Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900/Littledale, Richard Frederick

LITTLEDALE, RICHARD FREDERICK (1833–1890), Anglican controversialist, the fourth son of John Littledale, auctioneer, Dublin, was born in Dublin on 14 Sept. 1833. On 15 Oct. 1850 he entered Trinity College, Dublin, as a foundation scholar, graduated B.A. as a first class in classics, and in 1855 obtained the senior Berkeley gold medal and the first divinity prize, he proceeded at Dublin M.A. in 1858, and LL.B. and LL.D. in 1862, and at Oxford on 5 July 1862 D.C.L. ‘comitatis causa.’ He was curate of St. Matthew in Thorpe Hamlet, Norfolk, from 1856 to 1857, and from 1857 to 1861 curate of St. Mary the Virgin, Crown Street, Soho, London, where he took a great interest in the House of Charity. Throughout the remainder of his life he suffered from chronic ill-health, took little part in any parochial duties, and devoted himself mainly to literary work. He was a zealous Anglican, and was learned in exegesis and liturgical literature. Until his death he continued to act as a father confessor, and next to Dr. Pusey is said to have heard more confessions than any other priest of the church of England. Both as a speaker and controversialist he achieved a high reputation; his tenacious memory and wide range of reading made him a formidable nutogonist. He died at 9 Red Lion Square, London, on 11 Jan. 1890. A reredos to his memory was erected in the chapel at St. Katharine's, 32 Queen Square, London, in March 1891 {Times, 26 March 1891, p. 7).

Littledale was a frequent contributor to periodical literature, particularly to ‘Kottabos,’ a college miscellany in Dublin, and to the ‘Daily Telegraph,’ the ‘Church Quarterly Review,’ and the ‘Academy,’ and was the author of numerous books and pamphlets in support of Anglicanism, in opposition to Roman Catholicism. In conjunction with the Rev. James Edward Vaux, Littledale wrote: ‘The Priest's Prayer Book,’ 1864 (seven editions), ‘The People's Hymnal,’ 1867 (eight editions), ‘The Christian Passover,’ 1873 (four editions}, and ‘The Altar Manual,’ of which forty-six thousand copies were circulated. He completed after the death in 1866 of the author, John Mason Neale, who was his intimate friend, Neale's ‘Commentary on the Psalms from Primitive and Mediæval Writers,’ vols. ii. iii. and iv., 1866-74 and afterwards re-edited two other editions of the entire work. He was als0 joint author with Neale of ‘Liturgy of SS. Mark, James, Clement, Chrysostom, Basil,’ 1868-9. Littledale's ‘Plain Reasons for not joining the Church of Rome,’ a volume of which thirty-six thousand copies were issued in 1990 and following years, evoked replies from the Rev. W. Horsfall, the Rev. A. Mills, Oxoniensis, and H. I. D. Rvder. In 1874 Littledale edited a work entitled ‘The Church of England in presence of Official Anglicanism, Evangelicalism, Rationalism, and the Church of Rome. By Gervase.’

Other works not already mentioned were:

  1. ‘On the Application of Colour to the Decoration of Churches,’ 1857.
  2. ‘Religious Communities of Women in the early Church,’ 1862.
  3. ‘Carols for Christmas and other Seasons,’ 1863.
  4. ‘Unity and the Rescript: a Reply to Bishop Ullathorne's Pasoral against the A.P.U.C.,’ 1864.
  5. ‘Catholic Ritual in the Church of England, Scriptural, Reasonable, Lawful,’ 1865, thirteen editions.
  6. ‘The Elevation of the Host,’ 1865, two editions.
  7. ‘Incense: a Liturgical Essay,’ 1866.
  8. ‘The Mixed Chalice,’ 1867, four editions.
  9. ‘The Christian Priesthood,’ 1867.
  10. ‘Prayers for the Dead,’ 1867.
  11. ‘Catholic Revision of the Book of Common Prayer; a Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury,’ 1867.
  12. ‘Early Christian Ritual,’ 1867, four editions.
  13. ‘What is Ritualism? And why ought it to be supported?’ 1867.
  14. ‘The Children's Bread, or Communion Office for the Young,’ 1868, four editions.
  15. ‘Additional Services: a second Letter to the Archbishop of Canterbury,’ 1868.
  16. ‘A Commentary on the Song of Songs,’ 1869.
  17. ‘Church Reform,’ 1870.
  18. ‘The Crisis of Disestablishment,’ 1870.
  19. ‘Pharisaic Proselytism, a forgotten Chapter of early Church History,’ 1870.
  20. ‘Tradition,’ 1870.
  21. ‘The Two Religions,’ 1870.
  22. ‘Misapplied Texts of Scripture: a Lecture,’ 1870.
  23. ‘Church and Dissent,’ 1871.
  24. ‘Secular Studies of the Clergy,’ 1871.
  25. ‘Rationale of Prayer,’ 1872. Answered by Professor Tyndall and others.
  26. ‘At the Old Catholic Congress,’ 1872.
  27. ‘Children at Calvary,’ 1872.
  28. ‘The Religious Education of Women,’ 1873; new edition, 1874.
  29. ‘The Relation of the Clergy to Politics,’ 1873.
  30. ‘Church Parties,’ 1874.
  31. ‘Papers on Sisterhoods,’ 1874-8.
  32. ‘Dean Stanley on Ecclesiastical Vestments,’ 1875, three editions.
  33. ‘Last Attempt to Reform the Church of Rome from within,’ 1875.
  34. ‘Apostolical Succession,’ 1876.
  35. ‘Ritualistic Practices (1), what they are, (2) what they mean,’ 1876.
  36. ‘Ritualists and Romanists,’ 1876.
  37. ‘Ultramontane Popular Literature,’ 1876.
  38. ‘An Inner View of the Vatican Council,’ 1877.
  39. ‘Christianity and Patriotism,’ 1877.
  40. ‘The Pantheistic Factor in Christian Thought,’ 1877.
  41. ‘Why Ritualists do not become Roman Catholics,’ 1878. Replied to by the Rev. Orby Shipley, 1879.
  42. ‘Future Probation,’ 1886.
  43. ‘A Short History of the Council of Trent,’ 1888.
  44. ‘Words for Truth; Replies to Roman Cavils against the Church of England,’ 1888.
  45. ‘The Petrine Claims: a Critical Inquiry,’ 1889.

