work, but corrected as above in the observations communicated to him by Mr. Smeathman) and that he is not aware of the species having occurred in any other part of Africa, neither had he understood that any other collector since Mr. Smeathman had met with the species. Of the original specimens a pair belonged to Mr. Drury, which came into the hands of Mr. Donovan, who also mentions a fine specimen as existing in the Banksian Cabinet at the Linnæan Society; adding, that some few other specimens passed into different continental Cabinets, all of which, however, were those collected by Mr. Smeathman. The late Mr. Haworth, however, (the sale of whose magnificent collection by public auction lasted for ten days,) possessed four specimens of this rare moth, a pair of which were purchased by W. Swainson, Esq., and the remaining pair by myself.


CALLIMORPHA EPIMENIS.

Plate XXIX. fig. 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Arctiidæ.

Genus. Callimorpha, Latr. Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Callimorpha Epimenis. Alis nigris, anticis maculá magná pone medium albidâ, posticis basi nigris apice fulvis margine atro. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Noctua) Epimenis, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: "Virginia, Mr. Abbot, 1774" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black and setaceous. Eyes, head, thorax, abdomen, and anterior wings black, the latter with a large straw-coloured patch placed near the ends, and reaching across the wings from the anterior edges almost to the lower corners. Posterior wings nearly black, with a large orange-coloured patch, occupying one-third of the wings, and placed along the external edges. Under Side. Palpi, head, legs, breast, sides, and abdomen, black. Wings coloured as on the upper side, with the addition of two small straw-coloured spots placed between the large ones and the shoulders; the colours being also rather brighter. Margins of the wings entire.


LITHOSIA? INO.

Plate XXIX. fig. 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Lithosiidæ, Steph.

Genus. Lithosia? Fabr. Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Lithosia? Ino. Alis albidis, anticis punctis duobus humeralibus maculisque duabus magnis nigris (scil. ante et pone medium); thorace nigro punctato. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Noctua) Ino, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: "Madras, Mr. Skeene, 1772" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ brown and setaceous. Head cream-coloured. Neck black. Thorax and abdomen cream-coloured, the former having some black spots on it. Anterior wings cream-coloured, with a large triangular black spot placed at the tips, another on the middle of the wings, extending across from the anterior edges almost to the lower corners. There are also two small ones next the shoulders. The external edges have a row of small black spots placed thereon. Posterior wings cream-coloured, tinctured with red, with a faint black border, rising at the upper corners where it is broadest, and running half-way to the abdominal ones, gradually narrowing. Under Side. Palpi, breast, legs, sides and abdomen cream-coloured. Wings reddish cream, without any marks; the black marks, &c. on the upper side being faintly perceived. Margins of the wings entire.


CALLIMORPHA? HELCITA.

Plate XXIX. fig. 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Arctiidæ, Steph.

Genus. Callimorpha? Latr. Phalæna (Noctua), Drury.

Callimorpha? Helcita. Alis testaecis apice nigris, fasciâ maculari albâ. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 5 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Dan. Cand.) Helcita, Linn. Syst. Nat. 2. 763. 94.

Phalæna fascelis, Linn. Mus. Ulr. 390. No. 25.

Phalæna (Noctua) H., Drury, App. vol. 3.

Phalæna macularia, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 2. p. 140. No. 40.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1775" (Drury's MSS.). "In Indiis" (Linn.). India (Fabr. incorrectly).
Upper Side. Antennæ black and setaceous. Head, thorax, and abdomen black, the two last having a row of white spots running along the middle, and another on each side down to the anus. Wings fine dark red. Almost half the anterior next the tips being black, with five oval white spots thereon; three of which being the largest are joined together, the other two, being small and behind, are at a little distance apart. Posterior wings with a broad black border running from the upper to the abdominal corners, whereon are placed eight oval white spots at equal distances, two, being the outermost, very small and close together. Under Side. Palpi yellow. Tongue spiral. Legs, breast, and sides black, spotted and streaked with white. Abdomen yellow. Wings coloured and marked as on the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.

Mr. Smeathman states that this insect is found in the savannahs. It is a sluggish creature, and easily taken. A specimen of this very rare insect was sold in the collection of the late Mr. Stothard, on the 18th May, 1835; and was purchased by Thomas Norris, Esq. M.E.S. at the price of fourteen shillings.


PLATE XXX.

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NYMPHALIS (CHARAXES) POLLUX.

Plate XXX. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera, Linn. Section: Diurna, Latr. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.), Drury. (Subgenus: Charaxes, Boisduval.)

Nymphalis (Charaxes) Pollux. Alis supra fulvis, limbo postico latè nigro, subtus ad basin ferrugineis, annulis fasciâque albis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio Pollux, Cram. pl. 37. fig. C. D. Herbst. Pap. t. 63. f. 3. 4.

Papilio (N.) Castor, Fabr. Gen. Ins. Mant. p. 251. Donovan Nat. Repos. 4. 116.

Papilio (Nymph. Ph.) Camulus, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennae black. Thorax and abdomen red-brown. Anterior wings brown-orange, with a small round black spot near the middle, and another fainter and smaller a little beneath it. Along the anterior edges are several black marks and patches joining together; these wings are bordered with black, having along the external edges some small faint orange-brown spots. Posterior wings corresponding exactly with the anterior, and furnished with four short tails. Under Side. Palpi yellow, bordered with white. Breast dark brown, with white streaks. Legs brown. Abdomen red-brown. The ground of the anterior wings next the body is a light chocolate, which is separated from a dusky brown border running along the external edges by a white and orange band, which, being the chief colours on this side, are continued along the posterior wings. The base is adorned with black streaks, surrounded with white, placed along the anterior edges, and others of different forms on the middle of the wings. Along the external edges, on the dusky border, is placed a row of black triangular spots, which at the lower corners are doubled. Posterior wings of the same colour as the anterior, the chocolate ground having a number of small black marks and streaks, bordered with white, in a very irregular manner. At the lower corner is placed a dark grey eye, with a black iris and a white longitudinal streak in the centre, two rows of small black spots, some being edged with white, of different forms, are also placed along the dusky border.

We learn, from the observations of Smeathman and Drury, that this is the insect noticed in the observation upon Charaxes Jason, as possessing exceedingly strong powers of flight. Vide Vol. I. Pl. 1. fig. 1.


PLATE XXXI.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 31.jpg

NYMPHALIS VARANES.

Plate XXXI. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.), Drury.

Nymphalis Varanes. Alis supra basi albis immaculatis, apice ferrugineis fulvo et fusco punctatis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (N.) Varanes, Fabr. Sp. Ins. 2. p. 14. No. 55.

Papilio (Nymph. Gemm.) Varanes, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Papilio V., Cramer, pl. 160. D. E. ♂. pl. 388. A. B. ♀.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1775" (Drury's MSS.). Caffraria (Enc. Méth.). India (Fabr. incorrectly).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax greenish. Abdomen white, spotted on the upper part with black. Basal half of the wings ash-coloured, and bordered with deep red-brown. Anterior wings having a row of six orange spots along the external edges, and two oval ones near the middle of the anterior edges; two black spots, shaped like the beards of arrows, are situated in the centre. Posterior wings angulated and furnished with two short tails, having a row of five black spots running parallel with the external edges. Wings not indented. Under Side. Palpi, breast, and legs buff-coloured. Abdomen white. Wings next the body dark ash-coloured, but along the tips and external edges darker. A narrow line of a brown colour rises from the posterior edges of the anterior wings, and, bending towards the tips, is lost in the general colour of that part of the wings. A row of small faint black spots runs parallel with the external edges, being situated between them and the fore-mentioned dark line; the inner divisions of these and the posterior wings have a number of small black marks, like Hebrew characters, regularly dispersed on them. Posterior wings with a dark narrow line rising on the anterior edges, which crosses the wings, meeting below the abdomen. A small black eye, with a white pupil, is placed near the middle of the anterior edges, and a row of faint oval dark spots runs parallel with the external edges, ending at the abdominal corners.

This insect, like the last, flies exceedingly swift, and is observed sometimes to settle upon human excrement, a peculiar habit which is also adopted by other species of insects belonging to different orders.


PLATE XXXII.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 32.jpg

PIERIS EUDOXIA.

Plate XXXII. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Papilionidæ, Leach.

Genus. Pieris, Schrank. Papilio (Dan. Cand.), Linn. &c.

Pieris Eudoxia. Alis rotundatis, anticis diluté fulvis posticis albis; omnium limbo communi nigro maculato. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Dan. Cand.), Cramer, pl. 213. fig. C. Herbst. tab. 107. f. 1. 2. Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 199. 620. Boisduval Hist. Nat. Lepid. 1. 510. No. 105.

Papilio (D. C.) Rhodope, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 196. No. 609. Donovan Nat. Repos. 3. pl. 86.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen grey-brown. Anterior wings dark yellow, shaded along the anterior edges with dark brown; a black border occupies the tips and external edges of these wings, whereon is a row of dark yellow spots of an oblong form. Posterior wings entirely white, with a row of black spots placed along the external edges. Under Side. Palpi grey. Breast, legs, and abdomen white. Anterior wings yellow, but next the body orange-coloured, with a row of triangular black spots placed along the external edges. Posterior wings white, but orange next the body, having a row of black round spots placed on the external edges, corresponding with the anterior wings. Margins of the wings entire.


PIERIS CHLORIS.

Plate XXXII. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Papilionidæ, Leach.

Genus. Pieris, Schrank. Papilio (Dan. Cand.), Linn. &c.

Pieris Chloris. Alis suboblongis, integerrimis, teneris, albis apice nigro, subtùs anticis basi calthaceâ, posticis luteo radiatâ, his limbo latè nigro. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (D. C.) Chloris, Fabr. Syst. Ent. 473. No. 129. Drury, App. vol. 2. Herbst. tab. 99. f. 1. 4. Latr. et God. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 160. Boisduval Hist. Nat. Lepid. 1. 516.

Papilio Thermopylæ, Cramer, pl. 207. fig. F. G.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1774" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Eyes dark brown. Thorax and abdomen dark grey. Anterior wings entirely white, with a black patch at the tips, the anterior edges being also black. Posterior wings also white, with a black border running along the external edges from the upper to the abdominal corners. Under Side. Palpi grey. Legs, breast, abdomen, and anterior wings white; the latter black at their tips, as on the upper side, but next the body tinged with red. Posterior wings yellow, but one-half next the external edges is black; and on the upper part, next the body, having a streak of fine red. Margins of the wings entire.


PIERIS HYPATIA.

Plate XXXII. fig. 5, 6.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Papilionidæ, Leach.

Genus. Pieris, Schrank. Papilio (Dan. Cand.), Linn. &c.

Pieris Hypatia. Alis rotundatis integerrimis, suprà nigris, fasciâ albâ communi sinuatâ, subtus anticis maculâ apicali albidâ, posticis basi fulvo radiatis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Pap. (Dan. Cand.) Hypatia, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Papilio Epaphia, Cramer, pl. 207. fig. D. E.

Pieris Higinia, Latr. et God. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 135. No. 45.

Pieris Saba, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 201. 627. Latr. God. loc. cit. No. 46.

Pieris Malatha, Boisd. Faun. Madagascar, pl. 1. f. 4, 5.

Pieris Orbona, Boisd. loc. cit. pl. 1. f. 3.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen black. Anterior wings sooty black, having a white indented bar rising at the middle of the anterior edges, which crosses them, and ends on the middle of the posterior ones; at the tips are two small white spots. Posterior wings white and black, the upper half being white and the lower one black. Under Side. Palpi, legs, breast, and abdomen white. Anterior wings tinged with yellow next the body, the white bar being the same on this side as on the upper; the black colour on this side partaking more of a brown, and at the tips having a white patch instead of the two spots seen on the upper side. Posterior wings marked as on the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.


PLATE XXXIII.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 33.jpg

NYMPHALIS (CHARAXES) EUDOXUS.

Plate XXXIII. fig. 1, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera, Linn. Section: Diurna, Latr. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.), Drury. (Subgenus: Charaxes, Boisduval.)

Nymphalis (Charaxes) Eudoxus. Alis supra fasciâ mediâ maculisque marginalibus fulvis, subtùs ad basin ferrugineis annulis argenteis; posticis tantùm fasciâ albâ. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Equ. Ach.) Eudoxus, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Papilio (N.) Eudoxus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 65. No. 203. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 352. No. 6.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Eyes, head, thorax, and abdomen red-brown. Anterior wings dark chocolate, red-brown at the base; a row of brown orange-coloured spots is placed on the external edges of these wings, those next the tips being smallest; a brown-orange bar also rises on the anterior edges near the tips, and crossing these and the posterior wings meets at the extremity of the abdomen, increasing in width as it approaches the abdominal corners. Posterior wings likewise dark chocolate, but next the body red-brown. Each of them is furnished with two tails, and has an indented line of brown-orange running along the external edges, from the upper to the abdominal corners. Under Side. Palpi and breast orange. Feet ash colour. Sides and abdomen red-brown. One half of the superior wings next the body is chocolate, but next the external edges brown-orange, with a large black streak at the lower corners, and three others of different shapes in the middle of the wings; the chocolate division is adorned with a number of black streaks and marks, margined with fine silver white. Posterior wings chocolate, with an indented line of brown-orange placed along the external edges, verged at top with black; these wings are marked with a number of silvery white lines and streaks, placed against each other in different directions. Two small white spots, joined together, are placed on a black-ground at the abdominal corners.


