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Indo-Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation

      Desirous of expanding and consolidating the existing relations of sincere friendship between them.

      Believing that further development of friendship and co-operation meets the basic national interests of both States as well as the interests of lasting peace in Asia and the World;

      Determined to promote the consolidation of universal peace and security and to make steadfast efforts for the relaxation of international tensions and final elimination of the remnants of colonialism;

      Upholding their firm faith in the principles of peaceful coexistence and cooperation between States with different political and social systems;

      Convinced that in the world today international problems can only be solved by co-operation and not by conflict;

      Reaffirming their determination to abide by the purposes and the principles of the United Nations Charter;

      The Republic of India on one side and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the other side, have decided to conclude the present Treaty, for which purpose the following plenipotentiaries have been appointed;

On behalf of the Republic of India: Sardar Swaran Singh, Minister of External Affairs;

On behalf of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Mr. A. Gromyko, Minister of Foreign Affairs;

      Who having each presented their credentials, which are found to be in proper form and due order.

      Have agreed as follows:

            Article 1

      The High Contracting Parties solemnly declare that enduring peace and friendship shall prevail between the two countries and their peoples. Each Party shall respect the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the other Party and refrain from interfering in the other’s internal affairs. The High Contracting Parties shall continue to develop and consolidate relations of sincere friendship, good neighborliness and comprehensive co-operation existing between them on the basis of the aforesaid principles as well as those of equality and mutual benefit.

            Article 2

      Guided by a desire to contribute in every possible way to ensure an enduring peace and security of their people, the High Contracting Parties declare their determination to continue their efforts to preserve and to strengthen peace in Asia and throughout the world, to halt the arms race and to achieve a general and complete disarmament, including both nuclear and conventional, under effective in international control.

            Article 3

      Guided by their loyalty to the lofty ideal of equality of all peoples and nations, irrespective of race or creed, the High contracting Parties condemn colonialism and racialism in all forms and manifestations and reaffirm their determination to strive for their final and complete elimination. The High Contracting Parties shall co-operate with other States to achieve these aims and to support just aspirations of the peoples in their struggle against colonialism and racial domination.

            Article 4

      The Republic of India respects the peace-loving policy of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics aimed at strengthening friendship and cooperation with all nations.

      The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics respect Indians policy on nonalignment and reaffirms that this policy constitutes an important factor in the maintenance of universal peace and international security and in lessening of tensions in the world.

            Article 5

      Deeply interested in ensuring universal peace and security, attaching great importance to their mutual co-operation in international field for achieving these aims, the High Contracting Parties will maintain regular contacts with each other on major international problems effecting the interests of both States by means of meetings and exchanges of views between their leading statesmen, visits by official delegations and special envoys of the two Governments and through diplomatic channels.

            Article 6

      Attaching great importance to economic, scientific and technological co-operation between them, the High Contracting Parties will continue to consolidate and expand mutually advantageous and comprehensive co-operation in these fields as well as expand trade, transport and communications between them on the basis of the principles of equality, mutual benefit and most-favoured nation treatment subject to the existing agreements and special arrangements with contiguous countries as specified in the Indo-Soviet Trade Agreement of December-26, 1970.

            Article 7

      The High contracting Parties shall promote further development of ties and contacts between them in the fields of science, art, literature, education, public health, press, radio television, cinema, tourism and sports.

            Article 8

      In accordance with the traditional friendship established between the two countries, each of the High Contracting Parties solemnly declares that if shall not enter into participate in any military alliance directed against the other party.

      Each High Contracting Party undertakes to abstain from any aggression against other Party and to prevent the use of its territory for the commission of any act which might inflict military damage on the other High Contracting party.

            Article 9

      Each High Contracting Party undertakes to abstain from providing any assistance to any third party that engages in armed conflict with other Party. In the event of either Party being subjected to an attack or a threat thereof, the High Contracting Parties shall immediately enter into mutual consultations in order to remove such a threat and to take appropriate effective measures to ensure peace and security of their countries.

            Article 10

      Each High Contracting Party solemnly declares that it shall not enter into any obligation secret or public with one or more States which is incompatible with this treaty. Each High Contracting Party further declares that no obligation exists nor shall any obligation be entered into between itself and any other State or States which might cause military damage to the other Party.

            Article 11

      This Treaty is concluded for a duration of twenty years and will be automatically extended for each successive period of five years unless either High contracting Party declares its desire to terminate it by giving a notice to the other High Contracting Party twelve months prior to expiration of Treaty. The Treaty will be subject to ratification and will come into force on the date of exchange of Instruments of Ratification which will take place in Moscow within one month of the signing of this Treaty.

            Article 12

      Any difference of interpretation of any Article or Articles of this Treaty, which may arise between the High Contracting Parties, will be settled bilaterally by peaceful means in a spirit of mutual respect and understanding.

      The said plenipotentiaries have signed the present Treaty in Hindi, Russian and English, all texts being equally authentic and have affixed thereto their seals.

      Done in New Delhi on the ninth day of August in the year one thousand nine hundred and seventy-one.

      On behalf of the Republic of India: (Sd.) Swaran Singh, Minister of External Affairs.

      On behalf of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: (Sd.) A.A.Gromyko, Minister of Foreign Affairs.

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