The Statutes at Large (Ruffhead)/Volume 1/Judic. Pillorie (51 Hen3. Stat 6) (1266)


A Statute of the Pillory and Tumbrel, and of the Assise of Bread and Ale, made Anno 51. Hen. III. Stat. 6. and A. D. 1266.

The Punishment of a baker or Brewer Offending. IF a Baker or a Brewer be convict, because he hath not observed the Assise of Bread and Ale, the first, second, and third time, he shall be amerced according to his Offence, if it be not over grievous; [1](2) but if the Offence be grievous and often, and will not be corrected, then he shall suffer Punishment of the Body, that is to wit, a Baker to the Pillory, and a Brewer to the Tumbrel, or some other Correction. (3) First, six lawful men shall be sworn truly to gather all Measures of the Town, that is to wit, Buthels, half and quarter Bushels, Gallons, Pottles, and Quarts,, as well of Taverns as of other Places.; Measures and Weights, that is to wit, Pounds, half Pounds, [2] and other little Weights, wherewith Bread of the Town or of the Court is weighed, that is to say, one Loaf of every sort of Bread. (4) And upon every Measure, Bushel, Weight, and also upon every Loaf, the Name of the Owner distinctly written; (5) and likewise they shall gather the Measures of Mills. A Jury Sworn (6) After which Thing done, twelve lawful Men shall swear to make true Answer to all such Things as shall be demanded of them in the King's Behalf upon Articles here following; and such Things as be secret, they shall utter secretly, and answer privately. (7) And the Bailiffs shall be commanded to bring in all the Bakers and Brewers with their Measures, and all things under written. (8) First, they shall inquire the Price of Wheat, that is to wit, how a Quarter of the best Wheat was sold the last Market-day, and how the second Wheat, and how the third; and how a Quarter of Barley and Oats; (9) after, how the Bakers Bread in the Court doth agree, that is to wit, Wastel and other Bread after Wheat of the best, or of the second, or of the third Price. (10) Also upon how much Increase or Decrease in the Price of of a Quarter Wheat a Baker ought to change the Assise and Weight of his Bread, (11) Also how much the Wastel of a Farthing ought to weigh, and all other manner of Bread, after the Price of a Quarter of Wheat that they present. (12) And for default in the Weight of the Bread, a Baker ought to be amerced, or to be judged unto the Pillory, according to the Law and Custom of the Court, Releasing a Punishment deserved.  (13) Also if any Steward or Bailiff, for any Bribe, doth release Punishment of the Pillory and Tumbrel, being already judged, or to be judged of right.

A Pillory. II. Also if they have in the Town a Pillory of convenient Strength, as appertaineth to the Liberty of their Market, which they may use (if need be) without bodily Peril either of Man or Woman. The Assise and of Price of Wine [3] (2) After, they shall inquire of the Assise and Price of Wine, after the Departure of the justices in Eyre, or of them that were last in Office of the Market of the Town; that is to say, of the Vintners Names, and how they sell a Gallon of Wine; and if any corrupted Wine be in the Town, or such as is not wholesome for Man's Body. The Assise of Ale. (3) Also of the Assise of Ale in the Court of the Town how it is, and whether it be observed; and if not, how much Brewers have sold contrary to the Assise; (4) and they shall present their Names distinctly and openly, and that they be amerced for every Default, or be judged to the Tumbrel, if they fell contrary to the Assise.

False Weights and Measures. III. Also if there be any that fell by one Measure, and buy by another. Also if any do use false Ells, Weights, or Measures. Butchers. (2) And if any Butcher do sell contagious Flesh, or that died of the Murren. Cooks. (3) Also they shall inquire of Cooks that see the Flesh or Fish with Bread or Water, or any otherwise, that is not wholsome for Man's Body, or after that they have kept it so long that it loseth its natural Wholsomeness, and then seethe it again, and sell if; (4) or if any do buy Flesh of Jews, and then sell it to Christians. Forestallers.  (5) And also Forestallers, that buy any thing afore the due and accustomed Hour, against the good State and Weal of the Town and Market, or that pass out of the Town to meet such things as come to the Market, being out of the Town; to the intent that they may sell the same in the Town more dear unto Regrators, [4]that utter it more dear than they would that brought it, in cade they had come to the Town or Market. . Ale shall be sold according to the Price of Barley  (6) When a Quarter of Barley is sold for two Shillings, then four Quarts of Ale shall be fold for a Peny; when for two Shillings six Pence then seven Quarts of Ale shall be sold for two Pence; when for three Shillings, then three Quarts for one Peny; when for three Shillings six Pence, then five Quarts for two Pence; when it is fold for four Shillings, then two Quarts at one Peny. And so from henceforth the Prices shall increase and decrease after the rate of six Pence.

  1. Repealed as to the Assise of Bread by 8 Ann. c. 18
  2. The Word Trenas is omitted in the Translation. According to Feta, Trona is a Beam and was used to weigh Wood; and Tronage is mentioned in West. 2. c. 25.
  3. 2 Jac. 1. c. 2.8 This appears to be a mistaken reference.
  4. Not in the original