HESPERIA HELOPS.

Plate XXXIII. fig. 2, 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Hesperiidæ, Steph.

Genus. Hesperia, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Pleb. Urb.), Linn. Drury, &c.

Hesperia Helops. Alis anticis fuscis maculis hyalinis (tribus minutis) subapicalibus; posticis suprà flavis, fasciâ submarginali atrâ arcuatâ, subtùs fuscis disco albo. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 2 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Pleb. Urb.) Helops, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Hesperia (U.) Ennius, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 337. No. 283. Enc. Méth. ix. 749. No. 54. Donovan Ins. Ind. II. pl. 3. fig. 1.

Habitat: Brazil, "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1775" (Drury's MSS.). "In Indiis" (Fabr.). India (Donovan).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Head, thorax, and abdomen greenish brown. Anterior wings very dark brown, but next the body lighter, and having four diaphanous spots of different shapes on each wing; and also two yellow triangular ones, situated at the middle of the posterior edges. Posterior wings nearly black, with a large yellow patch on the middle of the wings, and two other yellow spots at the abdominal corners. Under Side. Palpi ash-coloured. Legs yellow-brown. Breast and abdomen brown. Anterior wings dark brown, the lower parts along the posterior edges being lighter coloured; the diaphanous spots conspicuous, and the tips prettily tinged with red-brown. Posterior wings dark brown, the middle being occupied by a large silver white patch; the edges next the abdominal corners yellow, the other parts of the wings marked by paler and different coloured tints. Margins of the wings entire.


PLATE XXXIV.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 34.jpg

SATURNIA LUCINA.

Plate XXXIV. fig. 1.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Bombycidæ, Steph.

Genus. Saturnia, Schrank. Attacus, Germ. Phalæna (Attacus), Drury.

Saturnia Lucina. Alis albido-griseis fusco multi-rivulosis, strigis undulatis submarginalibus, anticis maculis nonnullis mediis ocelloque parvo apicali nigris. (Expans. Alar. 6 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Attacus) Lucina, Drury, App. vol. 3. Oliv. Enc. Méth. 5. 31. 27.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ yellow and pectinated. Thorax and abdomen brown. Wings russet-brown and cream-colour, disposed in a great variety of different shaped marks. Anterior wings next the body with a number of angulated lines following each other in a regular succession; the middle being composed of another succession of undulated lines crossing the wings from the anterior to the posterior edges: a black oval spot is placed at the tips, and a row of different sized oval marks runs along the external edges. Posterior wings next the body dark brown, the middle and bottom having a series of undulated lines crossing them in regular succession from the anterior to the abdominal edges, while a row of light and dark oval marks is placed along the external edges. Under Side. Palpi brown. Legs cream-coloured. Breast, sides, and abdomen brown. Tongue not observed. Wings differing but slightly from the upper side; the general manner of marking being still preserved here. On the upper part of the posterior wings, next the body, is a triangular cream spot, the inner space being brown. Margins of the wings entire.


THECLA ORCAS.

Plate XXXIV. fig. 2, 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Lycænidæ, Steph.

Genus. Thecla, Fabr. (Syst. Gloss.) Polyommatus, Latr. God. Hesperia p. Fabr. (olim.) Papilio (Pleb. rur.), Drury.

Thecla Orcas. Alis suprà virescenti-cœruleis, limbo maculisque nonnullis subcostalibus anticarum nigris; subtùs ferrugineo-fuscis maculis numerosis argenteis. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Pleb. Rur.) Orcas, Drury, App. vol. 3. Enc. Méth. ix. 645. 102. (Polyomm. O.)

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Upper Side. Antennæ brown and thickest at their extremities, where they are white. Head black, but between the eyes white. Thorax and abdomen dark blue, almost black. Wings golden blue, bordered and fringed with black; the anterior having along the anterior edges three small black marks, besides the border. Posterior wings furnished with four tails, and having two singular red spots placed at the abdominal corners. Under Side. Palpi and legs white. Sides, breast, and abdomen red and white. Wings fine red-brown, almost as deep as chocolate, adorned with a variety of different shaped silver spots; the anterior having eight, placed all over the wings, and the posterior eleven; the latter having an orange mark at the abdominal corners. Margins of the anterior wings entire, but of the posterior slightly dentated.


PLATE XXXV.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 35.jpg

PAPILIO THYASTES.

Plate XXXV. fig. 1.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Papilionidæ, Leach.

Genus. Papilio, Auct. Papilio (Eq. Ach.), Drury, Fabr.

Papilio Thyastes. Alis caudatis nigris, fasciâ maculisque flavis, angulo ani sanguineo, posticis subtus lineâ sanguineâ. (Expans. Alar. 4 unc.)

Syn. Papilio (Eq. Ach.) Thyastes, Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 26. No. 77. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 54. Boisduv. Hist. Nat. Lepid. 1. p. 349. 191.

Habitat: Brazil, "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Head, thorax, abdomen, and wings black-brown; the anterior wings having the middle occupied by a triangular yellow space, continued to the middle of the posterior ones; four yellow spots are placed at the tips, and several others along the anterior edges. Posterior wings furnished with two black tails, edged and tipped with yellow, and having four yellow marks situated along the external edges; they have also three blue crescents at the roots of the tails, and above them a square yellow spot on the abdominal edges, and three small red ones placed above it. Under Side. Palpi not observed. Legs black. Breast and abdomen yellow. Wings paler brown than on the upper side, marked in the same manner as above, the yellow colour being here of a paler and greener hue. The posterior wings having the same marks here as above, with the addition of a row of short straight red lines placed along the external edges, but at a little distance from them.


HIPPARCHIA NEREIS ♂.

Plate XXXV. fig. 2, 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Hipparchia, Fabr. Satyrus, Latr. God. Papilio (Helic. Parn.), Drury.

Hipparchia Nereis. Alis fuscis subhyalinis, vittâ communi albâ; posticis ad apicem fulvis, ocellis duobus atris. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc.)

Syn. Papilio (Hel. Parn.) Nereis, Drury, App. vol. 3. Herbst. Pap. tab. 84. f. 1. 2. Stoll Suppl. Cramer, pl. 26. f. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. 184. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 483. (Satyrus N.)

Habitat: Brazil, "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Head, thorax, and abdomen grey-brown. Anterior wings grey-brown, thin, and slightly diaphanous, with a small light-coloured bar running from the anterior edge near the tips to the posterior. Posterior wings having one-third next the body grey-brown, divided by a line drawn across the wings from the anterior to the abdominal edges; next to this is an angulated white patch, the rest of these wings being orange-coloured, with two black eyes, having white centres, placed one at the upper, the other at the abdominal corners, the former having a small white spot joining to its upper part. The edges of these wings are bordered with dark brown. Under Side. Palpi, legs, breast, and abdomen cream-coloured. Anterior wings next the tips tinged with red-brown; the remainder of the wings being of the same colour as on the upper side. Posterior wings next the body pale clay, which occupies half the wings; below which is a white bar, the remainder of the wings being dark orange: the two black eyes are very small on this side, and the white spot above them not so distinct. These wings are larger than is generally observed among insects of this tribe, and are dentated, the anterior ones being entire.


PAPILIO ASIUS.

Plate XXXV. fig. 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Papilionidæ, Leach.

Genus. Papilio, Auct. Papilio (Eq. Achiv.), Drury, Fabr.

Papilio Asius. Alis nigris fasciâ communi flavescenti-albâ; posticis caudatis, his subtus basi anguloque ani chermesino maculatis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc.)

Syn. Papilio (Eq. Troj.) Asius. Fabr. Spec. Ins. 2. p. 5. No. 17. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 8. No. 21. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 55. No. 84. Boisduv. Hist. Nat. Lepid. 1. p. 309. 146.

Papilio (Eq. Tr.) Astyagas, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Papilio Manlius, Perty Del. An. Art. Braz. Ins. pl. 29. f. 1.

Habitat: Brazil, "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).

Upper Side. Antennæ, thorax, and abdomen black. Wings raven-black, having a pale yellow bar rising at the anterior edges near the tips of the superior wings, and crossing these and the inferior ones, meeting even with the abdomen, becoming wider gradually. Posterior wings furnished with two tails, and along the external edges having four small yellow crescents, and another at the abdominal corners; above which are two long square red spots, and another yellow crescent on the abdominal edges. Under Side. Palpi, legs, and breast black. Abdomen black, with a white longitudinal stripe on each side. Wings marked nearly as on the upper side; the posterior having several red spots and streaks more than on the upper side, and placed next the body from the shoulders to the abdominal corners.


PLATE XXXVI.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 36.jpg

NYMPHALIS AFER.

Plate XXXVI. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.), Drury.

Nymphalis Afer. Alis supra violaceo-cœruleis margine externo nigro, anticis utrinque strigâ apicali punctorum alborum, posticis fusco nebulosis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 1½ lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Afer, Drury, App. vol. 3. Stoll Suppl. Cramer, pl. 27. fig. 3.

Papilio (N.) Æthiopa, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 136. No. 420. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 385. No. 119. (Nymph. Æth.)

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax and abdomen blueish black. Wings, when viewed in a particular direction, fine shining light blue; but in any other are blueish brown. The anterior ones with six small white spots placed near the tips, the four uppermost being the smallest, and placed in a zigzag direction, parallel with the external edges, and with a few faint shadows. Posterior wings having, like the superior, only some faint shadows. Under Side. Palpi, legs, and breast clay-coloured. Abdomen brown. Wings having a variety of soft brown tints, of a light grey and dark brown colour, gradually softening into each other in a most agreeable manner. The six white spots in the superior wings are observable on this side; but there are no other marks either in the anterior or posterior wings sufficient to be regarded as characters. Margins of all the wings slightly dentated; the inferior ones being angulated.

We learn from Mr. Smeathman that this butterfly is found in the gloomy paths of the forests on the continent of Africa.


NYMPHALIS ALPHÆA.

Plate XXXVI. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.) Drury.

Nymphalis Alphæa. Alis lutescentibus strigis undulatis communibus fuscis, puncto dilutiori anticarum subapicali, subtùs brunneis fasciis nigricantibus. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph.) Alphæa, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).

Upper Side. Antennæ, head, thorax, and abdomen dark brown. Wings clay-coloured, with only a light spot on the anterior ones near the tips, and a number of small faint waved lines crossing the wings from the anterior to the posterior and abdominal edges. Under Side. Palpi long, grey brown. Breast and abdomen the same. Wings rather darker than on the upper side, being of a reddish brown. The two spots on the anterior wings are more conspicuous on this side than the other; and the waved lines here become bars in the posterior wings of a darker colour than the general ground, having two conspicuous ones, the lowest being the broadest. Margins of the wings slightly dentated.


NYMPHALIS DORICLÆA.

Plate XXXVI. fig. 5, 6.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.), Drury.

Nymphalis Doriclæa. Alis lutescenti-fuscis suprà strigis duabus punctorum nigrorum, posticis subtus puncto baseos atro. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Doriclæa, Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 248. No. 772. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 386. 124.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Upper Side. Antennæ brown. Thorax and abdomen dark brown. Wings dark clay-coloured. The anterior ones having three black marks placed at the middle of the anterior edges, being about a quarter of an inch long, and a few very faint dark marks at the external edges. Posterior wings with only two rows of small faint dark crescents placed along the external edges. Under Side. Palpi, legs, breast, abdomen, and anterior wings light clay-coloured; the latter having two black streaks placed close to the anterior edges, near the middle, and a shade of dark brown along the external edges. Posterior wings along the upper part light clay; but towards the abdominal corners are darker. A dark-coloured narrow band rises at the middle of the anterior edges, which runs circularly towards the abdominal groove, but is lost in the general colour of the wing before it reaches that part. About the middle of this inner compartment is a small round black spot, being the only one either on the upper or under side. Margins of the wings entire, the posterior being slightly angulated.


PLATE XXXVII.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 37.jpg

PIERIS (LEPTALIS) CRISIA.

Plate XXXVII. fig. 1, 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna, Latr. Family: Papilionidæ, Leach.

