European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648/Document 05
5. The Bull Inter Caetera (Alexander VI.). May 3, 1493.
Immediately upon learning of the discoveries made by Columbus and of the claims of Portugal thereto, Ferdinand and Isabella appear to have des patched an account of the same to the court at Rome. In consequence of these and later representations, Pope Alexander VI., a native of Valencia, and a friend of King Ferdinand, issued three bulls, dated May 3 and May 4, which were highly favorable to Spain. By the first, the bull Inter caetera of May 3, the pope assigned to the present and future sovereigns of Castile the lands discovered and to be discovered by their envoys and not previously possessed by any Christian owner. On the other hand, he safeguarded the concessions already made to Portugal with the proviso that by this gift "no right conferred on any Christian prince is hereby to be understood as with drawn or to be withdrawn". The pope also commanded Ferdinand and Isabella to send men to instruct the inhabitants of these newly discovered lands in the Catholic faith and in good morals, and, following the precedent of the bull Romanus pontifex, forbade anyone to go to them for trade or other purposes without special permit from the rulers of Castile. He empowered the sovereigns of Castile to enjoy in respect to their discoveries the rights previously granted to Portugal in respect to hers, as if the terms of the grants to Portugal were repeated in this bull.
Text: MS. and facsimile. The original manuscript of the promulgated bull is in the Archives of the Indies at Seville, Patronato 1-1-1, no. 1, but it is not now kept in this bundle but is framed and hanging on the wall. Photographs of this manuscript are reproduced in the Am. Hist. Rev., vol. XIV., opp. p. 776; and in the Boletín del Centro de Estudios Americanistas de Sevilla, año III., núm. 7 (March-April, 1915). The text, as entered in the secret register of Alexander VI. in the Vatican Archives, is published in photographic facsimile in J. C. Heywood, Documenta Selecta e Tabulario Secreto Vaticano ( 1893), whence it is reproduced in J. B. Thacher, Columbus ( 1903- 1904), II. 124-136.
Text: Printed. The Vatican text is printed in Heywood, op. cit.; Thacher, op. cit., II. 125-137; and G. Berchet, Fonti Italiane ( 1892- 1893), I. 5-7 (pt. III. of the Raccolta di Documenti published by the Reale Commis sione Colombiana). A text from the Simancas Archives, where, in 1797, Muñoz discovered a copy of this previously unknown bull, is in Navarrete, Coleccion de Viages ( 1825- 1837), tom. II., no. 17, pp. 23-27.
Translations: English. Thacher, op. cit., II. 125-137; E. H. Blair and J. A. Robertson, Philippine Islands ( 1903- 1909), I. 97-103. Spanish. Boletín del Centro de Estudios Americanistas de Sevilla, año III., núm. 7 (March-April, 1915).
References: Contemporary and early writings. F. Colon, Historie del S. D. Fernando Colombo ( 1571, etc.), trans. in Churchill, Collection of Voyages ( 1732), vol. II., pp. 501 ff., chs. 42, 43; B. de Las Casas, Historia de las Indias ( 1875), tom. I., c. 79, in Navarreteet al., Coleccion de Documentos Inéditos para la Historia de España ( 1842--), LXII.; G. Zurita, Historia del Rey Don Hernando ( 1580), lib. I., c. 29; A. de Herrera , Historia General de los Castellanos ( 1730), dec. I., lib. II., c. 4.
References: Later writings. J. B. Muñoz, Historia del Nuevo Mundo ( 1793), tom. I., lib. IV., § 18 f. (an English translation of the Historia was published in London in 1797); O. F. Peschel, Theilung der Erde unter Papst Alexander VI. und Julius II. ( 1871); F. Ehrle, "Historische Gehalt der Päpstlichen Abtheilung", in Stimmen aus Maria-Laach, XLVI. ( 1894), 383-388; E. G. Bourne, Essays in Historical Criticism ( 1901), "Demarcation Line of Alexander VI."; H. Harrisse, Diplo matic History of America ( 1897), ch. III.; S. E. Dawson, "Lines of Demarcation of Pope Alexander VI." ( 1899), in the Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, 2d ser., 1899, vol. V., § 2, pp. 467 ff.; J. B. Thacher , Columbus ( 1903- 1904), II. 84 ff.; A. Baum, Demarkatioslinie Papst Alexanders VI. und ihre Folgen (dissertation, Cologne, 1890); K. Kretschmer, Die Entdeckung Amerika's ( 1892), pp. 300 ff.; L. von Pastor , Geschichte der Päpste, III. ( 1899), pp. 517-521; H. Vignaud, Histoire Critique de la Grande Entreprise de Christophe Colomb ( 1911), II. 276 ff.; H. Vander Linden, "Alexander VI. and the Demarcation of the Maritime and Colonial Domains of Spain and Portugal", Am. Hist. Rev., XXII. 1-20. For further references, see J. Winsor, Narra tive and Critical History, II. ( 1886) 45, etc., and E. G. Bourne, Spain in America ( 1904), "Critical Essay on Authorities", in A. B. Hart, American Nation.
