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NIOSH Hazard Review: Carbonless Copy Paper

NIOSH Hazard Review

Carbonless Copy Paper

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Public Health Service • Centers For Disease Control and Prevention

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

December 2000


Contents

Foreword iii
Executive Summary iv
Tables xiii
Figures xv
Abbreviations xvi
Acknowledgments xix
  1  Introduction 1
1.1  Background 1
1.2 Development and production of CCP 1
1.3 Reported health effects 2
1.4 Information sources and types 4
2  The Technology of CCP 5
2.1 How CCP works 5
2.2 CCP production 5
2.3 Microcapsule production 6
2.4 CCP production process 7
2.5 Forms production 8
2.6 Other forms and variations of CCP technology 8
2.7 Desensitizing inks 9
2.8 Summary of chemical components of CCP 9
2.9 Brand names or trademarks for CCP 12
3  Exposure 13
3.1 Introduction 13
3.2 Exposure data 13
3.2.1  Published studies 13
Jujo Paper Company, Ltd. 1979 13
Molhave and Grunnet 1981 13
Gothe et al. 1981 and Norback et al. 1983b 16
Gockelet al. 1981 16
Chrostek and Moshell 1982 16
Norback et al. 1983b 16
Norback and Gothe 1983 17
Olsen and Morck 1985 19
Apol and Thoburn 1986, Chovil et al. 1986, and Burton and Malkin 1993 19
Omland et al. 1993 19
Zimmer and Hadwen 1993 19
Thompson 1996 20
3.2.2 NIOSH docket submissions 21
3.2.2.1  Winfield 1983 21
3.2.2.2 Hazelton Laboratories 1985 21
Product test methods 21
Product testing 22
Office activities 24
3.3 Conclusions 25
4  Health Effects 28
4.1 Introduction 28
4.2 Human studies 29
4.2.1 Published case reports and case series 29
Magnusson 1974 30
Hannuksela 1975 30
Wahlberg 1975 30
Hirvonen et al. 1976 30
Maggio et al. 1978 36
Andanson et al. 1979 36
Calnan 1979, 1981 36
Cronin 1980 37
Dodds and Butler 1981 37
Marks 1981 37
Menne' et al. 1981 37
Chrostek and Moshell 1982 38
Levy and Hanoa 1982 38
Roure et al. 1982 39
Certin and Zissu 1983 39
Norback et al. 1983a,b,c; 1988 39
Jeansson et al. 1983, 1984 40
Marks et al. 1984; Trautlein et al. 1984 40
Messite and Baker 1984; Messite and Fannick 1980 40
Menne' and Hjorth 1985 41
Olsen and Morck 1985 41
Apol and Thoburn 1986 41
Bennett and Chrostek 1986 42
ChoViletal.1986 42
Shehade et al. 1987 42
LaMarte et al. 1988 43
Hammel 1990 43
Kanerva et al. 1990a,b; 1993 44
Burton and Malkin 1993 44
Sim and Echt 1993 45
Zimmer and Hadwen 1993 45
Ziem and McTamney 1997 45
Smith et al. 1999 46
4.2.2 NIOSH docket submissions 46
4.2.2.1 Unpublished case reports and case series submitted by individuals 46
4.2.2.2 Inquires about health effects submitted by CCP manufacturers 47
Appleton Papers, Inc., 1987 47
Moore Business Forms, Inc., 1987 47
CCP Manufacturers 1998 47
4.2.3 Cross-sectional studies 48
4.2.3.1 Cross-sectional studies of indoor air contaminants 57
Skov et al. 1987, 1989 57
Zweers et al. 1992 58
Mendell 1991 and Fiske et al. 1993 58
Omland et al. 1993 58
Jaakkola and Jaakkola 1999 58
4.2.3.2 Cross-sectional studies of CCP exposures 61
Fristedt and Pettersson 1980 61
Andersson et al. 1980 63
Cberg 1980 63
Sondergard 1981 63
Menne' et al. 1981 63
Gothe et al. 1981 and Norback et al. 1983b 64
Kolmodin-Hedman et al. 1981 66
Kleinman and Horstman 1982 66
Pryor et al. 1983 67
Olsen and Morck 1985 67
Omland et al. 1993 67
Apol and Thoburn 1986 71
4.2.4 Laboratory studies in humans 71
4.2.4.1 Peer-reviewed literature studies 71
Nilzen 1975 71
Jeansson et al. 1983, 1984 74
Morgan and Camp 1986 75
4.2.4.2 NIOSH docket submissions 75
RIPT studies 75
Tests under simulated conditions of use 98
4.2.4.3 Summary 99
4.3 Animal Studies 99
4.3.1 Published studies 99
Hasegawa et al. 1982a 99
Hasegawa et al. 1982b 99
Lofroth 1982 99
Certin and Zissu 1983 100
Cameron et al. 1986 101
Wolkoffet al. 1988 101
Anderson 1992 101
4.3.2 NIOSH docket submissions 102
4.3.3 Summary 105
5  Summary and Conclusions 107
5.1 Irritation of the skin, eyes, and upper respiratory tract 107
5.1.1 Strength of the association 110
5.1.2 Consistency 110
5.1.3 Specificity 110
5.1.4 Relationship in time (temporality) 111
5.1.5 Biological gradient 111
5.1.6 Biological plausibility 111
5.1.7 Coherence 112
5.1.8 Experimental evidence 112
5.1.9 Reasoning by analogy 113
5.1.10 Summary 113
5.2 Allergic contact dermatitis 113
5.3 Systemic reactions 114
5.4 Conclusions 114
6  Recommendations 117
6.1 Historical recommendations in the scientific literature 117
6.2 NIOSH recommendations 118
References 120
Other publications examined 129

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).