Nicaraguan Biographies/Activists



ARANA Icaza, Francisco Ignacio. Broadcaster, businessman, Conservative Party activist. Born in Managua on June 4, 1946. Participated in Conservative Party opposition activities while in his teens. Jailed for 2 weeks following January 1967 protests against the upcoming election of Anastasio Somoza Debayle. Resisted Sandinista attempts to enlist Conservative Party support for FSLN leadership. Left Nicaragua in July 1979 and began opposition in mid-1980. Helped establish the FDN radio station 15 de septiembre and in 1987 became a member of the Resistance communications committee that manages Radio Liberacion.

ARGUELLO Hurtado, Xavier. Poet, writer. Born in Caracas, Venezuela, on January 16, 1952 to Nicaraguan parents in political exile. Grew up in Managua. Wrote political columns and editorials for La Prensa for 5 years. Served as national coordinator of the MDN in 1977. In this post, cooperated with Sandinistas who used MDN membership as cover. Returned to Venezuela in 1978 after assassination of Pedro Joaquin Chamorro because "the Somoza dictatorship was truly suffocating." Returned to Costa Rica in 1979 to participate in the southern front before Somoza's fall. Served as Secretary General of the Ministry of Culture in 1979, then for 4 years as Director of Nicarahuac, the Ministry of Culture's magazine. Left Nicaragua on the eve of the Sandinista-controlled elections in November 1984. Joined the United Nicaraguan Opposition in 1985. In 1986, served as Resistance press spokesman in Washington. In 1987, became editor of Resistencia, a monthly journal about Nicaragua. His wife, Sonia, also a writer and author, worked for ANN (the Sandinista news agency), the Ministry of Foreign Trade, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs before leaving Nicaragua.

ARTOLA, Adan. Miskito leader. Former Chief of Staff of KISAN. Atlantic Coast delegate to the RN Assembly.

BODAN Shields, Harry. Diplomat. Born on August 29, 1945, in Bluefields. Attended secondary school in Managua. Lid, University of Madrid. Spanish Diplomatic Academy, 1965. Served in Peru and Europe. Vice Minister of Foreign Affairs, December 1974-July 1979. Author of Nicaragua: el teatro de lo absurdo (San Jose, Costa Rica, 1985). Went to New Orleans, then Miami. Has close ties with the Miskito and Creole peoples of the Atlantic Coast.

BRAUTIGAM Beer, Donovan. Vice President and Atlantic Coast delegate to the RN Assembly. Born in Bluefields, Zelaya. La Prensa journalist from 1970-78, where he wrote on Atlantic Coast issues. Degree in social sciences education from UNAN, 1981. Professor and administrator at the National Conservatory of Music in Managua, 1979-83. Sociopolitical adviser to the Southern Indigenous Creole Community (SICC) in 1984-85 and editor of SICC and MISURASATA publications. Elected KISAN delegate to the UNO Assembly in 1986. Author of various works on the history and religions of the Atlantic Coast, he also has written a history of the Marimba. Now in exile in Costa Rica.

CALLEJAS Deshon, Alfonso. Businessman, politician. Born on October 27, 1923, in Chinandega. Trained as a civil engineer at the University of Santa Clara in California. As an engineer he held a number of local and national offices and headed the National Office of Water Resources in the early 1960s. Vice President of Nicaragua, 1967-72. Resigned in protest over Somoza's decision to remain in power. In 1973, organized a grassroots PLN movement designed to force Somoza to resign. Returned from exile in Honduras to Nicaragua on July 29, 1979, and was formally acquitted of Somocismo by a Sandinista decree. Left Nicaragua in October 1981, but returned and again tried to work within the Sandinista system. Left Nicaragua in December 1982 when he joined the FDN Directorate. Adviser to RN directorate. Active in the Catholic lay movement in Nicaragua and among the exile community.

CAMPOS Aburto, Marvin Dolores. Trade unionist. Labor delegate and legal adviser to the RN Assembly. Born on April 4, 1947, in Jinotepe, Car- azo. Bachelor's degree from the San Sebastian Institute. Condemned to 17 years in prison by the Sandinistas' Anti-Somocista Peoples' Tribunal. Secretary General of the Committee of Nicaraguan Democratic Trade Unionists. Now in exile in Costa Rica, where he is a teacher.