Alexander episcopus, servus servorum Dei: carissimo in Christo filio Fernando regi et carissime in Christo filie Elisabeth regine Castelle, Legionis, Aragonum, et Granate illustribus, salutem et apostolicam benedictionem. Inter cetera Divine Majestati beneplacita opera et cordis nostri desiderabilia, illud profecto potissimum existit, ut fides Catholica et Christiana religio nostris presertim temporibus exaltetur, ac ubilibet amplietur et dilatetur, animarumque salus procuretur, ac barbare nationes deprimantur, et ad fidem ipsam reducantur. Unde cure ad hanc Sacram Petri Sedem, divina favente clementia, meritis licet imparibus, evocati fuerimus, cognoscentes vos, tanquam veros Catholicos reges et principes, quales semper fuisse novimus, et a vobis preclare gesta toti pene jam orbi notissima demonstrant, nedum id exoptare, sed omni conatu, studio, et diligentia, nullis laboribus, nullis impensis, nullisque parcendo periculis, etiam proprium sanguinem effundendo, efficere, ac omnem animum vestrum omnesque conatus ad hoc jam dudum dedicasse--quenadmodum recuperatio regni Granate a tyrannide Sarrace norum hodiernis temporibus per vos, cum tanta Divini Nominis gloria facta, testatur-- digne ducimur non immerito, et debemus illa vobis etiam sponte et favorabiliter concedere, per que hujusmodi sanctum et laudabile ac im mortali Deo acceptum propositum in dies ferventiori animo ad ipsius Dei honorem et imperii Christiani propagationem prosequi valeatis. Sane ac cepimus quod vos, qui dudum animo proposueratis aliquas terras et insulas, remotas et incognitas ac per alios hactenus non repertas, querere et invenire, ut illarum incolas et habitatores ad colendum Redemptorem nostrum et fidem Catholicam profitendum reduceretis, hactenus in expugnatione et recuperatione ipsius regni Granate plurimum occupati, hujusmodi sanctum et laudabile propositum vestrum ad optatum finem perducere nequivistis; sed tandem, sicut Domino placuit, regno predicto recuperato, volentes de siderium vestrum adimplere, dilectum filium, Christoforum Colon, cum navigiis et hominibus ad similia instructis, non sine maximis laboribus et periculis ac expensis, destinastis, ut terras remotas et incognitas hujusmodi, per mare ubi hactenus navigatum non fuerat, diligenter inquirerent; qui tandem, divino auxilio, facta extrema diligentia, per partes occidentales, ut dicitur, versus Indos, in mari occeano navigantes, certas insulas remotissimas, et etiam terras firmas, que per alios hactenus reperte non fuerant, invenerunt, in quibus quamplurime gentes, pacifice viventes, et, ut asseritur, nudi in cedentes, nec carnibus vescentes, inhabitant; et, ut prefati nuntii vestri possunt opinari, gentes ipse in insulis et terris predictis habitantes, credunt unum Deum Creatorem in celis esse, ac ad fidem Catholicam amplexandum et bonis moribus imbuendum satis apti videntur, spesque habetur quod, si erudirentur, nomen Salvatoris Domini nostri Jesu Christi in terris et insulis predictis facile induceretur; ac prefatus Christoforus in una ex principalibus insulis predictis jam unam turrim satis munitam, in qua certos Christianos qui secum iverant, in custodiam, et ut alias insulas et terras remotas et incognitas inquirerent, posuit, construi et edificari fecit; in quibus quidem insulis et terris jam repertis, aurum, aromata, et alie quamplurime res preciose diversi generis et diverse qualitatis repperiuntur. Unde omnibus diligenter, et presertim fidei Catholice exaltatione et dilatatione, prout decet Catholicos reges et principes, consideratis, more progenitorum vestrorum, clare memorie regum, terras et insulas predictas illarumque incolas et habitatores, vobis, divina favente clementia, subjicere et ad fidem Catholicam reducere [proposuistis]. Nos igitur hujusmodi vestrum sanctum et lauda bile propositum plurimum in Domino commendantes, ac cupientes ut illud ad debitum finem perducatur, et ipsum nomen Salvatoris nostri in partibus illis inducatur, hortamur vos plurimum in Domino, et per sacri lavacri sus ceptionem, qua mandatis apostolicis obligati estis, et viscera misericordie Domini nostri Jhesu Christi attente requirimus, ut cum expeditionem hujusmodi omnino prosequi et assumere prona mente orthodoxe fidei zelo intendatis, populos in hujusmodi insulis degentes ad Christianam professionem suscipiendam inducere velitis et debeatis, nec pericula, nec labores ullo unquam tempore vos deterreant, firma spe fiduciaque conceptis, quod Deus Omnipotens conatus vestros feliciter prosequetur. Et, ut tanti negotii pro vinciam apostolice gratie largitate donati, liberius et