Genus. Pieris, Schrank. Latr. God. Papilio (Dan. Cand.) Linn. &c. (Subgenus: Leptalis, Boisduval.)

Pieris (Leptalis) Crisia. Alis oblongis, anticis falcato-acuminatis fuscis, fasciâ ante apicem flavescente, posticis integerrimis flavescentibus, limbo fusco. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Dan. Cand.) Crisia, Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 166. No. 515. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 197. (Pieris Cr.) Boisduval Hist. Nat. Lep. 1. p. 422. (Leptalis Cr.)

Habitat: Brazil. "Rio Janeiro, Mr. Bonifas, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).

Upper Side. Antennæ spotted white beneath. Thorax and abdomen grey-brown. Anterior wings dark brown, almost like chocolate, the tips forming an obtuse angle; a white streak crossing them obliquely towards the lower corners, having a very small black spot thereon near the upper part. The posterior edges are white, extending from the body almost to the lower corners. Three small faint white spots are situated near the tips. Posterior wings white, deeply edged with brown from the upper to the abdominal corners. Under Side. Palpi, breast, and abdomen grey. Anterior wings not so dark as on the upper side; but having the same marks, with the addition of a white streak at the tips. Posterior wings white, with a few patches of a very light brown, the lower edges being dappled with that colour. Near the shoulders are two small yellow spots. Margins of the wings entire.


ACRÆA ETHOSEA.

Plate XXXVII. fig. 3, 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Heliconiidæ, Swains.

Genus. Acræa, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Heliconii), Fabr. olim.

Acræa Ethosea. Alis oblongis, suprà fuscis disco albo, anticis integerrimis, posticis subdenticulatis, his infrà basi punctis nigris, margine exteriori maculis albis trigonis serie digestis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Ethosea, Drury, App. vol. 3. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 235. No. 17.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Thorax, abdomen, and wings deep brown, almost black; the disk of the anterior being white, and extending to the shoulders, all the middle part of the posterior being white likewise. Under Side. Palpi grey. Breast and abdomen brown. Anterior wings next the body yellowish brown, but towards the tips inclining to grey; nerves black; the disk white, with a round black spot near the body, and another of a smaller size below it. The middle of the posterior wings is white, surrounded with brown, that part along the lower edges being darkest; next the body are five distinct black round spots, and an irregular shaped one at the middle of the upper edge; along the lower edges are a number of small triangular white spots. Margins of the posterior wings slightly dentated.

Although Sierra Leone is given by Drury in his published account of this insect as the locality for this species, I find it mentioned in his manuscript Catalogue as being received from "New Zealand, Mr. Banks, 1775." The authors of the Encyclopédie Méthodique evidently knew the species only from Drury's figures and descriptions, and therefore have given the former locality. It is difficult to account for this contradictory statement, or to assert which of these localities is the correct one.


ACRÆA CYNTHIA.

Plate XXXVII. fig. 5, 6.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Heliconiidæ, Swains.

Genus. Acræa, Fabr. Latr. God. Papilio (Heliconii), Fabr. Olim.

Acræa Cynthia. Alis oblongis integerrimis fuscis, fasciâ communi anticarumque macula apicali, albidis; posticis suprâ punctorum fulvorum serie posticâ. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Hel.) Cynthius, Drury, App. vol. 3. Herbst. Pap. tab. 80. f. 1. 2.

Acræa Cynthia, Enc. Méth. ix. p. 234.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Upper Side. Antennæ brown. Eyes, thorax, and abdomen black. Anterior wings dark brown; a dark cream-coloured band rises at the middle of these wings, and crossing the posterior meets at the abdominal edges a little above the anus; a dark cream-coloured patch is also situated near the tips, and a narrow reddish line runs from the body to the disk. Posterior wings dark brown, having a row of five oblong lightish spots placed along the lower edges. Under Side. Palpi grey. Breast and abdomen streaked and spotted with dark cream and black. Wings paler than on the upper side; the band and patch not so conspicuous as on the anterior ones; a row of marks, like acute angles, are placed along the edges of all the wings, the posterior ones having a cluster of ten small black spots placed near the body. Margins of the wings entire.

In Drury's manuscripts, which have come into my hands, it is stated that this insect was brought from Sierra Leone by Mr. Smeathman, and that "the original insect from which this figure was taken is destroyed, and was of a much livelier colour than those which I judge to be varieties of Cynthius."


PLATE XXXVIII.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 38.jpg

HELICONIA IRENE.

Plate XXXVIII. fig. 1.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Heliconiidæ, Swains.

Genus. Heliconia, Latr. God. Papilio (Helicon.), Fabr.

Heliconia Irene. Alis oblongis, anticis nigris basi ferrugineo radiatis, à medio ad extimum flavo-maculatis, posticis fulvis limbo exteriori maculisque ante apicem nigris, singulis infrâ punctis marginalibus albis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Irene, Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 165. No. 510. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 223. No. 60.

Habitat: "Jamaica, Mr. Shakespear, 1779" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black at the base, but yellow at the tips. Thorax black. Abdomen dark brown. Anterior wings black, with twelve different shaped spots, occupying half the wings next the tips; these spots are principally yellow, (one next the body being orange), and differ very much in form and size; next the body are two narrow faint reddish longitudinal streaks. Posterior wings dusky orange, the edges being bordered with black from the middle of the anterior edges to the abdominal corners; a square black spot is placed near the upper corners, and two very small ones by the side of it. Under Side. Palpi black. Breast streaked with white. Abdomen yellow. Wings less brilliant; but having much the same markings as on the upper side; the black border on the posterior ones having a row of white spots thereon, and another row is observable on the edges of the anterior. Posterior wings dentated.


NYMPHALIS IOLE.

Plate XXXVIII. fig. 2.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Nymphalis, Latr. Papilio (Nymph. Gemmat.), Drury.

Nymphalis Iole. Alis suprà basi fulvis, tunc nigris cœruleo-micantibus, subtus nitenti-ferrugineis, strigis duabus nigris undulatis, posticis caudatis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Nymph. Phal.) Iole, Drury, App. vol. 3. Stoll Suppl. Cram. pl. 29. fig. 4. 4. D.

Papilio (N) Furcula, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 79. No. 246. Enc. Méth. ix. p. 360. 36. (Nymphalis F.) Donovan Nat. Repos. 5. 151.

Habitat: "Jamaica" (Drury, in text). "Madras, Mr. Skeene, 1772" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Eyes, thorax, and abdomen brown. Wings brown-black, a considerable part of them encircling the body being dark orange. Posterior wings furnished with two tails, rather lighter than the other part. Under Side. Palpi, legs, breast, and abdomen cream-coloured. Wings brown, having a blueish as well as a reddish hue, several waved lines crossing them from the anterior to the abdominal edges; five small white spots are placed next the tips, and several small black ones are situated along the external edges of both wings.


HIPPARCHIA ANDROMEDA.

Plate XXXVIII. fig. 3.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Nymphalidæ, Swains.

Genus. Hipparchia, Fabr. Satyrus, Latr. God. Papilio (Helic. Parn.), Drury.

Hipparchia Andromeda. Alis hyalinis, anticis strigis duabus fuscantibus, posticis apice chermesinis ocello utrinque unico. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (P.) Andromeda, Fabr. Syst. Ent. 467. No. 107. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 184. No. 569.

Papilio (Hel. Parn.) Menander, Drury, App. vol. 3. Herbst. Pap. t. 84. fig. 6.

Papilio Philis, Cramer, 387. fig. E.

Papilio Pireta, Cramer, pl. 315. fig. A.

Habitat: Jamaica (Drury). Surinam (Enc. Méth.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Two small white spots on the neck. Eyes, thorax, and abdomen black. Wings perfectly transparent, the lower part of the posterior beautiful carmine-red; close to the upper corner of these wings is a round black spot encircled with yellow, and a small white one on its edge; another white one, very minute, is also situated just below it, which is barely discernible. Under Side. Palpi white. Breast and abdomen grey. Wings are exactly the same as on the upper side. Margins of the wings entire.


HELICONIA SAPPHO.

Plate XXXVIII. fig. 4.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Diurna. Family: Heliconiidæ, Swainson.

Genus. Heliconia, Latr. God. Papilio (Helicon.), Fabr.

Heliconia Sappho. Alis oblongis, supra atro cœruleis infrà nigris; anticis utrinque fasciâ transversâ bifidâ; posticis margine exteriori albis, his subtùs basi sanguineo radiatis. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Papilio (Hel. Parn.) Sapho, Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1. p. 165. No. 511. Stoll Suppl. Cramer, pl. 30. 2. & 2. B. Herbst. Pap. tab. 75. f. 7.

Habitat: "Jamaica, Mr. Shakespear, 1779" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ black. Eyes brown. Thorax and abdomen black. Wings mazarine blue; the anterior ones having a white band crossing them from the middle of the anterior edges to the lower corners; the posterior edged with a white border, intersected by the blue tendons of the wings. Under Side. Palpi grey. Breast and abdomen black, streaked with white. Wings black where they are blue on the upper side, with the same white markings; but next the body are adorned with beautiful red streaks, ending in points resembling rays issuing from it. Margins of the wings entire.


PLATE XXXIX.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 39.jpg

EREBUS ZENOBIA.

Plate XXXIX.

Order: Lepidoptera. Section: Nocturna. Family: Noctuidæ, Stephens.

Genus. Erebus, Latr. Thysania, Dalm. Noctua p., Fabr.

Erebus Zenobia. Alis cinereis strigis dentatis et undulatis fuscis et brunneis variegatis, subtùs ferrugineis nigro-undatis. (Expans. Alar. 5 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Phalæna (Bombyx) Zenobia, Drury, App. vol. 3. Cramer? tab. 115. A. B.

Noctua Zenobia, Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 2. p. 8. No. 1. Gmel. Linn. S. N. 2529. 969. Oliv. Enc. Méth. 8. p. 251. 1.

Habitat: "Jamaica, Mr. Kenchan, 1775" (Drury's MSS.).
Upper Side. Antennæ setaceous and dark brown. Head the same. Thorax and abdomen grey: having a tuft of black hairs standing between them. General colour grey, faintly tinged with red. Anterior wings with a remarkable irregular black bar running from the tips to the shoulders, crossing the thorax horizontally, and parallel with the anterior edges; on the middle of this edge is a triangular dark brown spot edged with black, and nearer the body is a smaller one of the same shape and colour: a second narrower black line is situate about half an inch below, and parallel with the first, rising on the posterior edges, and extending across the wings almost to the external ones. Posterior wings with a black irregular bar arising near the external corners, and crossing them in a straight direction, meeting at the extremity of the abdomen; just above this, and almost close to it, is a very small and narrow waved black line running parallel with it, but towards the end suddenly turns off, and reaches the anterior edges. Besides the above markings there are a number of lighter and darker shades interspersed on the different parts of the wings. Under Side. Palpi reddish, the extremities brown. Tongue spiral. Legs dark brown, mottled with red. Breast, abdomen, and sides red. Wings greyish red, with black indented lines and bars running parallel with the edges of the wings, and regularly placed one above another. Anterior wings having a black spot near their centre shaped like a kidney-bean, with a small round one at a little distance nearer the body. Posterior having likewise a small black spot about half an inch from the base. Margins of the wings rather deeply scolloped.


PLATE XL.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 40.jpg

GOLIATHUS DRURII.

Plate XL.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Lamellicornes. Family: Cetoniidæ.

Genus. Goliathus, De Lamarck. Cetonia, Fabr. Scarabæus, Linn. Drury, &c.

Goliathus Drurii. Albidus, thorace lineis sex et disco elytrorum irregulariter nigris, pedibus æneis, capite porrecto bifido. (Long. Corp. 4 unc.)

Syn. Goliathus Maximus var. Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabr. Syst. Eleuth. 2. 135.

Cetonia Goliata, Oliv. Ent. 1. 6. p. 71. t. 9. f. 33. c.

Habitat: Sierra Leone, Africa (Drury).
Head cream-coloured at top, and black underneath, being full three-fourths of an inch in length, from the neck to the extremity of the two horns which issue from the fore part of it, the sides of which are furnished with two other thick horns which are shorter than the former. Eyes black, and situated so as to discern above and beneath. Antennæ black. Thorax an inch and a half long, cream-coloured, having a thin, sharp, black edge all round; on the top are six longitudinal black streaks differently shaped, separated by cream-coloured lines, the middle ones being narrowest, on each side of which near the lateral edge is a small single black spot; the under part of the thorax is cream-coloured. Scutellum of a longish triangular shape, and cream-coloured. Elytra cream-coloured, with a broad black streak like velvet, about a third of their breadth, running near the lateral edges from the shoulders to the tips. On each side the scutellum is a small black oblong spot, at about one-third of an inch from it. Legs dark green, finely polished. The hairs on the middle and hind thighs and tibiæ dark orange. Abdomen dark green. Abdominal scales [posterior coxæ] the same; on which, close to the joints of the hinder thighs, are two small cream-coloured spots. Sternum long, and of a dark green colour.