CARDENAL, Jose Francisco. Businessman, politician. Born in Leon on December 3, 1938. Imprisoned in 1959 for participating in armed anti- Somoza attempt that landed from Cuba via Panama. Later became Managua


building contractor and President of the independent Chamber of Construction. After Somoza's overthrow, visited Washington to lobby for US economic aid to new government for reconstruction. Named Vice President of the revolutionary Council of State in 1980. Resigned soon afterward, sought exile in the United States, and became one of the founders of the FDN in 1981. Left the FDN in 1982 but remains active in the exile community.

CARDENAS Martinez, Pedro Leonardo. Former Resistance Commander. Known as "Deglis." Member of the RN Assembly. Born on February 28, 1950, in Wiwili, Jinotega. Was a farmer before joining the Resistance in December 1982. Became Commander of the Macondo Task Force of the Santiago Regional Command. Seriously wounded in 1986 and forced to retire from the active military struggle.

CASTILLO Rivas, Donald. Economist. Coordinator of the RN's international relations commission. Born on October 21, 1943, in Managua. Left Nicaragua in the aftermath of the Conservative Party's 1959 Olama y Molle- jones invasion attempt, joining Indalecio Pastora's (uncle of Eden Pas- tora) anti-Somoza guerrilla group. Captured in Costa Rica and sent to the Cuban embassy for asylum. Flew to Cuba where he became involved in the Nicaraguan exile community, including future FSLN leaders such as Carlos Fonseca. Spent the next 10 years in Cuba, studying and then teaching at the University of Havana and its regional branches. Traveled to Chile after the 1970 election of Allende. Served as a university professor there, 1970-73. Active in organizing Nicaraguan exiles in Chile, especially after the 1972 earthquake in Managua. At the time of the military coup against Allende, Castillo was outside Chile; denied reentry, he lost everything he owned. Denied reentry to Nicaragua as well, he found asylum in Mexico. Once established there, he became a member of Pedro Joaquin Chamorro's Democratic Liberation Union and worked with the social democratic Socialist International. After Chamorro's assassination, he worked with the FAO and with the FSLN, cooperating with Ernesto Car- denal and the Group of 12. One of the seven advisers to the Nicaraguan junta formed in Costa Rica shortly before Somoza's fall; coauthor of its original program of government. Returned to Managua in mid-1979 expecting to work for the new government; however, was questioned by Cuban intelligence officials on his loyalty to the FSLN. Left Nicaragua again, joining first ARDE (1982), then BOS (1985). Editor of the book Centroamerica: Mas Alia de la Crisis (1982) and of Foro Cen- troamericano, a Nicaraguan opposition journal published in Costa Rica, 1985-86.

CHAMORRO, Adolfo. Resistance activist. "Comandante Adolfo." Longtime anti-Somoza activist and military commander since the late 1950s. Became Director of State Enterprises after 1979. Went into exile in 1982. Became second-in-command of Eden Pastora's ARDE's military forces, before becoming a member of the BOS Executive Committee. Now active in political- military coordination efforts of the various Resistance fronts.

CRUZ Sequeira, Arturo. Political activist and author. Born in 1954 in Managua. Undergraduate and graduate degrees from American University and Johns Hopkins University. Political Counselor of the Nicaraguan Embassy in Washington under the Sandinistas (November 1979-May 1981). Became an adviser to the FSLN Department of International Relations in Managua. In November 1982. Cruz left for Costa Rica to join Eden Pastora, beginning a long struggle of political opposition to the Sandinistas from exile. Coauthor (with Jose Luis Velasquez) of Nicaragua, Regresion en la Revolution, as well as essays in the New Republic, Commentary, and academic journals. Son of former junta member and Resistance leader Arturo Cruz.

CURVELLO, Margarita. Director, YATAMA Women's Organization. Born about 1949 in Waslala, Rio Coco, northern Zelaya. Miskito Indian. Opposed Sandinistas since their 1979 efforts to control Miskito education and culture. Also active in veteran rehabilitation efforts.

DAVILA Membreno, Jose. PSC delegate to the RN Assembly. Studied economics at the National Autonomous University; also trained in West Germany with the Christian Democrats. Former PSC Vice President and member of the post-1979 Council of State. Member of the editorial staff of La Prensa until 1982, when he went into exile after the imposition of the state of emergency. ARDE Political Coordinator, then a member of the BOS Executive Committee. In exile in Costa Rica.