audacius assumatis, motu proprio, non ad vestram vel alterius pro vobis super hoc nobis oblate petitionis instantiam, sed de nostra mera liberalitate, et ex certa scientia, ac de apostolice potestatis plenitudine, omnes et singulas terras et insulas predictas, sic incognitas, et hactenus per nuntios vestros repertas et reperien das in posterum, que sub dominio actuali temporali aliquorum dominorum Christianorum constitute non sint, auctoritate Omnipotentis Dei nobis in beato Petro concessa, ac vicariatus Jhesu Christi, qua fungimur in terris, cum omnibus illarum dominiis, cum civitatibus, castris, locis, et villis, juri busque et jurisdictionibus ac pertinentiis universis, vobis heredibusque et succesoribus vestris, Castelle et Legionis regibus, in perpetuum auctoritate apostolica, tenore presentium donamus, concedimus, et assignamus, vosque ac heredes et succesores prefatos de illis investimus, illarumque dominos cum plena, libera, et omnimoda potestate, auctoritate, et jurisdictione, facimus, constituimus, et deputamus; decernentes nichilominus per hujusmodi dona tionem, concessionem, assignationem, et investituram nostram, nulli Chris tiano principi jus quesitum sublatum intelligi posse aut aufferri debere. Et insuper mandamus vobis in virtute sancte obedientie, ut, sicut etiam pollicemini et non dubitamus pro vestra maxima devotione et regia magna nimitate vos esse facturos, ad terras et insulas predictas viros probos et Deum timentes, doctos, peritos, et expertos, ad instruendum incolas et habitatores prefatos in fide Catholica et bonis moribus imbuendum, destinare debeatis, omnem debitam diligentiam in premisis adhibentes; ac quibuscumque personis, etiam cujuscumque dignitatis, status, gradus, ordinis, vel condic tionis, sub excomunicationis late sententie pena, quam eo ipso, si contra fecerint, incurrant, districtius inhibentes, ne ad insulas et terras predictas, postquam per vestros nuntios seu ad id missos invente et recepte fuerint, pro mercibus habendis vel quavis alia de causa, accedere presumant, absque vestra ac heredum et succesorum vestrorum predictorum licentia speciali. Et quia etiam nonnulli Portugallie Reges in partibus Affrice, Guinee, et Minere Auri, ac alias, insulas, similiter, etiam ex concesione apostolica eis facta, reppererunt et acquisiverunt et per Sedem Apostolicam eis diversa privilegia, gratie, libertates, immunitates, exemptiolies, et indulta concessa fuerunt, nos, vobis ac heredibus et succesoribus vestris predictis, ut in insulis et terris per vos repertis et reperiendis hujusmodi, omnibus et singulis gratiis, privilegiis, exemptionibus, libertatibus, facultatibus, inmunitatibus, et indultis hujusmodi, quorum omnium tenores, ac si de verbo ad verbum presentibus insererentur, haberi volumus pro suffcienter expresis et insertis, uti, potiri, et gaudere libere et licite, possitis ac debeatis in omnibus et per omnia, perinde ac si vobis ac heredibus et succesoribus predictis specialiter concessa fuissent, motu, auctoritate, scientia, et apostolice potestatis plenitudine similibus, de specialis dono gratie, indulgemus, illaque in omnibus et per omnia ad vos, heredes ac succesores vestros predictos extendimus pariter, et ampliamus, non obstantibus constitutionibus et ordinationibus apostolicis, nec non omni bus illis que in litteris desuper editis concessa sunt, non obstare, ceterisque contrariis quibuscunque; in Illo a quo imperia et dominationes ac bona cuncta procedunt confidentes, quod, dirigente Domino actus vestros, si hujusmodi sanctum et laudabile negotium prosequamini, brevi tempore, cum felicitate et gloria totius populi Christiani, vestri labores et conatus exitum felicissimum consequentur. Verum, quia difficile foret presentes litteras ad singula queque loca in quibus expediens fuerit deferre, volumus, ac motu et scientia similibus decernimus, quod illaruni transumptis, manu publici notarii inde rogati subscriptis, et sigillo alicujus persone in ecclesiastica dignitate constitute seu curie ecclesiastice munitis, ea prorsus fides in judicio et extra ac alias ubilibet adhibeatur, que presentibus adhiberetur, si essent exhibite et ostense. Nulli ergo omnino hominum liceat hanc paginam nostre exhorta tionis, requisitionis, donationis, concessionis, assignationis, investiture, facti, constitutionis, deputationis, mandati, inhibitionis, indulti, extensioilis, amplia tionis, voluntatis, et decreti, infringere, vel ei ausu temerario contraire. Siquis autem hoc attemptare presumpserit, indignationem Omnipotentis Dei ac beatorum Petri et Pauli apostolorum ejus se noverit incursurum.