I have ventured, on the authority of several distinguished entomologists, to give this insect as a species distinct from Goliathus maximus, figured in the first volume of these Illustrations, Pl. 31. It is true, indeed, that both are from the tropical districts of the western coast of Africa, and that both exhibit the same general structure and form of the horns, (the variations of which constitute the chief specific differences in these cornuted species). Drury evidently at first regarded it as specifically distinct, for he says, in his observation upon it, "This insect is of the same genus with that described in Vol. 1. Pl. XXXI., but I judge it to be a different species," although in the synoptical appendix to the volume he calls it "a variety of Goliathus," the markings are very different, as may be seen by comparing the two figures; but it might be considered that the specimen represented in the first volume was a rubbed individual of that here figured; this, however, is evidently not the case, because in both descriptions Drury expressly describes the dark part of the elytra as resembling velvet, which could not be the case if the specimen was rubbed. Moreover, a very fine and recent specimen corresponding with the present figure has lately been received by Mr. Havill, of Oxford Street, printseller and naturalist, who has demanded the sum of fifty pounds for it. The individual here figured is in the collection of Mr. MacLeay, to whom I have been indebted for a sight of it, and by whose father it was purchased at the sale of Mr. Drury's collection at the price of £12. 1s. 6d., forming lot 95, in the first day's sale, Thursday May 23, 1805, and described in the catalogue as "Scarabæus Goliathus, var." I have also seen in the Royal Museum at Berlin a female of this genus having the head unarmed, and agreeing in colour and markings with the insect here figured, but which is regarded by Dr. Klug as a species distinct from the Goliath. maximus, and which he has recently described in Ermann's Voyage.


PLATE XLI.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 41.jpg

MYRMELEON TORRIDUM.

Plate XLI.

Order: Neuroptera. Section: Filicornes. Family: Myrmeleonidæ, Leach.

Genus. Myrmeleon, Linn. &c.

Myrmeleon Torridum. Capite thoraceque fulvescentibus, lineâ dorsali nigrâ, hoc griseo-pubescenti, abdomine fusco, alis fusco-punctatis et maculatis, maculis posticarum majoribus et versus apicem crucem irregularem formantibus. (Expans. Alar. 6 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Myrmeleon Libelluloides var., Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Antennæ black, slender, and thickest at the extremities. Head, neck, and thorax yellowish brown, with a black longitudinal stripe running along the middle. Four palpi, two of which are short; the other two long, slender, and knobbed at the extremities. Thorax nearly covered with grey hairs. Abdomen yellowish brown; but, when the insect was living, was probably green. Wings of equal length, the anterior being broadest, all marked with a great number of red-brown spots, and clouds of various shapes and sizes, and appearing to be composed of fine lattice-work like gauze, and perfectly transparent where they are not clouded. Legs nearly of equal length, having two strong tibial spurs.

This is the insect referred to in the observations upon Myrmeleon Libelluloides figured in Vol. 1. tab. 46. fig. 1. as having been regarded by Drury and Fabricius as a variety of that South-Europæan species. That they are specifically distinct both in their habitat and characters will not, I think, be doubted. The peculiar dilatation of the extremity of the posterior wings is a curious character not found in the Libelluloides.


PLATE XLII.

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PEPSIS ATROX.

Plate XLII. fig. 1.

Order: Hymenoptera. Section: Fossores. Family: Pompilidæ, Leach.

Genus. Pepsis, Fabr. Latr. Sphex, Linn. Drury.

Pepsis Atrox. Nigra, alis fusco-diaphanis, pedibus fulvis. (Long. Corp. 2 unc. 3 lin. Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Sphex atrox, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Head dark brown. Jaws strong: two of the palpi are long, the other two short. Tongue dilated, and tufted at the tips. Eyes oblong, shining and prominent. Thorax and abdomen brown-black. Abdominal peduncle short. In the specimen figured the sting was exserted, curved, and furnished with two short clavate instruments at its base. Wings thin, and diaphanous. Legs yellow-brown, and furnished with a great number of short spines from the claws to the base of the tibiæ. Tibiæ with two spurs, except those of the fore-legs, which have but one.

Fabricius has described an insect from South America, under the name of Pepsis Heros, which nearly agrees with this species, with the following reference—"Sphex Securus, Drury Ins. . tab. . fig. ." It will be sufficient to observe that Drury has described no such insect, although it is probable that Fabricius, who was on terms of intimacy with our author, might have seen the unpublished figure of such insect in his possession. Mr. Smeathman informed our author that he was once stung in the finger by one of these insects, but the pain was not so severe as might have been expected from a wound made by so large a creature belonging to this genus. His method, when stung by any insects in Africa, was to open the puncture with a lancet, and squeeze out the blood and venom together, which, when effectually done, soon caused the pain to abate.


CHLORION FEROX.

Plate XLII. fig. 2.

Order: Hymenoptera. Section: Fossores. Family: Sphegidæ, Leach.

Genus. Chlorion, Latr. Sphex, Drury.

Chlorion Ferox. Viridi-cyaneum, nitidissimum, antennis pedibusque nigris, alis fuscescentibus. (Expans. Alar. fere 2 unc.)

Syn. Sphex ferus, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Sphex lobata? Fabr. Ent. Syst. 2. 206. 30. Syst. Piez. 217.

Habitat: China.
Head fine green. Jaws strong. Tongue not observed. Eyes oblong. Antennæ black. Wings thin and diaphanous. Thorax and abdomen beautiful shining emerald green. Legs black.

The description given by Drury of this insect entirely agrees with a very common Chinese insect, the Chlorion lobatum, Latr. This figure is however hardly to be recognized.


ATTA FERVENS.

Plate XLII. fig. 3.

Order: Hymenoptera. Section: Heterogyna. Family: Formicidæ, Leach.

Genus. Atta, Fabr. Latreille. Formica, Linn. Drury.

Atta Fervens. Fusca, sericea, alis fuscis, capitis angulis posticis rotundatis. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Formica fervens, Drury, App. vol. 2. Say in Journ. of Nat. Hist. Soc. of Boston, p. 290.

Habitat: Musquito Shore, on the Bay of Mexico.
Antennæ small, setaceous, and shorter than the thorax. Head dark brown, small and flat, armed with strong jaws. Eyes small, round and black. Thorax and abdomen dark brown, and velvety. Wings brown and diaphanous. Legs coloured like the body, without any spines at any of the joints; neither is there any abdominal peduncle.

This insect (which appears to be a queen or female ant) is nearly allied to a very celebrated South American species, which, from visiting the houses of the inhabitants in great swarms, is termed the visiting ant. (Atta Cephalotes, Fabr.) The late Mr. Say, however, pointed out the differences between the two species in his manuscripts, which have been published in the Journal of the Natural History Society of Boston for 1836.


PEPSIS SEVERA.

Plate XLII. fig. 4.

Order: Hymenoptera. Section: Fossores. Family: Pompilidæ, Leach.

Genus. Pepsis, Latr. Fabr. Sphex, Linn. Drury.

Pepsis Severa. Atra, alis fulvo-diaphanis apice fuscis, pedibus fulvis femoribus nigris. (Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Sphex Severus, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Coast of Africa.
Head black. Tongue not observed. Palpi four. Eyes oblong, prominent and shining. Wings yellow-brown, diaphanous, the tips black. Thorax, abdomen, and thighs black. Tibiæ and tarsi yellow-brown.


PLATE XLIII.

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MANTIS (HARPAX) OCELLARIA.

Plate XLIII. fig. 1.

Order: Orthoptera. Section: Cursoria. Family: Mantidæ.

Genus. Mantis, Linn. (Subgenus: Harpax, Serville.)

Mantis (Harpax) Ocellaria. Capite inermi, femoribus posticis lobo apicali, elytris viridibus ocello magno discoidali flavo nigro-cingulato. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Mantis ocellaria, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Coast of Africa.

Antennæ setaceous. The insect, when living, was probably green, but is now of a yellowish brown; the eyes, head, and thorax being of that colour. One-third of the tegmina, next the tips, is transparent, the remainder being green. In the centre is a yellow spot resembling an eye, encircled with black, whose centre is dark green, with a black margin at top. Wings transparent. Fore-legs yellow-brown. Femora strong, with two rows of spines, and a groove between to receive the tibiæ, which are furnished with a strong spine at the tip. Middle and hind legs having a small flap placed at the tips of the femora, and two tibial spurs.

"This rare and beautiful mantis was found in a savanna."—Smeathman.


PENTATOMA BICOLORATA.

Plate XLIII. fig. 2.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Pentatomidæ.

Genus. Pentatoma, Latreille. Cimex, Fabricius, Drury.

Pentatoma Bicolorata. Fusca, pronoti lateribus in spinam obtusam utrinque productis, scutello versus basin et ad apicem elytrorumque maculâ costali fulvis. (Long. Corp. lin. 7.)

Syn. Cimex rostratus, Drury, App. vol. 2.

La punaise à sept taches, Stoll, pl. 14. fig. 97.

Habitat: Sierra Leone (Drury). Coast of Guinea (Stoll).
Head and eyes brown. Thorax dark yellow in front; the hinder part brown, the sides terminating in two obtuse spines. Scutellum yellow, brown in the middle. Hemelytra brown, with a yellow spot on the middle of the anterior edges. Legs yellow-brown, the fore ones having a remarkable spine on the thighs, placed near the tips. Rostrum strong, extending as far as the middle legs. Abdomen with two lateral dark indented lines extending to the anus.

I have been compelled to propose another specific name for this insect, that given to it by our author being quite inexpressive.


CERBUS? FLAVEOLUS.

Plate XLIII. fig. 3.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Coreidæ, Leach.

Genus. Cerbus? Hahn. Cimex, Drury.

Cerbus? Flaveolus. Fuscus, pronoti marginibus fasciâque angulatâ elytrorum fulvis; abdomine rufo, nigro marginato. (Expans. Alar. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Cimex flaveolus, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Head dark orange. Antennæ filiform, four-jointed, about three-fourths the length of the insect. Thorax brown, edged with yellow. Scutellum triangular, not large, brown. Hemelytra brown, one-half of the posterior edge next the body having a yellow line running along it, crossing the middle, and ending at the anterior edge. Wings diaphanous. Abdomen red, edged with black. Rostrum slender, and extending just below the fore-legs. Legs yellow-brown. Tibiæ and tarsi almost black.


DIASPIDIUS SCAPHA.

Plate XLIII. fig. 4.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Reduviidæ, Leach.

Genus. Diaspidius, Westw. Cimex, Drury.

Diaspidius Scapha. Fulvus; capite, antennis, pronoti lobo antico, membranâ elytrorum pedibusque nigris. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

Syn. Cimex Scapha, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Head very small, black, hairy, and long. Antennæ filiform, about half the length of the insect. The fore part of the thorax is hairy and black; the remainder and the scutellum yellow-brown. Basal half of the hemelytra orange-coloured, the remainder dark brown. Wings diaphanous. Abdomen brown-yellow. Rostrum short and black, not reaching to the fore-legs, which are black. Middle and hind legs partly black and brown.

This insect differs so much from the other species of the extensive family Reduviidæ, that I have been compelled to raise it to the rank of a distinct genus, the characters of which are as well marked as those of the majority of the genera recently proposed by the Continental Entomologists in this group. Its characters as a genus are—

Caput parvum. Antennæ breves vix longitudine thoracis, 4?-articulatæ; articulo 2ndo., 1mo. et 3tio. breviori. Pronotum posticè in lobum magnum depressum, supra scutellum et basin alarum productum. Hemelytra marginem lateralem abdominis haud tegentia. Tarsi ut videtur 1-articulati.


PYRRHOCORIS PRINCEPS.

Plate XLIII. fig. 5.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Lygæidæ.

Genus. Pyrrhocoris, Fallen, Burmeister. Astemma, St. Farg. & Serv. Platynotus, Schill.

Pyrrhocoris Princeps. Sanguineus; pronoti lobo antico in medio, elytrorum fasciâ versus basin maculâque costali mediâ nigris, membranâ apicali fuscâ, femoribus in medio nigris. (Expans. Alar. 2 unc.)

Syn. Cimex longirostris, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Head yellowish-brown. Thorax in front black, and brown behind. Antennæ black and slender, about half the length of the insect. Scutellum triangular and black. Corium yellow-brown, having a black streak crossing the middle, and a black spot near it; apical membrane opake and dark brown. Wings diaphanous. Rostrum long and slender, reaching to the middle of the abdomen. Legs partly black and brown. Tarsi three-jointed.

The name applied to this species by Drury is so inexpressive that I have been induced to propose for it a new specific designation, which has allusion to its large size and rich colouring.