FARACH Abdalah, Fuad. Businessman. Born on November 11, 1941, in Managua. Attended the University of Michigan and the Central American University. Served as director of the Agricultural Union and the private sector umbrella organization COSEP. Now in exile in Costa Rica. President of the UNO Assembly from July 1986 until March 1987.

FIALLOS Navarro, Francisco Jose. Lawyer, diplomat. Nicaraguan Ambassador to the United States who broke with the Sandinistas in 1982. Born in Matagalpa on February 20, 1946. Primary school in Granada and Managua. Student activist. Traveled to Sofia, Bulgaria, as Chairman of the Delegation of the National Students' Union of Nicaragua to the VIII World Congress of the International Students' Union. Law degree from UNAN, Leon, 1970. Master's Degree in Law from Harvard University, 1972; PhD in political science from Boston University, 1976. Executive Director of the progressive business development institute, INDE, 1972-74. Went into exile after Somoza assumed dictatorial powers after the December 1972 earthquake. Returned to Nicaragua in 1976 and became an active member of the anti-Somoza opposition while professor of public finance, economic development, and political sociology at UCA. From 1977-78, served as Secretary- Coordinator for the Dialogue for National Reconciliation. Appointed to Ministry of Foreign Affairs in July 1979 while he also assisted the establishment of the prosecutor's office at the Justice Ministry. A member of the Permanent Arbitration Tribunal of the International Court of Justice since 1980, he served in a number of Foreign Ministry posts, including Deputy Foreign Minister (December 1979-March 1981), Ambassador to Canada (May 1981-January 1982), and Ambassador to the United States (February-December 1982). Resigned as Ambassador to the United States to join ARDE in March 1983. Served as Director of the BOS International Relations Committee. Author of numerous works, including Toward the Reorganization of the Legislative Branch of Nicaragua (US doctoral dissertation, published by UNAN in 1979) and The Decision-Making System in the Sandinista State and Party (Florida International University, 1985). Currently PSC delegate to the RN Assembly and a member of the RN international relations committee. Nephew of Mariano Fiallos Oyanguren, President of the Supreme Electoral Council.


GADEA Mantilla, Fabio. Author, radio dramatist, political commentator, visual artist, and founder of Radio Corporacion de Managua. Born on November 9, 1931, in Ocotal, Nueva Segovia. Attended primary and secondary school in Leon and Managua. Career in radio began in 1948. Moved to Radio Mundial in 1953, where he began work as a narrator for radio novels. In 1959, created "Pancho Madrigal," a popular Nicaraguan radio show that tells stories of rural life, many based on letters Gadea received from the Nicaraguan countryside. Moved "Pancho Madrigal" to Radio Corporacion in 1965, where it became one of the most popular programs on the nation's premier radio station. In the mid-late 1970s, "Pancho Madrigal" became a vehicle for sharp, if veiled, satire against the Somoza regime. Active in the MDN. Served as President of the Chamber of Communications Media and Director of the Nicaragua Development Institute. After Somoza's ouster, harassed by the Sandinista State Security apparatus for his continued membership in the MDN and for his commitment to free expression. Under pressure from Sandinista police and censors, Gadea went into exile in 1982. In 1983, served as President of the Association of Nicaraguan Journalists in Exile. In 1984, published a revised edition of his 1980 book, Editorials of Yesterday and Today, to add his anti- Sandinista editorials and the story of his flight from Nicaragua to the earlier edition's anti-Somoza commentaries. That same year, he began a daily radio show in San Jose, Costa Rica, of commentary on Nicaragua. Gadea is also author of Stories of Galope (1979) and a book of radio commentaries written in exile, Love Letters to Nicaragua (1985). Gadea currently serves as coordinator of public information and press relations for the Nicaraguan Resistance.

HERMAN, Roger. Atlantic Coast delegate to the RN Assembly. From Puerto Cabezas, Herman was a coordinator for the Northern Zelaya Fisherman's Union. Sought asylum in Venezuela in 1982. Returned in February/March 1983 to engage in armed struggle. Served as Director of KISAN political commission, 1985-86. In 1987, he was appointed principal political liaison between the RN and YATAMA.