Datum Rome apud Sanctum Petrum, anno Incarnationis Dominice millesimo quadrigentesimo nonagesimo tertio, quinto nonas Maii, pontificatus nostri anno primo.
Gratis de mandato sanctissimi Domini nostri Pape.
Ap [ril] i.
Alexander, bishop, servant of the servants of God, to the illustrious sover eigns, our very dear son in Christ, Ferdinand, king, and our very dear daughter in Christ, Isabella, queen, of Castile, Leon, Aragon, and Granada, health and apostolic benediction. Among other works well pleasing to the Divine Majesty and cherished of our heart, this assuredly ranks highest, that in our times especially the Catholic faith and the Christian religion be exalted and everywhere increased and spread, that the health of souls be cared for and that barbarous nations be overthrown and brought to the faith itself. Wherefore inasmuch as by the favor of divine clemency, we, though of insufficient merits, have been called to this Holy See of Peter, recognizing that as true Catholic kings and princes, such as we have known you always to be, and as your illustrious deeds already known to almost the whole world declare, you not only eagerly desire but with every effort, zeal, and diligence, without regard to hardships, expenses, dangers, with the shedding even of your blood, are laboring to that end; recognizing also that you have long since dedicated to this purpose your whole soul and all your endeavors--as wit nessed in these times with so much glory to the Divine Name in your recovery of the kingdom of Granada from the yoke of the Saracens--we therefore are rightly led, and hold it as our duty, to grant you even of our own accord and in your favor those things, whereby with effort each day more hearty you may be enabled for the honor of God himself and the spread of the Christian rule to carry forward your holy and praiseworthy purpose so pleasing to immortal God. We have indeed learned that you, who for a long time had intended to seek out and discover certain lands and islands remote and unknown and not hitherto discovered by others, to the end that you might bring to the worship of our Redeemer and profession of the Catholic faith their residents and inhabitants, having been up to the present time greatly engaged in the siege and recovery of the kingdom itself of Granada, were unable to accomplish this holy and praiseworthy purpose; but the said king dom having at length been regained, as was pleasing to the Lord, you, with the wish to fulfill your desire, chose our beloved son Christopher Columbus, whom you furnished with ships and men equipped for like designs, not with out the greatest hardships, dangers, and expenses, to make diligent quest for these remote and unknown countries through the sea, where hitherto no one had sailed; and they at length, with divine aid and with the utmost diligence sailing in the ocean sea, through western waters, as is said, toward the Indians, discovered certain very remote islands and even mainlands, that hitherto had not been discovered by others; and therein dwell very many peoples living in peace, and, as reported, going unclothed, and not eating flesh. Moreover, as your aforesaid envoys are of opinion, these very peoples living in the said islands and countries believe in one God, the Creator in heaven, and seem sufficiently disposed to embrace the Catholic faith and be trained in good morals. And it is hoped that, were they in structed, the name of the Savior, our Lord Jesus Christ, would easily be introduced into the said countries and islands. Also, on one of the chief of these aforesaid islands the above-mentioned Christopher has already caused to be put together and built a fortress fairly equipped, wherein he has sta tioned as garrison certain Christians, companions of his, who are to make search for other remote and unknown islands and countries. In the islands and countries already discovered are found gold, spices, and very many other precious things of divers kinds and qualities. Wherefore, after earnest consideration of all matters, as becomes Catholic kings and princes, and especially of the rise and spread of the Catholic faith, as was the fashion of your ancestors, kings of renowned memory, you have purposed with the favor of divine clemency to bring under your sway the said countries and islands with their residents and inhabitants, and to bring them to the Catholic faith. Hence, heartily commending in the Lord this your holy and praiseworthy purpose, and desirous that it be duly accomplished, and that the name of our Savior be carried into those regions, we exhort you very earnestly in the Lord and by your reception of holy baptism, whereby you are bound to our apostolic commands, and by the bowels of the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, enjoin strictly, that inasmuch as with eager zeal for the true faith you design to equip and despatch this expedition, you purpose also, as is your duty, to lead the peoples dwelling in those islands to embrace the Christian profession; nor at any time let dangers or hardships