PLATE XLIV.

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CETONIA TORQUATA.

Plate XLIV. fig. 1.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Lamellicornes. Family: Cetoniidæ.

Genus. Cetonia, Fabricius, &c. Scarabæus, Linn. &c.

Cetonia Torquata. Obscure viridis, thoracis margine antico luteo, pygidii maculis duabus albis; elytrorum apice suturali spinoso. (Long. Corp. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Scar. torquatus, Drury, App. vol. 3. Herbst. Col. III. p. 198. t. 28. f. 1. Schon. Syn. Ins. 3. 117.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Head rather square, depressed above; dusky in front, grey behind. Eyes round and prominent. Antennæ black. The thorax dusky green, margined. Scutellum large, triangular, and green. Elytra dusky green, the sides and suture margined, having two swellings near the extremities, and two short thick spines at the end of the suture. The abdomen covered above with a fine brown pile like velvet. Hind part of the abdomen green, with two silvery white spots of a squarish form. All the under side of the insect green, and of a more lively or shining colour than the upper. Legs strong and thick, the tibiæ furnished with thick spines, both in the middle and at the tips, the hinder ones being hairy.

This splendid and exceedingly rare insect flew on board a ship at Sierra Leone, and was taken on the awning on the following morning. It seems to be unknown to the French Entomologists, and is omitted in the "Monographie des Cétoines" of Messrs. Gory and Perchéron.


PELIDNOTA UNICOLOR.

Plate XLIV. fig. 2.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Lamellicornes. Family: Rutelidæ, MacLeay.

Genus. Pelidnota, MacLeay. Scarabæus p., Drury.

Pelidnota Unicolor. Tota lutea; elytris tenuiter striatis. (Long Corp. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

Syn. Scarabæus unicolor, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Melolontha Druryana, Herbst. Col. II. p. 163. 121. t. 27. f. 3.

Melolontha lutea, Olivier Ent. 1. 5. p. 23. t. 19. 1. f. 2.

Pelidnota testacea, Deg. Cat.

Habitat: Brazil.
Brown. Thorax margined. Scutellum small and semi-circular. Elytra margined, and faintly striated. Anterior tibiæ dentated. Tibiæ with two spurs, except the fore ones, which have only one.


RUTELA LINEOLA.

Plate XLIV. fig. 3.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Lamellicornes. Family: Rutelidæ.

Genus. Rutela, Latreille. Scarabæus p. Drury. Cetonia p. Fabr.

Rutela Lineola. Nigra, lineâ a capite ad scutellum ductâ, lateribusque flavis, elytrorum plagâ magnâ flavidâ. (Long. Corp. 7½ lin.)

Syn. Scarabæus Lineola var. Linn. Syst. Nat. 1. II. p. 552. 53. Fabr. Syst. El. II. p. 145. 53. (Cetonia L.) Syst. Ent. p. 46. 17. Oliv. Ent. 1. 6. p. 78. 98. t. 11. f. 106. var. β.

Cetonia Ephippium, Fabr. Mantiss. 1. p. 29. 31.

Scarabæus Hespera, Drury, App. vol. 2.

Habitat: Brazil.
Antennæ brown. Head black, with a deep yellow stripe down the middle, which is continued across the thorax; that part being black, the sides yellow, whereon is a black spot in the middle. Scutellum yellow and triangular. Elytra black, with a large yellow patch in the middle of each. Podex yellow, the middle being black. Abdomen ringed with black and yellow above; black beneath, with two yellow spots on it. Sternum yellow, extending to the posterior coxæ, which are brown. Posterior femora broad, yellow and brown; the other legs brown.

The specimen here figured appears to differ from the ordinary character of the species in having the thorax more strongly marked with dark yellow.


MACRASPIS FUCATA.

Plate XLIV. fig. 4.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Lamellicornes. Family: Rutelidæ.

Genus. Macraspis, MacLeay. Cetonia p., Fabricius. Scarabæus p., Drury.

Macraspis Fucata. Atra nitida, thoracis margine omni elytrorumque vittis duabus flavis. (Long. Corp. 10½ lin.)

Syn. Cetonia fucata, Fabr. Syst. El. II. p. 151. 82. Ent. Syst. 1. II. p. 145. 69. Sch. Syn. Ins. vol. 3. p. 158.

Cetonia quadri-vittata, Oliv. Ent. 1. 6. p. 73. 92. t. 7. f. 65.

Scarabæus Cinctus, Drury, App. vol. 2. Herbst. Col. III. p. 249. 38. t. 31. f. 5. (Cetonia c.)

Habitat: Rio Janeiro.
Head black and circular. Thorax black, margined with yellow. Scutellum very large, black, and triangular. Elytra black, the sides brown, between which colours is a narrow yellow line, which, running round the extremities, returns back pretty broad up to the anterior edge. Podex and abdomen brown. Sternum long and black. Legs black. Tibiæ with two long spurs at the tips, the fore-legs having only one. Ungues having a long slender spine fixed to the joint, of equal length with the hook itself.


PLATE XLV.

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ECTRICHODIA BARBICORNIS.

Plate XLV. fig. 1.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Reduviidæ, Leach.

Genus. Ectrichodia, Laporte. Ectrichotes, Burmeister. Loricerus, Hahn.

Ectrichodia Barbicornis. Nigra; thorace, abdominis lateribus pedibusque rufis, scutello nigro nitido. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

Syn. Reduvius barbicornis, Fabr. Ent. Syst. 4. 194. 4. Syst. Rh. 267. 4. Drury, App. vol. 3. (Cimex b.)

Habitat: Sierra Leone.

Head small and dark brown. Antennæ filiform, black. Thorax dark orange. Scutellum small, black, rough, and shining. Hemelytra black, velvety; but edged next the body with orange. Abdomen black, edged with orange. Rostrum short, not reaching to the fore-legs, and brown. Legs slender and orange-coloured.


CERBUS FALX.

Plate XLV. fig. 2.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Coreidæ, Leach.

Genus. Cerbus, Hahn. Anisoscelis, Latr. Lygæus, Fabr.

Cerbus Falx. Fuscus, thoracis lateribus compresso-lunatis serratis, femoribus posticis dilatatis haud dentatis, tibiisque posticis membranaceo-dilatatis. (Long. Corp. 9½ lin.)

Syn. Cimex falx, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Coast of Africa.
Head small, dirty brown, which is the general colour of the insect. Antennæ slender, about two-thirds the length of the insect. Thorax brown, the sides terminating in two broad and thin protuberances, bending forward towards the head, the edges being serrated. Scutellum triangular. Wing-cases, wings and legs muddy-coloured, the hinder legs having the tibiæ very broad, and thin.

This insect is very nearly allied to Lygæus Tragus Wolff, fig. 188, which is, however, an inhabitant of China.


DIACTOR LATIPES.

Plate XLV. fig. 3.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Coreidæ, Leach.

Genus. Diactor, Burmeister. Acanthocephalus, Laporte. Cimex, Drury. Lygæus, Fabr.

Diactor Latipes. Fuscus sive brunneus, unicolor; pronoto cano granoso, elytrorum venis rufis, tarsis posticis pallidis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

Syn. Cimex latipes, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Lygæus compressipes, Fabr. Syst. Rh. 209. 24. Stoll Cim. t. 2. f. 14. Burmeister Handb. 2. 334. (Diactor c.)

Habitat: Jamaica (Drury). South America.
Head black and very small. Antennæ slender, and almost as long as the insect. Thorax dark muddy green, almost black, which is the general colour of the insect. Next the head there is a white mark, somewhat resembling a crown, the sides terminating in two angles. Scutellum triangular. Hemelytra and wings of the same dark colour with the other parts. Rostrum slender, extending to the middle legs. Fore and middle legs slender, the thighs being dentated. Hinder legs very long, the thighs very thick and strong, and much dentated; the tibiæ being very broad and thin, and the inner edges serrated. Tarsi dark orange.


HAMMATOCERUS PURCIS.

Plate XLV. fig. 4.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Reduviidæ, Leach.

Genus. Hammatocerus, Burm. Hammacerus, Laporte. Cimex, Drury.

Hammatocerus Purcis. Niger, undique granosus, elytris basi albis, femorum posticorum basi sanguineâ. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

Syn. Cimex Purcis, Drury, App. vol. 3. Brown Ill. tab. 70. f. 2.

Reduvius Nychthemerus, Illig. Burm. vol. 2. 236. 1. (Hammatocerus n.)

Hammacerus conspicillaris var. Laporte Hem. 79.

Habitat: Virginia (Drury). Georgia (Burmeister).
Head, eyes, and thorax black; the latter rough. Antennæ setaceous, consisting of innumerable articulations. Scutellum triangular and black. Corium white, terminal membrane black. Wings white and transparent. Abdomen black, the edges marked with scarlet and black spots. Rostrum black and short, not reaching to the fore legs. Legs black, the hinder thighs next the body scarlet.


CERBUS SANCTUS.

Plate XLV. fig. 5.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Coreidæ, Leach.

Genus. Cerbus, Hahn. Anisoscelis, Latr. Lygæus, Fabr.

Cerbus Sanctus. Fuscus, thorace maculâque cruciatâ elytrorum fulvis, thorace inermi, pedibus nigris femoribus posticis maximis, tibiis mediocribus. (Long. Corp. fere 1 unc.)

Syn. Cimex Sanctus, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Head dark brown. Antennæ almost as long as the insect. Thorax orange brown, having a black streak on it next the head. Scutellum triangular and black. Corium orange brown, apical membrane black. Rostrum small and slender, not reaching to the fore legs. Legs black. Hinder thighs strong and thick, having a strong spine on the under part, and another longer, near the tip of the tibiæ.

Fabricius has applied the specific name of Sanctus to one of the species of thick-legged Coreidæ, from Brazil, which is placed by Burmeister in the Genus Crinocerus. Drury quoted the Fabrician description as belonging to his species, but the diversity in their locality would alone be sufficient to prove them to be distinct.


RAPHIGASTER VALIDUS.

Plate XLV. fig. 6.

For the description of this species, and a representation of an individual with expanded wings, see Vol. II. plate XXXVIII. fig. 4. The following are the only material variations noticed in the descriptions of this specimen as compared with that referred to above, and which can only be regarded as indicating slight variety.
Head very small and black. Antennæ black, about half the length of the insect. Thorax shining, punctated, and of a deep blue, almost black, being surrounded with a circular line of a cream colour, and which is divided in the middle, the sides terminating in two black angular spines. Scutellum large, glossy, triangular, and black, the tip being cream-coloured and punctated. Hemelytra brownish, tinged with blue, the extremities being blueish black. Abdomen red above, edged with orange and black; deep yellow beneath, with black spots on the edge. Legs deep yellow, tibiæ black. Tarsi black above, yellow beneath.


CERBUS UMBROSUS.

Plate XLV. fig. 7.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Coreidæ, Leach.

Genus. Cerbus, Hahn. Anisoscelis, Latr. Lygæus, Fabr.

Cerbus Umbrosus. Obscurè fulvescens, pronoti disco striis tribus nigris, antennarum articulo ultimo fulvo, elytris striis obliquis nigris notatis, membranâ apicali æneâ nitidâ, femoribus tibiisque posticis serratis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Cimex umbrosus, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Brazil.
Head and thorax dark orange, the latter with three longitudinal streaks of a darker colour. Antennæ dark orange and black, the last articulation orange. Scutellum triangular, and dark brown. Hemelytra striated with dark orange and brown, the extremities being of a bronze-colour and glossy. Abdomen darker than the other parts. Rostrum extending to the middle legs. Legs orange-brown, the hinder ones having the thighs and tibiæ serrated.


HAMMATOCERUS CONSPICILLARIS.

Plate XLV. fig. 8.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Reduviidæ, Leach.

Genus. Hammatocerus, Burm. Hammacerus, Laporte. Cimex, Drury.

Hammatocerus Conspicillaris. Niger, elytris basi albis, maculâ irregulari nigrâ, abdominis marginibus rubro-maculatis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

Syn. Cimex conspicillaris, Drury, App. vol. 3. Laporte Hemipt. p. 79. Burmeister Hem. p. 236. 2.

Habitat: Brazil.
Head small and black. Antennæ setaceous, black, and about half the length of the insect. Thorax black. Scutellum triangular and black, but tipped with white. Hemelytra black, the base white, whereon is an oblong black spot. Abdomen dark red, edged with dark red and black. Rostrum short and curled, not reaching to the fore legs. Legs black.


PLATE XLVI.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 46.jpg

PENTATOMA CATENA.

Plate XLVI. fig. 1.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Pentatomidæ.

Genus. Pentatoma, Latreille. Cimex, Fabr. Drury.