HERNANDEZ Altamirano, Jose Francisco. Former Resistance Commander. Now Agrarian Sector delegate to the RN Assembly. Known as

¿¿¿ From left to right: Jose Antonio BRATH-WAITE Nury, Donald CASTILLO Rivas, Pedro Jose LARA Molina, "Commander Saug"

¿¿¿ From left to right: Bosco MATAMOROS Hueck, Luis Alfonso MORENO Payan, Ernesto MATAMOROS Te- jada, Jose Francisco RUIZ Castellon.

4 Francisco ARANA.

5 Ernesto PALAZIO.

"Camilo." Born on January 2, 1955, in Yali, Jinotega. Farmer/cattleman with a tenth-grade education. Ran his family farm in the La Constancia area of Jinotega before joining MILPAS in 1980 with the Meza Peralta brothers from the nearby valley of La Rica. Wounded in 1984 as a member of the Santiago Meza Regional Command. Assistant for psychological operations, ERN/North, until mid-1987. His son was taken from the Cine Betty moviehouse in Yali, Jinotega, on April 15, 1986, inducted into the EPS, and assigned to a unit (Juan Ramon Chavarria Company) fighting the Resistance. Although Sandinista radio reports said his son and others were killed by contras, they actually had defected and joined the Resistance.


HURTADO Cabrera, Carlos. A member of the BOS National Executive Committee and adviser to the RN Directorate. Born on January 11, 1952, in Managua. An agronomist by training, Hurtado joined the FSLN in 1974, when, as a member of Tomas Borge's clandestine cell, he began coordinating the covert delivery of weapons to the guerrilla forces. Caught by the National Guard, he was imprisoned from 1976 to 1977. After leaving prison, continued to provide support to the FSLN's internal front while publicly holding the position of Deputy Director of a Nicaraguan international business firm. After the FSLN came to power, served in the Ministry of Foreign Trade — first as the Executive Director of the Nicaraguan national cotton company and then as Director of the Nicaraguan national agricultural supplies company. In 1983, he went into exile in Costa Rica where he began work with the Costa Rican subsidiary of Monsanto and joined opponents of the FSLN. He helped found BOS in 1985 and has served as its president and political secretary.

ICAZA, Carlos. Resistance lawyer. Born on January 3, 1944, in Managua. Professor of Law for 6 years at UCA Managua. MA in corporate law and finance, doctorate in law. In 1978, seven (D'Escoto, Ruiz, Emilio Baltodano, Ernesto Castillo, Ricardo Coronel Kautz, Fernando Cardenal, Joaquin Cuadra Chamorro, plus the latter's FSLN combatant son, Joaquin Cuadra Lacayo) of the Group of 12 lived in his house for 5 months when they were allowed to return to Nicaragua. Served under Alfredo Cesar as one of the first legal advisers to the post-Somoza junta, July 1979. Resigned after the late September 1979 killing of National Guardsmen prisoners at La Polvera and after Sergio Ramirez personally told him, "Don't worry. They're only National Guardsmen." He was forced to seek refuge at the Venezuelan Embassy after the Sandinistas accused him of trying to poison Father Miguel D'Escoto. He stayed in the Venezuelan Embassy from May 9, 1983, until April 30, 1984, when the Sandinistas issued him a safe conduct pass. Supervised the creation of the Resistance "Code of Conduct" and signed the Resistance's recognition of the Geneva conventions. As stated by Icaza, "I am a real Sandinista, they [the nine FSLN comandantes] are not. I agree with Sandino on national sovereignty, national pride, and on helping the poor. But I am not a communist. Nor am I a rightwinger. We are not hawks; we are humans fighting for our liberty. We only project the image of hawks. We don't need a lot of money. If we are going to win, what we need is the political, economic, diplomatic, and humanitarian assistance of your people. As allies of the United States, we need two things: respect and sincerity. Without respect, friendships are lost. These are Sandino ways of thinking."

JEREZ Paguaga, Alvaro. Former Vice President of the Council of State under the Sandinistas. Born about 1942. Trained as a physician and surgeon. Politically active against Somoza. A cofounder and Vice President of the MDN. Vice President of the Council of State, 1979-81. Left Nicaragua in 1982 with Alfonso Robelo. In 1985, together with Alfredo Cesar, helped establish BOS. Today he heads BOS party activities in exile in Florida.