deter you therefrom, with the stout hope and trust in your hearts that Almighty God will further your undertakings. And, in order that you may enter upon so great an undertaking with greater readiness and heartiness endowed with the benefit of our apostolic favor, we, of our own accord, not at your instance nor the request of anyone else in your regard, but of our own sole largess and certain knowledge and out of the fullness of our apostolic power, by the authority of Almighty God conferred upon us in blessed Peter and of the vicarship of Jesus Christ which we hold on earth, do by tenor of these presents give, grant, and assign forever to you and your heirs and successors, kings of Castile and Leon, all and singular the aforesaid countries and islands thus unknown and hitherto discovered by your envoys and to be discovered hereafter, provided however they at no time have been in the actual temporal possession of any Christian owner, together with all their dominions, cities, camps, places, and villages, and all rights, jurisdictions, and appurtenances of the same. And we invest you and your aforementioned heirs and suc cessors with them, and make, appoint, and depute you lords of them with full and free power, authority, and jurisdiction of every kind, with this proviso however, that by this our gift, grant, assignment, and investiture no right acquired by any Christian prince is hereby to be understood to be withdrawn or taken away. Moreover we command you in virtue of holy obedience, that, employing all due diligence in the premises, as you also promise--nor do we doubt that you will act in accordance with your devoted loyalty and royal greatness of spirit--you should appoint to the aforesaid countries and islands worthy and God-fearing, learned, skilled, and ex perienced men to instruct the aforesaid inhabitants and residents in the Catholic faith, and to train them in good morals. And under penalty of excommunication late sententie to be incurred ipso facto, should any thus contravene, we strictly forbid all persons of no matter what rank, estate, degree, order, or condition, to dare, without your special permit or that of your aforesaid heirs and successors, to go for the sake of trade or any other reason whatever to the said islands and countries after they have. been discovered and found by your envoys or persons sent out for that purpose. And inasmuch as some kings of Portugal, likewise by apostolic grant made to them, have similarly discovered and taken possession of islands in the regions of Africa, Guinea, and the Gold Mine, and elsewhere, and divers privileges, favors, liberties, immunities, exemptions, and indults have been granted to them by the Apostolic See, we through similar accord, authority, knowledge, and fullness of apostolic power, by a gift of special favor, do grant to you and your aforesaid heirs and successors, that in the islands and countries thus discovered and to be discovered by you, you may and rightly can use, employ, and enjoy freely and legally, in all things and through all things, just as if they had been especially granted to you and your aforesaid heirs and successors, all and singular these favors, privileges, exemptions, liberties, faculties, immunities, and indults, the terms of all of which we wish to be understood as being sufficiently expressed and inserted, as if they were inserted word for word in these presents. Moreover we similarly extend and enlarge them in all things and through all things to you and your aforesaid heirs and successors, apostolic constitutions and ordinances as well as all those things that have been granted in the letters set forth above or other things whatsoever to the contrary notwithstanding. We trust in Him from whom empires and governments and all good things proceed, that should you with the Lord's guidance pursue this holy and praise- worthy undertaking, in a short while your hardships and endeavors will attain the most felicitous result, to the happiness and glory of all Christendom. But inasmuch as it would be difficult to have these present letters sent to all places where desirable, we wish, and with similar accord and knowledge do decree that to copies of them, signed by the hand of a notary public com missioned therefor and sealed with the seal of any ecclesiastical officer or ecclesiastical court, the same respect is to be shown in court and outside as well as anywhere else, as would be given to these presents should they be exhibited or shown. Let no one, therefore, infringe, or with rash boldness contravene this our exhortation, requisition, gift, grant, assignment, investi ture, deed, constitution, deputation, mandate, inhibition, indult, extension, enlargement, will, and decree. Should anyone presume to do so, be it known to him that he will incur the wrath of Almighty God and of the blessed apostles Peter and Paul. Given in Rome, at St. Peter's, on the third day of May in the year one thousand four hundred and ninety-three of the incar nation of our Lord, in the first year of our pontificate.