Pentatoma Catena. Albida, pronoti dorso maculâ magnâ nigrâ, lineâ tenui albâ in medio divisâ, scutello maculâ basali, alterâ subapicali, membranâque elytrorum nigris. (Long. Corp. lin. 7½.)

Syn. Cimex catena, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Brazil.

Head cream-coloured and black. Antennæ about half the length of the insect. Thorax flesh-coloured; a large black spot occupying the middle, which is divided by a cream-coloured line. Scutellum shaped like a bell, black, surrounded with cream colour, and divided transversely by a line of the same colour. Hemelytra flesh-coloured, the extremities black. Beneath cream-coloured, with a great many black spots. Rostrum black, extending below the fore legs. Legs cream, streaked with black.


EDESSA VIRENS.

Plate XLVI. fig. 2.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Scutati, Burm.

Genus. Edessa, Fabr. Centroproctus, Hahn. Cimex, Drury.

Edessa Virens. Obscure virescens, elytris fuscis margine externo pallido, pronoto lateribus utrinque in spinam longam rectam et acutam productis. (Long. Corp. 10½ lin.)

Syn. Cimex virens, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Edessa cervus? Fabr. Syst. Rh. 146. 2.

Habitat: Brazil.
Antennæ small, about two-thirds the length of the insect. Head, thorax, and scutellum dirty green; the latter large and triangular. The thorax on each side ends in very acute angles. Hemelytra brown, but were probably green when the insect was living. Beneath dirty green. Rostrum extending beyond the hinder legs.


LARGUS LINEOLA.

Plate XLVI. fig. 3.

Order: Hemiptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Lygæidæ, Leach.

Genus. Largus, Hahn. Euryopthalmus, Laporte. Cimex, Drury.

Largus Lineola. Ferrugineo-niger, profunde punctatus, pronoto postice luteo, membranâ albido-cinereâ fusco venosâ limbo fusco. (Long. Corp. 6 lin.)

Syn. Cimex Lineola, Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 721. No. 52.

Cimex punctatus, De Geer Mem. pl. 34. fig. 17. 18.

Cimex humilis, Drury, App. vol. 3. Hahn. Wanzen. Art. Ins. t. 2. f. 6. (Largus h.) Stoll, tab. 27. fig. 265.

Euryopth. puncticollis, Laporte Hemipt. 38. 4.

Lygæus Mutilis. Perty Del. Art. Braz. pl. 34. f. 9.

Habitat: Brazil.
Head black. Antennæ small and black, and about half the length of the insect. Thorax black in front, orange behind; with many minute black spots, the under part being edged with cream. Scutellum triangular, small and black. Hemelytra black at the base: white at the extremities. Abdomen black, edged with cream both above and beneath. Rostrum black, extending to the hinder legs, all of which are black likewise.


PENTATOMA SPECTABILIS.

Plate XLVI. fig. 4.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Pentatomidæ.

Genus. Pentatoma, Latreille. Cimex, Fabr. Drury.

Pentatoma Spectabilis. Capite rufescenti postice nigro, pronoto albido, antice maculisque duabus posticis nigris, scutello et corio albidis fasciâ latâ communi membranâque apicali nigris. (Long. Corp. 7½ lin.)

Syn. Cimex spectabilis, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Brazil.
Head red. Eyes, neck, and antennæ black. Thorax cream-coloured, edged in front with black, having two small black spots on the shoulders, and two larger on the hinder part, which are continued on the front of the scutellum, which is large and triangular; the tip being cream colour, the middle having a broad black band crossing it and the hemelytra, which are cream-coloured at the base, the hinder part being black. Beneath red, with small black spots along the sides. Rostrum long and black, extending below the hinder legs. Thighs red, the tibiæ and tarsi black.


PENTATOMA RUTILANS.

Plate XLVI. fig. 5.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Pentatomidæ.

Genus. Pentatoma, Latreille. Cimex, Fabr. Drury.

Pentatoma Rutilans. Cyanea aut viridi ænea, pronoti fasciâ transversâ anticâ, scutelli apice elytrorumque basi internè sanguineis, abdomine sanguineo maculis marginalibus pedibusque nigris. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Edessa rutilans, Fabr. Syst. Rh. 151. 25.

Cimex anchorago, Drury, App. vol. 3. (nec Fabr. Ent. Syst. 4. 86. 25.)

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Head dark blue. Antennæ black. Thorax deep shining mazarine blue, the fore part with a scarlet transverse streak. Scutellum triangular, appearing swelled in the fore part, which is of a dark greenish blue, the hinder part being scarlet, and continued along the edges up to the shoulders. Hemelytra dark blueish green. Abdomen scarlet, edged with dark blue spots. Rostrum black, extending to the hinder legs. Beneath deep yellowish flesh-colour, spotted on the sides with blue. Legs black.


PENTATOMA REGIA.

Plate XLVI. fig. 6.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Pentatomidæ.

Genus. Pentatoma, Latreille. Cimex, Fabr. Drury.

Pentatoma Regia. Lutea; capite, pronoti maculis duabus oblongis, scutelli basi, elytrorum maculâ centrali membranâque apicali nigris. (Long. Corp. lin 7½.)

Syn. Cimex regius, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Pentatoma catena var. vel sexus alter? Drury, in text.

Habitat: Brazil.

The principal difference between this insect and Pent. catena, is two black spots on the flesh-coloured part of the hemelytra; the scutellum not having the black part divided by the cream-coloured line, and the under part of the insect being rather more spotted than that.


ASPONGOPUS JANUS.

Plate XLVI. fig. 7.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Pentatomidæ.

Genus. Aspongopus, Lap. Burm. Edessa, Fabr. Cimex, Drury.

Aspongopus Janus. Niger, supra ruber; capite, pronoti maculâ anticâ, scutelli basi, membranâque nigris. (Long. Corp. 10 lin.)

Syn. Cimex Janus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. 4. 107. 105. Syst. Rhyng. 151. 23. (Edessa J.) Stoll Cim. 2. t. 6. f. 41. Wolff. Cim. 1. 13. t. 2. f. 13. Burmeister Hemipt. p. 352. 3. (Aspongopus J.)

Cimex Afer, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Coast of Coromandel (Drury). "In Americæ insulis" (Fabr. haud recte).
Head and antennæ black. Thorax red and margined, having a black triangular spot situated near the head. Base of the scutellum black, the hinder part and sides being red. Hemelytra red, the extremities black. Abdomen red. Rostrum short, extending only to the fore legs. Beneath black, edged with red. Legs black.

The specific name, Afer, given to this insect, although having the priority in point of date over that of Fabricius, is so completely inappropriate that I have not hesitated in adopting the latter.


PENTATOMA PULCHELLA.

Plate XLVI. fig. 8.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Pentatomidæ.

Genus. Pentatoma, Latreille. Cimex, Fabr. Drury.

Pentatoma Pulchella. Sanguinea, supra cœruleo nigra, fasciis duabus sanguineis, anticâ arcuatâ, antennis pedibusque nigris. (Long. Corp. 10 lin.)

Syn. Cimex pulchellus, Drury, App. vol. 3. Stoll, pl. 5. fig. 30. & pl. 21. fig. 142.

Cimex concentricus, Klug, Burmeister Hemipt. 365. 5.

Habitat: Bay of Honduras (Drury). Para (Burmeister). Guiana (J. O. W.).
Head flesh-coloured. Antennæ black. Thorax dark blue, the angulated corners red. Scutellum scarlet, with a dark blue band crossing it near the middle, and two small blue spots adjoining to the thorax. Hemelytra, next the thorax red, below which is a broad dark blue band crossing them, and a narrow scarlet one beneath it; the remainder being dark blue. Rostrum black, extending below the hinder legs. Abdomen scarlet at the base, with two rows of white streaks; the extremity next the anus dark blue. Legs black.


SPHÆROCORIS ANNULUS.

Plate XLVI. fig. 9.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Heteroptera. Section: Geocorisa. Family: Pentatomidæ.

Genus. Sphærocoris, Burmeister. Tetyra, Fabr. Cimex, Drury.

Sphærocoris Argus. Lutea, guttis 15 pallidis sive rubris nigro-cinctis. (Long. Corp. lin. 4.)

Syn. Cimex annulus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. 4. 82. 10. Syst. Rh. 132. 20. (Tetyra A.)

Cimex Argus, Drury, App. vol. 3. (nec Fabr. Syst. Rh. 533.) Stoll Cim. pl. 7. fig. 50.

Sphærocoris Argus, Burmeister Hemipt. 391. No. 2?

Scutellera gibbosa, Pal. Beauv. Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Hemipt. pl. 5. b. f. 3.

Habitat: Sierra Leone.
Head dark cream colour, with two black lines from the front to the hinder part. Thorax dark cream, with two waved bands crossing it from side to side, of a darker colour. Scutellum very large, and entirely covering the abdomen. This part is high and rounded, of the same colour with the rest of the insect, having a number of oval, circular, and other shaped marks thereon. Beneath dark-cream; breast and fore-part lightest. Rostrum extending below the hinder legs, all of which are of the same dark cream colour with the other parts.

There is some confusion as to the specific names of the insects composing the present genus. The Tetyra Argus of Fabricius, with which the species here figured (from Sierra Leone) was considered identical by Drury, is an inhabitant of South America. Dr. Burmeister has also confused it with a species from the Cape of Good Hope.


PLATE XLVII.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 47.jpg

ELATER (TETRALOBUS) FLABELLICORNIS.

Plate XLVII. fig. 1.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Serricornes. Family: Elateridæ.

Genus. Elater, Linn, &c. (Subgenus: Tetralobus, Encycl. Méth.)

Elater (Tetralobus) Flabellicornis. Fuscus, antennis 8-laminatis, elytris nitidis lævibus. (Long. Corp. 2 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Elater flabellicornis, Linn. Syst. Nat. 1. 11. p. 651. 1.? Fabr. Syst. Ent. 1. App. p. 824. 1.? Syst. Eleuth. II. p. 221. 2.? De Jean Catal. Col. 2nd Edit. 85. Oliv. Ent. II. 31. p. 8. t. 3. fig. 28.? Herbst. Col. ix. p. 320. t. 127. f. 1.?

Elater Gigas, Fabr. Syst. Eleuth. II. p. 221. 1.?

Habitat: Sierra Leone (Drury, Afzelius, Schonh.). Guinea (De Jean). India (Linn. Fabr. Oliv.).
Head rather small, square, surrounded with a small black margin; palpi very short. Antennæ black; those of the male laminated, having eight distinct plates or laminæ laying close to each other, which, when closed together, appear to be of equal thickness. General colour dark or dirty brown. Thorax with a black margin, terminating on the sides in two sharp spines. Scutellum small. Elytra smooth and glossy, without any margin, and rounded at the extremities, without spines. Sternum black and small. Beneath of the same colour as the upper side.

This figure has been usually cited as the Elater flabellicornis Linn., the habitat of which is said to be India, whereas the real habitat of Drury's insect, as confirmed by Afzelius and De Jean, is Sierra Leone and Guinea. This insect was sometimes found by Mr. Smeathman in the evenings, having flown into the houses, to which it was attracted by the lights.


ELATER (AGRYPNUS) QUADRI-MACULATUS.

Plate XLVII. fig. 2.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Serricornes. Family: Elateridæ.

Genus. Elater, Linn. &c. (Subgenus: Agrypnus, Eschscholtz.)

Elater (Agrypnus) Quadri-maculatus. Cinereus, thoracis punctis quatuor, elytris fasciis duabus undulatis nigris. (Long. Corp. 9 lin.)

Syn. Elater quadri-maculatus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. 1. II. p. 219. 14. Syst. Eleuth. II. p. 224. 13. Oliv. Ent. II. 31. p. 20. t. 8. f. 79. Herbst. Col. x. p. 105. t. 168. f. 3. Klug Ermann's Voy. App. p. 31. pl. 15. f. 3.

Elater fasciatus, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Coast of Africa (Drury). "In Africa æquinoctiali" (Fabr.).
Head grey. Antennæ serrated and black; much shorter than the thorax, which is grey, with two small round black spots on the middle, and two square ones next the scutellum, which is black, surrounded by a patch of the same colour. Elytra grey, with two waved irregular bands crossing them, one near the middle, the other near the tips. Beneath black, and, when viewed through a microscope, appearing to be powdered as it were with grey. Legs black.


ELATER (CARDIOPHORUS?) PICTUS.

Plate XLVII. fig. 3.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Serricornes. Family: Elateridæ.

Genus. Elater, Linn. &c. (Subgenus: Cardiophorus, Eschsch.?)

Elater (Cardiophorus?) Pictus. Fulvus, antennis nigris serratis, thorace elytrisque nigro-lineatis et undulatis, his etiam maculâ utrinque triangulari nigrâ. (Long. Corp. 9 lin.)

