Index:The Heart of Jainism (IA heartofjainism00stevuoft).djvu

Title The Heart of Jainism
Author Margaret Stevenson
Year 1915
Publisher Oxford University Press
Location London
Source djvu
Progress To be proofread
Transclusion Index not transcluded or unreviewed
OCLC 1046046887

CONTENTS

CHAPTER I
Page
INTRODUCTORY 1
The ideal of Indian thought death, not life—Attraction of asceticism—Revolt against Brāhman exclusiveness—Rise of Buddhist and Jaina orders.
CHAPTER II
HISTORICAL SUMMARY 7
The sixth century—Mahāvīra—Order of Pārśvanātha—Sudharma and his successors—The great famine and consequent migration under Bhadrabāhu to Mysore—Sthūlabhadra and the Council of Pāṭaliputra—The Canon of Scriptures—The nudity question—Idolatry—Suhastin—Disruption into Śvetāmbara and Digambara sects—Council of Vallabhi—The Scriptures—Zenith of Jainism—Decline under Mohammedan and Śaiva persecution—Rise of Sthānakavāsī sect—Modern conditions.
CHAPTER III
THE LIFE OF MAHĀVĪRA 21
Birthplace—The fourteen dreams—Birth—Childhood legends—Initiation—Pārśvanātha's Order—Legends of Mahāvīra's asceticism—Enlightenment— Preaching—Death—Previous incarnations.
CHAPTER IV
MAHĀVĪRA'S PREDECESSORS AND DISCIPLES 48
Pārśvanātha—The Four Vows of Pārśvanātha—The twenty-two earlier Tirthaṅkara:—Ṛiṣabhadeva—Ajitanātha—Sambhavanātha—Abhinandana—Sumatinātha—Padmaprabhu—Supārśvanātha—Ċandraprabhu—Suvidhinātha—Śitaḷanātha—Śreyāṁsanātha—Vāsupūjya—Vimaḷanātha—Anantanātha—Dharmanātha—Śāntinātha—Kunthunātha—Aranātha—Mallinātha—Munisuvrata—Naminātha—Neminātha—The Followers of Mahāvīra:—Gośāla—Gautama Indrabhūti—Sermon by Mahāvīra—Sudharma.
CHAPTER V
HISTORY OF THE JAINA COMMUNITY 65
The four Tīrtha:—Monks—Nuns—Laymen—Laywomen—The great leaders:—Jambū Svāmī—Prabhava—Śayambhava—Bhadrabāhu— Sthūlabhadra—The six Śrutakevalī—The Daśapūrvī—The early Schisms:—Jamālī's—Gośāla's—Avyakta, Kṣaṇikavādī, and Gaṅga schisms—Mahāgiri—Samprati—Suhastin—Susthitasūri—Indradinna—Kalikāċārya—Siddhasena Divākara—Vajrasvāmī—Vajrasena—Digambara schism—Differences between Śvetāmbara and Digambara—Haribhadra Sūri—Siddhasūri—Śīlaguṇasūri—Bappabhaṭṭīsūri—Śīlaṅgāċārya—Abhayadevasūri—Hemāċārya—Epigraphic Corroboration—The later sects—Non-idolatrous sects: Loṅkā—Sthānakavāsī.
CHAPTER VI
INTRODUCTION TO JAINA PHILOSOPHY 89
Origin of Jaina ideas—The Sāṅkhya and Vedānta schools—The Saptabhaṅgī Naya.
CHAPTER VII
THE NINE CATEGORIES OF FUNDAMENTAL TRUTHS 94
i. JĪVA (94): Prāṇa—Divisions of Jīva: into Siddha and Saṁsārī—Male, Female and Neuter—Hell-beings, Animals, Human beings and Gods—Ekendriya, Be-indriya, Tri-indriya, Ċorendriya and Pañċendriya—Pṛithvīkāya, Apakāya, Teukāya, Vāyukāya, Vanaspatikāya and Trasakāya—Two artificial divisions—Leśyā division—Paryāpti division.

ii. AJĪVA (106): Arūpī: (Dharmāstikāya—Adharmāstikāya—Ākāśāstikāya—Kāla)—Rūpī: (Pudgaḷāstikāya).