Gratis by order of our most holy lord the Pope.
B. CAPOTIUS. L. PODOCATHARUS. D. SERRANO. April. FERRARIIS
- See above, p. 9.
- There are many evidences of this pope's friendliness to Spain. Cf. Pastor, Ge schichte der Päpste III. 515. H. Rossbach, Das Leben und die Politisch-Kirchliche Wirksamkeit des Bernaldino Lopez de Carvajal (1892). See also Vander Linden, "Alexander VI.", etc., American Historical Review, XXII. 13-15.
- Doc. 1.
- It is noteworthy that the restrictions in respect to trade in the prohibited articles, which are emphasized in the bull Romanus pontifex (Doc. 1), are omitted here. There is plenty of evidence that about this time the Portuguese were finding the commercial restrictions imposed by the Church very onerous. Cf. the bulls of Sept. 13, 1496; July 4, 1505 (see Doc. 1, note 21); and Apr. 2, 1506. L. A. Rebello da Silva, Corpo Diplomatico Portuguez (Acad. Real das Sciencias, Lisbon, 1862--), I. 59 ff., 97 ff.
- These are also the references for Docs. 6 and 7.
- The text is from the original manuscript of the bull, preserved in the Archives of the Indies at Seville. The pressmark is Patronato, 1-1-1; but the manuscript is not in this legajo, but framed and hanging on the wall. To facilitate comparison with the bull Inter caetera of May 4, words in this bull which are not in the latter are printed in italics. The variant readings in the Vatican text are few and insignificant.
- The conquest of the kingdom of Granada was completed by the capitulation of the city of Granada on Jan. 2, 1492.
- Columbus at first supposed Cuba to be part of the mainland, but he describes it as an island in the letter written on his homeward voyage, of which one copy was sent to Luis de Santangel, steward of King Ferdinand's household, and another to Gabriel Sanchez, treasurer of Aragon. Nearly all the data for the following description might have been taken from this letter, which was known in Rome before April 18. Harrisse, Diplomatic History, p. 160. A translation of the Santangel letter is given in J. E. Olson and E. G. Bourne, The Northmen, Columbus, and Cabot ( 1906), pp. 263-272, in J. F. Jameson's series of Original Narratives of Early American History.
- In the town of Navidad, in Hispaniola. Cf. Olson and Bourne, Northmen, Columbus, and Cabot ( 1906), p. 268.
- In the bull Inter caetera of May 4, the word proposuistis appears here, but it is not in either text of the bull Inter caetera of May 3.
- Cf. Doc. 1, note 38.
- In their instructions for Columbus's second voyage, dated May 29, 1493, the Spanish sovereigns showed their anxiety to comply with the papal injunction to Christianize the islands. With this in view, they appointed Fray Bernardo Boyl to accompany Columbus. Navarrete, Viages, tom. II., no. 45, p. 66.
- Excommunication is either latae or ferendae sententiae. "The first is incurred as soon as the offence is committed and by reason of the offence itself (eo ipso) without intervention of any ecclesiastical judge." The Catholic Encyclopedia.
- The following italicized passage, which is omitted from the bull Inter caetera of May 4 (Doc. 7), corresponds closely to the passage in the bull Eximiae devotionis (Doc. 6), beginning Cum autem and ending ampliamus. See below, pp. 66, 75.
- The reference is to the bulls of 1455, 1456, and 1481, Docs. 1, 2, and 4.
- Capotius was the rescribendarius, Serrano the computator. For some particulars concerning these and the other signatories of this bull see Vander Linden, op. cit.
- Lodovico Podocatharo, bishop of Capaccio and archbishop of Benevento, was physician to Pope Innocent VIII. and secretary to Alexander VI. In 1500 he was made a cardinal. M. Buchberger, Kirchliches Handlexikon. The bull bears the official en dorsement "Registrata in Camera Apostolica". The names in the register are: B. Capotius, D. Serrano, A. de Campania, N. Casanova.
- The deciphering of the name of this abbreviator is due to Professor H. Vander Linden.
- In translating Docs. 5, 6, 7, and 8, free use has been made of the translations in Blair and Robertson, Philippine Islands, I. 97-114.