Syn. Elater pictus, Drury, App. vol. 3. Schonh. Syn. Ins. 3. 277.

Habitat: Coast of Africa.
Head yellow-brown. Antennæ deeply serrated and black, being shorter than the thorax. Thorax yellow-brown, with several black longitudinal streaks. Scutellum very small and yellow brown. Elytra of the same colour, with several faint black marks thereon, particularly two situated near the middle of a triangular shape, and reaching to the sides; they are a little striated, and terminate in four blunt spines, two to each. Beneath of a greyer colour than on the upper side. Sternum remarkably large.


ELATER (SEMIOTUS) LIGNEUS.

Plate XLVII. fig. 4.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Serricornes. Family: Elateridæ.

Genus. Elater, Linn. &c. (Subgenus: Semiotus, Eschscholtz.) Pericalus, Enc. Méth.

Elater (Semiotus) Ligneus. Ferrugineus, elytris mucronatis vittis duabus lateralibus suturâque obscurioribus, thorace lineâ mediâ nigrâ. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Elater ligneus, Linn. Amœn. Acad. vi. p. 395. 24. Syst. Nat. 1. II. p. 652. Fabr. Syst. Eleuth. II. p. 224. No. 20. Oliv. Ent. II. 31. p. 17. t. 2. f. 15. Herbst. Col. ix. p. 339. 14. t. 158. f. 8.

Elater serraticornis, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Elater conicus, Voet Col. Ed. Panz. II. p. 110. 9. t. 42. f. 9.

Habitat: Rio Janeiro.
Head red brown. Antennæ black, shorter than the thorax, which is red-brown, with a dark longitudinal streak running along the middle from the head to the scutellum, the sides terminating in two angular points. Scutellum small and brown. Elytra red-brown, marginated and ending in two spines; they are a little striated, with three longitudinal streaks of a dark brown colour; one in the middle along the suture, the others on each side. Breast and base of the abdomen red-brown colour; hinder part of the latter is darker, having two oval spots of a lightish colour near the anus.


ELATER (SEMIOTUS) SUTURALIS.

Plate XLVII. fig. 5.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Serricornes. Family: Elateridæ.

Genus. Elater, Linn. &c. (Subgenus: Semiotus.)

Elater (Semiotus) Suturalis. Thorace utrinque unidentato ferrugineo, lineâ dorsali punctisque duobus; coleoptris testaceis vittis tribus atris. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 5 lin.)

Syn. Elater Suturalis, Fabr. Ent. Syst. 1. II. p. 224. 35. Syst. Eleuth. II. p. 231. 52. Oliv. Ent. II. 31. p. 18. t. 1. f. 3. a. b. c. Herbst. Col. ix. t. 158. f. 5. 6.

Elater angulatus, Drury Ins. App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Brazil.
Head black, with two thick and short spines. Antennæ black, strongly serrated. Thorax orange, with a broad black streak down the middle; two black lozenge-shaped spots are placed near the middle of the thorax, and united to the black streak; close to these are two protuberances, on the sides of the thorax. Scutellum black. Elytra pale orange, the sides and middle having three black stripes running along them, the extremities ending in two sharp spines. Breast orange, with two long black spots on the sides. Abdomen dark cream-coloured, with two black stripes running along the sides from the breast, and joining at the anus. Legs orange.


ELATER (CHALCOLEPIDIUS) PORCATUS.

Plate XLVII. fig. 6.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Serricornes. Family: Elateridæ.

Genus. Elater, Linn. &c. (Subgenus: Chalcolepidius, Eschscholtz.)

Elater (Chalcolepidius) Porcatus. Viridi-æneus, elytris sulcatis; sulcis villoso-albis, thoracis marginibus luteis. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Elater porcatus, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 211. 8. Syst. Eleuth. II. p. 225. 26. Oliv. Ent. II. 31. p. 14. 10. t. 7. f. 74. Herbst. Col. ix. p. 323. t. 157. f. 3. Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Bay of Honduras.
Head dark green. Antennæ black. Thorax yellow at the sides; having a broad bar of a green colour running longitudinally from the head to the hinder part, being margined with black. Elytra deeply furrowed with green and yellow lines, the sides having a broad yellow stripe along them, and margined with black, the extremities being round, and not ending in a spine. Breast, abdomen, and legs dark green. Sternum black and large.


PLATE XLVIII.

Illustrations of Exotic Entomology III 48.jpg

FLATA ——? PUPA?

Plate XLVIII. fig. 1.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Homoptera. Family: Fulgoridæ.

Genus. Flata, Fabricius, &c. Aphis, Drury.

Flata —— Pupa? Corpore toto albo pulveroso vel lanoso. (Long. Corp. Ins. haud declar. 9 lin.)

Syn. Aphis lanosa, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat:
Head appearing united and fixed to the body, and furnished with a horny beak, about one-fourth the length of the whole insect. Antennæ of equal thickness, and apparently only two-jointed; one next the head, which is white, another in the middle, the extreme part being black; the length being about a tenth part of the whole insect. Body white, and covered with a very fine cottony substance. Legs white at the base, the remainder black. The insect above is round, beneath flat; a fine soft white substance, like down, intermixed with hairs of different sizes, some being very small, others very coarse, arises from the abdomen.

"I am not certain it is a complete insect."—Drury.

This figure represents an insect belonging to the genus Flata (probably Flata nigricornis from South America) in an imperfect state, being most likely a pupa. The species of this genus are ascertained to be similar to this figure in their preparatory states, and especially the Flata nigricornis which is represented by Stoll, both in the winged and apterous condition, as well as by Donovan, in his Insects of China.


CHOLUS URBANUS.

Plate XLVIII. fig. 2.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Rhyncophora. Family: Curculionidæ. Subfamily: Cholides.

Genus. Cholus, Germar. Rhynchænus, Fabr. Curculio p. Linn. &c.

Cholus Urbanus. Fusco-viridis, thorace elytrisque flavo marginatis. (Long. Corp. rostr. inclus. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

Syn. Curculio urbanus, Oliv. Enc. Méth. v. p. 503. Sch. Syn. Ins. Curcul. 3. 571. 17. (Cholus u.)

Curculio cinctus, Drury, App. vol. 3. (nec Cholus cinctus, Oliv. Rhynchænus.) Herbst. Col. vi. p. 478. t. 79. fig. 7.

Habitat: Musquito Shore, near Honduras.
Head black. Rostrum half the length of the insect. Antennæ black, arising near the end of the beak. Thorax dirty green, with a cream-coloured stripe running on each side, which is continued along the sides of the elytra, meeting at the anus. Beneath cream colour. Legs the same, being dirty green above. Every part of the insect appears covered with innumerable small black pustules, like spots, some smaller than others, those on the upper side being largest. Each of the femora is furnished with a single spine.


DYNASTES CLAVIGER.

Plate XLVIII. fig. 3.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Lamellicornes. Family: Dynastidæ.

Genus. Dynastes, MacLeay. Geotrupes, Fabr. Scarabæus, Linn. Latr.

Dynastes Claviger. Rufus, thoracis cornu elevato apice dilatato; capitis longo, subulato recurvo. (Long. Corp. fere 2 unc.)

Syn. Scarabæus claviger, Linn. Mant. 1. p. 529. Fabr. Syst. Ent. 1. p. 5. No. 7. Syst. El. 1. p. 6. No. 11. Oliv. Ent. 1. 3. p. 20. No. 18. t. 5. fig. 40. a. b. Jabl. Nat. Syst. 1. p. 239. No. 10. t. 3. f. 1. Pal. Beauv. Ins. d'Afr. et d'Amer. Col. ix. pl. 1e. f. 1.

Habitat: Cayenne.
Head small, margined, and armed with a long horn which bends upwards. Thorax dark brown and margined, having a very remarkable erect and black horn issuing from it, which bends forward towards the head, the extremity of which is trifurcate, hollowed beneath, and covered with a brown pile like that of velvet. Elytra brown, the margin and suture being black. Legs black. Thighs brown. Tibiæ with two spurs. Anterior tibiæ with three spines placed on the external part.


HISTER (OXYSTERNUS) MAXIMUS.

Plate XLVIII. fig. 4.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Clavicornes. Family: Histeridæ.

Genus. Hister, Linn. &c. (Subgenus: Oxysternus, Erichson.)

Hister (Oxysternus) Maximus. Depressus ater nitidus; elytris striatis, mandibulis exsertis capite longioribus. (Long. Corp. cum mandib. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Hister maximus, Linn. Syst. Nat. 1. 2. 566. 1.

Hololepta maxillosa, Park Mon. Hist. III. 9. t. ix. f. 7.

Hister maxillosus, Drury, App. vol. 2.

Oxysternus maximus, Erichson in Jahrb. der Ent. 1. 100.

O. maxillosus, Guérin & Percheron Genera des Ins. 1. Col. pl. 7. (♀?) Fabricius Ent. Syst. vol. 4. Append. p. 437. Schonh. Syn. Ins. 1. p. 98.

Habitat: Cayenne.

Black. Head furnished with two horn-like mandibles, being thicker near the head, and terminating in a point; that fixed on the left side of the insect being longest. Thorax broad and margined. Elytra slightly striated. Scutellum not to be seen. Posterior tibiæ rather long. Tarsi short.


PHANÆUS FESTIVUS ♀.

Plate XLVIII. fig. 5.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Lamellicornes. Family: Scarabæidæ.

Genus. Phanæus, MacLeay. Copris p. Fabr. Scarabæus p. Linn.

Phanæus Festivus. Thorace gibbo bicorni, capitis cornu erecto ♂, elytris rubro-æneis; ♀ thorace mutico æquali nigro-maculato, capite mutico. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

Syn. Scarabæus festivus, Linn. Syst. Nat. 1. 2. p. 552. 252. Fabr. Ent. Syst. 1. p. 42. No. 139. Syst. El. 1. 32. No. 10. Oliv. Ent. 1. 3. p. 110. No. 127. t. 3. f. 21. a. b. De Geer Ins. iv. p. 315. t. 37. fig. 3. ♂. 4. ♀.

Habitat: Cayenne.
Head black, broad, rounded in front and margined. Thorax red and margined, having several black patches thereon. Scutellum not distinct. Elytra red and striated, being margined with black. Beneath black and shining. Legs thick and strong.


COPRIS FAUNUS.

Plate XLVIII. fig. 6.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Lamellicornes. Family: Scarabæidæ.

Genus. Copris, Geoffroy. Scarabæus p., Linn.

Copris Faunus. Thorace quadricorni, cornubus mediis brevissimis, lateralibus dilatatis, capitis cornu recurvo serrato. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Scarabæus Faunus, Fabr. Ent. Syst. 1. p. 47. No. 155. Syst. El. 1. p. 38. No. 36. Oliv. Ent. 1. 3. 103. t. 10. f. 87. t. 22. f. 87. b. Jabl. Nat. Syst. II. p. 61. t. 9. f. 3.

Habitat: Cayenne.
Entirely black. Head rounded in front and margined; armed with a long horn that inclines towards the body, the inner part of which, near the top, is dentated. Thorax terminating at the corners, next the body, in two projections like horns, extending in an horizontal position, being very obtuse, and wider at the ends than the middle. The central part has two small projections which are bifid, and two dents on the middle of the posterior margin. Scutellum not distinct. Elytra deeply furrowed. Legs thick and strong. Fore and hinder tibiæ dentated.


RHIPICERA DRURÆI.

Plate XLVIII. fig. 7.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Serricornes. Family: Cebrionidæ.

Genus. Rhipicera, Latr. Kirby. Hispa, Fabr. Drury. Ptilinus, Fabr. Polytomus, Dalman. Ptiocerus, Hoffmansegg.

Rhipicera Druræi. Thorace griseo sericeo; elytris brunneis albo-punctatis scutelloque albido, pedibus supra fuscis subtus griseis. (Long. Corp. 7½ lin.)

Syn. Hispa mystacina, Fabr. Syst. Ent. p. 70. 1.? Syst. Eleuth. 1. p. 328. 1.? (Ptilinus m.) Herbst. Col. v. p. 45. t. 46. f. 13.? Laporte in Ann. Soc. Ent. de France, 1834. p. 235.? (Rhipicera m.)

Habitat: "Sierra Leone, Mr. Smeathman, 1776" (Drury's MSS.).
Head small, black, thin, and margined from the part where the antennæ are placed; but behind them to the thorax growing suddenly thick and round. Antennæ strongly pectinated, each ramification increasing from the base towards the middle, and then gradually decreasing in length; they are about a third part of the insect's length, and entirely black. Thorax grey, rounded, having a ridge on each side, and seeming covered with a fine pile or down. Scutellum grey and round, appearing like a whiteish spot. Elytra dark red-brown, covered with a multitude of small whiteish spots, furrowed and margined at the sides and suture. Breast and abdomen grey, each ring of the latter having some black spots on it. Legs brown above, grey beneath.