iii. MERIT (110): Nine kinds (giving food, drink, clothes, lodging and bed; good wishes, kind acts, kind words and reverence)—Forty-two ways of enjoying the fruit of Merit.

iv. SIN (116): Eighteen kinds (killing, untruth, stinginess, impurity, acquisitiveness, anger, pride, deceit, greed, attachment, hatred, quarrelsomeness, slander, tale-bearing, criticism, lack of self-control, hypocrisy, false faith)—Eighty-two results of Sin.

v. ĀŚRAVA (Channels of Karma) (139): Seventeen major and twenty-five minor.

vi. SAṀVARA (Impeding of Karma) (144): Five points of good behaviour (Samiti)—Control of mind, speech and body (Gupti)—Twenty-two ways of enduring hardship (Parīṣaha)—Ten duties of Ascetics—Five Rules of Conduct (Cāritra)—Twelve important Reflections (Bhāvanā).

vii. BONDAGE to Karma (161): Four kinds.

viii. DESTRUCTION of Karma (163): Six Exterior Austerities—Six Interior Austerities.

ix. MOKṢA (169): the Siddha—Final Bliss.

CHAPTER VIII
KARMA AND THE PATH TO LIBERATION 173
Four Sources of Karma—Nine ways of arresting Karma—Eight kinds of Karma—their arrangement—Ghātin and Aghātin—Three tenses of Karma—Fourteen steps to Liberation.
CHAPTER IX
THE LIFE STORY OF A JAINA 193
Babyhood and birth-ceremonies—Betrothal and marriage ceremonies—The first child—Death and funeral ceremonies.
CHAPTER X
THE JAINA LAYMAN AND HIS RELIGIOUS LIFE 205
The Twelve Lay Vows: Five Anuvrata (against killing, falsehood, dishonesty, unchastity and covetousness)—Three Strengthening Vows (limiting travel and use of possessions and guarding against abuses)—Four Vows of Religious Observances—How the vows are taken—Santhāro (Religious suicide)—The eleven Pratimā—The perfect gentleman.
CHAPTER XI
THE JAINA ASCETIC 225
Initiation—Daily duties—Begging—Confession—Leisure—Study—Nuns—Gorajī—The Five Great Vows: (Non-killing—Truth—Honesty—Chastity—Detachment)—No meals after sundown—The ideal monk.
CHAPTER XII
THE END OF THE ROAD 239
The Five Great Ones: (Sādhu—Upādhyāya—Āċārya—Tīrthaṅkara—Siddha)—Rules by which even non-Jaina may reach Mokṣa—The Three Jewels—The Three Evil Darts.
CHAPTER XIII
JAINA WORSHIP AND RELIGIOUS CUSTOMS 250
Temple worship (Digambara and Śvetāmbara)—Private worship—Jaina holy days—Pajjusaṇa—Saṁvatsarī—Divālī—Full-moon fasts—Dusting day—the Eleventh—Saint-wheel worship—Days of Abstinence—Consecration of an idol—Śrāvaṇa Belgolā festival—Oḷi—Hindu festivals—Śrāddha—Superstitions: Evil eye—Demons and ghosts—Plague and Small-pox—Childless women.
CHAPTER XIV
JAINA MYTHOLOGY 268
Gods in Hell and Pātāla—Gods in Heaven—Divisions of time: Avasarpiṇī and Utsarpiṇī—The twenty-four Tīrthaṅkara to come.
CHAPTER XV
JAINA ARCHITECTURE AND LITERATURE 279
Wooden buildings—Stūpa—Cave-temples—The golden age of architecture—The shadow of Islām—Modern architecture—Architecture of the South—Jaina writers—Hemaċandra—Modern literature.
CHAPTER XVI
THE EMPTY HEART OF JAINISM 289
Attraction of Christ for the Jaina—Dissatisfaction with inadequate ideals—The problem of pain—Mahāvīra and Christ—The lack of Jainism—No Supreme God—No forgiveness—No prayer—No brotherhood of man—Difference in ideas of Heaven—Karma and Transmigration—Ahiṁsā and service—Ethics—Personality and Life—The empty Throne.
APPENDIX
I. Analysis of the Nine Categories 299
II. The Twenty-four Tīrthaṅkara of the Present Age 312
INDEX 314