[Church Portrait Journal, 1882, iii. 85-8, with portrait; London Figaro, 1 Feb. 1890. p. 9, with portrait; Times, 14 Jan. 1890, p. 10; Guardian, 15 Jan. 1890, p.84; Church Times, 17 Jan. 1890, p. 55; Academy, 18 Jan. 1890, p. 46; King's Character of Dr. Littledale as a Controversialist, 1888; information kindly supplied by George F. Shaw, esq., registrar of Trinity College, Dublin.]

G. C. B.

LITTLER, Sir JOHN HUNTER (1783–1856), lieutenant-general, Indian army, eldest son of Thomas Littler and his wife, daughter of John Hunter, a director of the East India Company, was born on 6 Jan. 1783 at Tarvin, Cheshire, where his family had been established for many generations. He was educated, under the Rev. Dr. Devonport, at the grammar school at Acton, near Nantwich. On 19 Aug. 1800 he was appointed ensign in the 10th Bengal native infantry, and in that regiment became lieutenant on 29 Nov. the same year, captain on 16 Dec. 1812, and major on 22 Sept. 1824. He went out to India in the Kent Indiaman, which was taken by a French privateer in the Bay of Bengal. The passengers were sent adrift in a pinnace, but arrived safely at their destination. Littler served with his regiment in the campaigns under Lord Lake in 1804–5, and at the reduction of Java in 1811. He returned from Java to India in 1816, and served as sub-assistant commissary-general in the Marquis of Hastings's army, continuing in the post until 1824. He became lieutenant-colonel of the 14th Bengal native infantry in 1828, and colonel of the 36th Bengal native infantry in 1839, the colonelcy of which he retained until his death. In 1841 he was promoted to be major-general, and in 1843 was appointed to command the Agra division of the Bengal army. He commanded a division of Sir Hugh Gough's army at the defeat of the Mahrattas at Maharajpore on 29 Dec. 1843, where he was slightly wounded, and had two horses killed under him. He received for his services the thanks of parliament and star, and was made K.C.B. on 2 May 1844. At the outbreak of the first Sikh war in 1845 he was in command of the Ferozepore division, ten thousand strong. Leaving half his troops to protect the ill-fortified cantonment, he marched with the rest to meet the Sikhs, when they first crossed the Sutlej on 11 Dec., but they declined the challenge although they outnumbered Littler's force by ten to one, and turned aside to Ferozeshah. He skilfully effected a junction with Gough's army on 21 Dec. 1845, and at the battle of Ferozeshah on 21–2 Dec. following commanded a division, and again had a horse killed under him, receiving a second time the thanks of parliament and a medal. At the close of the campaign he was appointed to command at Lahore, and in 1849 was made G.C.B., and appointed a provisional member of council and deputy-governor of Bengal. While at Calcutta, Littler was presented by the inhabitants with a service of plate and an address, in recognition of his long and valuable services. He returned home, with the rank of lieutenant-general, in 1851. The remainder of his life was passed in retirement at his seat, Bigaden, Devonshire, where he died on 18 Feb. 1856. He was buried at Tarvin, Cheshire. He married in 1827 Helen Olympia, only daughter of Lieutenant-colonel Henry Stewart, a claimant of the Orkney peerage, and by her left four daughters.

[East India Registers and Army Lists; Marshman's Hist. of India, vol. iii.; Malleson's Decisive Battles of India—Ferozeshah (Firózshohah), and list of authorities in preface; Parl. Debates, 1846, Sikh War; Gent. Mag. 1856, pt. i. p. 423.]

H. M. C.

LITTLETON. [See also Lyttleton.]

LITTLETON, ADAM (1627–1694), lexicographer, born on 2 Nov. 1627, was the son of Thomas Littleton, vicar of Halesowen, Worcestershire. He was educated on the foundation at Westminster School, whence he was elected to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1644. He took a decided part against the parliamentary visitors (Register, Camd. Soc., p. 488), and in 1648 ridiculed their proceedings in a Latin poem entitled ‘Tragi-Comœdia Oxoniensis,’ 4to, which has, however, been ascribed to John Carrick of Christ Church. He was expelled from the university (2 Nov. 1648), but seems to have been allowed to return, as he joined in May 1651 with three other students in a petition for the restitution of their Craven scholarships, which had been sequestered (Sussex Arch. Coll. xix. 110, 210). He was allowed to become an usher at Westminster, and ‘taught school’ at other places before he succeeded to the post of second master there in 1658. After the Restoration he established a school at Chelsea,