I have attached a mark of doubt to all the synonyms quoted above, 1st. on account of the difference of locality between Drury's Insect, and that described by Fabricius, which is from New Holland. 2ndly. Because Drury's description does not agree with the true Rh. mystacina: and 3dly. because as there is another spotted species of the genus found in North America, described by Laporte, it is most probable that Drury's insect is altogether distinct, in which case I have proposed for it the name of Rhipicera Druræi. Mr. Kirby speaks of the New Holland species of this genus as though there were more than one, and he has described one from that country under the name of R. femorata, in the 12th volume of the Linn. Trans. No. 9. in which the thorax, as well as the elytra, is spotted with white, whereas the thorax of Mystacina is described by Fabricius as being "cinereus." The Rh. mystacina of Laporte entirely agrees with Mr. Kirby's Rh. femorata. The Rh. femorata of Dalman is a totally distinct species from Brazil, and as it is necessary that a new specific name should be given to it, I would suggest that it should be termed Rh. Dalmanni.


SAPERDA SPECTABILIS.

Plate XLVIII. fig. 8.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Longicornes. Family: Lamiidæ.

Genus. Saperda, Fabr. Cerambyx P., Drury. (Subgenus: ——?)

Saperda Spectabilis. Nigra, thorace flavo punctis tribus nigris, elytris fasciis duabus flavis, apice truncato et spinoso. (Long. Corp. 9 lin.)

Syn. Cerambyx spectabilis, Drury, App. vol. 2. Sch. Syn. Ins. 3. 421. (Saperda s.)

Habitat: Bay of Honduras.

Head black, with a large yellowish spot between the eyes. Antennæ black, and almost the length of the insect, having a row of short hairs running along the under side. Thorax black beneath, lemon-coloured above, with three black spots. Scutellum small, triangular, and black. Elytra black, with two broad straw-coloured bars crossing them, each having a spine at the extremity near the suture. Beneath black, except the middle of the abdominal rings, which is grey.


PLATE XLIX.

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PRONUS (TITANUS) GIGANTEUS.

Plate XLIX. fig. 1.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Longicornes. Family: Prionidæ.

Genus. Prionus, Geoffroy. Cerambyx P., Linn. (Subgenus: Titanus, Serv. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1. p. 133.)

Prionus (Titanus) Giganteus. Thorace utrinque bidentato, corpore nigro, elytris ferrugineis, antennis brevibus. (Long. Corp. 6 unc. 9 lin.)

Syn. Cerambyx Giganteus, Linn. Mant. 1. 531. Shaw Nat. Misc. t. 280. Fabr. Syst. El. 2. 261. 17. (Prionus g.) Oliv. Ent. 4. 66. p. 12. t. 6. f. 21.

Habitat: Cayenne.
Head and thorax black; all the rest of the insect dark brown. Jaws broad and thin, the extremities bending inwards towards each other. Antennæ thickest at their base, and about half the length of the insect, gradually diminishing in size to the extremities. Thorax smooth and rounded at top, the middle appearing as if polished; the sides rough, like shagreen, and armed with two short and pointed spines, like horns; it is also margined. Scutellum small and bell-shaped. Elytra deeply margined on their sides and suture; faintly ribbed, each having five placed longitudinally, the surface very rough. Sides of the abdomen covered beneath with a dark brown velvety pile. Legs with short strong tibial spurs.


HEILIPUS? SCALARIS.

Plate XLIX. fig. 2.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Rhyncophora. Family: Curculionidæ.

Genus. Heilipus? Germar.

Heilipus? Scalaris. Niger; thoracis lateribus et elytrorum disco irregulariter flavescentibus. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 1½ lin.)

Syn. Curculio scalaris, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Bay of Honduras.
Head, eyes, and rostrum black, slender, and nearly half the length of the insect; antennæ arising near the end of it. Thorax black, with a yellow streak running along each side from the eyes to the corners of the elytra. Scutellum small, black, triangular. Elytra black, with a yellow zigzag streak running along the sides, all the black part being full of small punctures. Beneath entirely black.


CERAMBYX (COSMISOMA) PLUMICORNIS.

Plate XLIX. fig. 3.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Longicornes. Family: Cerambycidæ.

Genus. Cerambyx, Linn. &c. (Subgenus: Cosmisoma, Serv.)

Cerambyx (Cosmisoma) Plumicornis. Fulvus, elytris cruce nigrâ, pedibus antennisque nigris, his scopiferis. (Long. Corp. 7½ lin.)

Syn. Leptura plumicornis, Drury, App. vol. 2. Sch. Syn. Ins. 3. 429. (Saperda p.)

Habitat: Musquito Shore, Bay of Honduras.
Head dark brown. Antennæ longer than the insect, and slender; basal joint thickest; furnished with remarkable tufts of hair, four on each antenna; the smallest is on the first articulation from the head; the next articulation has a pretty large one surrounding entirely the joint of the antenna, and is black. On the next joint is a very small one, standing on the joint in the form of an acute angle, and is also black. At a little distance from this, the largest tuft is situated, which, like the second, entirely surrounds the antenna, part of it next the head being black, the remainder orange colour. Thorax round, without lateral spines, orange-coloured. Elytra orange, with a broad black patch crossing them in the middle, where are two lines in the form of a cross. Legs black, the hind ones very long. Femora thick at the tips.


CYPHUS 16-PUNCTATUS.

Plate XLIX. fig. 4.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Rhyncophora. Family: Curculionidæ. Subfamily: Brachyderides.

Genus. Cyphus, Schonherr. Chlorima, Dej. Curculio p., Linn.

Cyphus Sedecim-Punctatus. Cœrulescens, thorace punctis nigris quatuor, coleopteris duodecim. (Long. Corp. 1 unc.)

Syn. Curculio sedecim-punctatus, Linn. Syst. Nat. 1. 2. 618. 92. Fabr. Syst. Eleuth. 3. 509. 10. Oliv. Ent. v. 83. t. 2. f. 17. a. b. Schonh. Syn. Ins. Curcul. 1. 625. 8.

Habitat: Cayenne.
Entirely fine blue-coloured. Antennæ somewhat longer than represented in the plate, and black. Thorax with five black spots on it; one in the centre, and two on each side. Elytra having twelve spots of the same colour, the apices terminating in two sharp points.


SOLENOPUS CACICUS.

Plate XLIX. fig. 5.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Rhyncophora. Family: Curculionidæ. Subfamily: Cholides.

Genus. Solenopus, Schonherr. Odontoderes, Sahlberg. Curculio p., Drury.

Solenopus Cacicus. Ater sulphureo-squamosus, thorace bivittato, lateribus granulatis, elytris punctis magnis oblongo-quadratis et striatis. (Long. Corp. rostr. inclus. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Curculio morbillosus, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Solenopus cacicus, Schonh. Syn. Ins. Curcul. 3. 597. 1.

Dionychus granicollis, Germ. Ins. Spec. 315. 454.

Habitat: Cayenne.

Head, eyes, and rostrum black, the latter being about the length of the thorax. Antennæ arising near the end of the beak. Thorax dirty brown, having a number of very small pustules on it. Scutellum small and triangular. Elytra the same colour with the thorax, with patches of lighter brown on them. They are also margined and furrowed, having a great number of black pustules. Legs black, tibiæ with two spurs, the outer ones being the thickest.


PLATE L.

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LESTES CŒRULEATA.

Plate L. fig. 1.

Order: Neuroptera. Section: Subulicornes. Family: Libellulidæ.

Genus. Lestes, Leach. Libellula p., Drury, Donovan.

Lestes Cœruleata. Cœrulea, thorace pallidè vittato, alis hyalinis fasciâ latâ subapicali cœrulescenti, stigmate nigro. (Expans. Alar. 5 unc. 6 lin. Long. Corp. fere 4 unc.)

Syn. Libellula cœruleata, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Libellula cœrulea, Donovan Nat. Repos. 4. 110.

Habitat: Bay of Honduras (Drury). "Muskito Shore, Mr. Shakespear, 1779" (Drury's MSS.).
Eyes large, projecting from the head. Thorax dark blue. Wings reticulated and transparent, having a broad patch of a deep mazarine blue crossing them near the extremities, the tips being transparent. Abdomen three inches and an eighth in length, dark blue. Under side of the head, thorax, &c. grey.


LAMPYRIS GIGANTEA.

Plate L. fig. 2.

Order: Coleoptera. Section: Serricornes. Family: Lampyridæ.

Genus. Lampyris, Linn. &c.

Lampyris Gigantea. Ovata depressa, thorace semi-circulari fulvo, disco irregulari, elytris fuscis vittâ laterali albidâ. (Long. Corp. 1 unc. 3 lin.)

Syn. Lampyris gigantea, Schonh. Syn. Ins. 3. 66. No. 46.

Lampyris splendida, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Lampyris Savignii? Kirby Trans. Linn. &c. v. 12. Guérin. Icon. R. An. Ins. pl. 14. fig. 7.

Habitat: Rio Janeiro.
Antennæ setaceous, with a small spine, like a short hair, at each of the joints. Head withdrawn, and entirely hid by the shield-like thorax. Thorax yellow, margined and semicircular, with a rugged projection in the middle. Scutellum small, yellow, and triangular. Elytra dark red-brown, with a cream-coloured line running longitudinally from the thorax towards the apex, and having a small cream-coloured margin. Breast orange colour. Legs partly orange and black. Abdomen, which is rather thick, black, with a cream-coloured streak crossing it near the anus.


BLATTA (PHORASPIS) PICTA.

Plate L. fig. 3.

Order: Orthoptera. Section: Cursoria. Family: Blattidæ.

Genus. Blatta, Linn. &c. (Subgenus: Phoraspis, Serville.)

Blatta (Phoraspis) Picta. Atra; elytris vittâ sanguineâ thoracisque margine antico flavescenti. (Long. Corp. 9 lin.)

Syn. Blatta picta, Drury, App. vol. 3. Fabr. Ent. Syst. 2. p. 10. Serville Revis. Orthop. p. 17. (Phoraspis p.)

Lampyris rufo-vittata, Schonh. Syn. Ins. 3. p. 66. No. 47.

Habitat: Rio Janeiro, Brazil.
Antennæ filiform, orbicular. Head dark brown, and retracted under the shield-like thorax, which is black, the anterior margin being yellowish. Elytra black and margined, semi-coriaceous, and crossing over one another, having a red streak from the shoulders to the apex. Abdomen black, having two spines at the extremity near the anus. Legs black and cursorial, the tibiæ being furnished with many spines.


FULGORA DIADEMA.

Plate L. fig. 4.

Order: Hemiptera. Suborder: Homoptera. Family: Fulgoridæ.

Genus. Fulgora, Linn.

Fulgora Diadema. Fusca, vertice, pronoti medio, elytrorum fasciâ luteis; alis purpureis, apice nigris, capitis cornu in medio dentato apice dentibus tribus majoribus. (Long. Corp. cum capitis cornu, 1 unc. 9 lin. Expans. Alar. 3 unc. 6 lin.)

Syn. Fulgora diadema, Linn. Syst. N. 1. 2. 703. 2. Fabr. Syst. Rh. 2. 3. Stoll, fig. 22. Donovan Nat. Repos. vol. 5. fol. 145.

Fulgora armata, Drury, App. vol. 3.

Habitat: Cayenne (Drury).
Head extending almost half an inch above the eyes, having many tubercles, like stubbed horns, on the sides, trifurcate at the tip. It is likewise furnished with two short pointed and black horns that are placed directly over the eyes, and two smaller ones a little below them. It appears as if it had four eyes; two fixed, and of a grey colour like horn; just below which the other two (seeming eyes) are placed. They are black and moveable, but are the antennæ, and are perfectly round. Hemelytra dirty green at the base, with some dusky red patches irregularly placed; but near the extremity having a large patch of a dark orange colour. The wings are black, but next the body red, with some red spots in the centre of them. Rostrum horny, lying between the legs, even with and close to the breast. Tongue seeming to proceed from the mouth, and much smaller than the other instrument (labium), being as small and fine as a hair. Feet formed for walking.

There is a confusion in the works of the earlier authors relative to the native country of this species; Linnæus and Fabricius stating it to be India, whilst Stoll records Surinam, Drury, Cayenne, during that it and others figured by him were collected by Mons. Mallouet, who sent them to Europe, but in their passage they were taken by the Shaftesbury privateer, and afterwards sold by public auction, where he purchased them. Donovan states that two specimens he possessed were taken in Brazil; and Dr. Burmeister still more satisfactorily says, "Gleichfalls aus Sud-Amerika findet sich besonders haufig auf den Cautschuck-Baumen (Siphonia elastica)."

END OF VOL. III.