MATAMOROS Hueck, Bosco. Military spokesman of the ERN/North. Born on May 15, 1945, in Masaya. Left Nicaragua in 1964 to study political and social sciences at Universities of Rome and Bologna. Served in various capacities at the UN Food and Agriculture Organization in the 1970s. Joined Resistance in September 1983 as the Washington representative of the FDN.

MONTALVAN Duarte, Wilfredo. Radio journalist, poet, essayist. Social Democratic Party delegate to the RN Assembly. Born on February 14, 1945, in Bluefields. First Secretary General of Social Democratic Party after its founding in 1979 in Managua. Member of the Permanent Human Rights Commission before going into exile in Costa Rica. A leader of the Social Democratic Movement in Exile.

MORALES Carazo, Jaime. Chairman of the Cease-Fire Commission appointed by the Resistance in compliance with the Guatemala Agreement. Businessman, writer, publicist. Born in Granada on September 10, 1936. Studied in Mexico, the United States, and UCA, Managua. Author of numerous publications, including Mejor Que Somoza, Cualquier Cosa! (an ironic reference to the once-popular chant that "anything would be better than Somoza"). Now at work on a book on "the human aspects" of the Resistance. Daniel Ortega and Rosario Murillo now live in his house in Managua.

PALAZIO, Ernesto. Representative of the Resistance in Washington, DC Born on October 22, 1942, in Granada. Received legal education at University of Madrid and practiced law in Managua. Cofounder of the Nicaraguan Democratic Movement. Through his law firm, Palazio published a detailed indictment documenting corruption in the Somoza government, demonstrating how US Government earthquake relief funds were diverted to acquire real estate for the Somoza family and political associates. Organized business strikes against Somoza in 1978 and 1979. After the Sandinista triumph, he remained active in political and civic affairs, representing the Nicaraguan Development Institute as a member of the revolutionary Council of State. Went into exile in February 1986. Joined the Resistance in September 1986 as Washington representative, a post he holds today.

RAPPACCIOLI, Vicente. Secretary of the RN Assembly and Conservative Party delegate. Born on January 15, 1928. Attended the University of Syracuse. A member of Nicaragua's Conservative Party, Rappaccioli was a bitter foe of the Somoza dynasty. Active in helping the Sandinistas secure arms to overthrow Somoza. Imprisoned and tortured by the National Guard four times, the last time in 1978. After the Sandinistas came to power he was elected President of the Conservative Party. Informed in 1981 that he was about to be arrested on trumped-up charges, he fled to Costa Rica. He was condemned in absentia to 40 years in prison. Rappaccioli said that: "I am a Catholic and a democrat. Because of my adherence to democracy I risked my financial and physical security under Somoza. If I opposed Somoza — a generalissimo — in the name of democracy, I have all the more reason to oppose a bunch of puny comandantes who attack not only my democratic principles but my religious convictions as well."

RIVAS Leiva, Luis. Social democratic politician, trained as a physician and surgeon. Born on December 12, 1939, in Niquinohomo, Masaya (birthplace of Sandino). An antisomocista and democratic activist from his student days in Nicaragua's National Autonomous University. Imprisoned several times by the National Guard and wounded when the National Guard fired on the student demonstrations of 1959. Elected political secretary of the Social Democratic Party when it was founded in 1979. In 1982, became Secretary General of the party and also was


elected to head the Coordinadora Dem- ocratica. Harassed and threatened by the DGSE, which spread rumors that he was an infiltrator working for them to split the opposition. Arrested in October 1985 in the renewed FSLN crackdown on PSD and Social Christian Party activities. Was President of the PSD when he went into exile in 1986, convinced that the repression of the Sandinista regime foreclosed effective political action. Said Rivas Leiva: "In the end, it was practically impossible to conduct any political activity. The Sandinistas were just using us to give the appearance of pluralism." In late 1986, became political secretary for strategy and planning of the United Nicaraguan Opposition.

RIVAS Ruiz, Jose Filadelfo. Original member of the Resistance Cease-fire Commission and an Agrarian Sector representative in the Resistance Assembly. Former Resistance commander. Known as "Comandante Jose." Born in Managua on November 12, 1956. Attended Nicaraguan Military Academy, 1973-75. Studied Naval Engineering in Mexico, 1975-80, graduating with the rank of lieutenant in the Mexican navy. Unable to return to Nicaragua, he worked out of Mexico and the United States as a ship deck captain. Joined the Resistance in May 1983. Served as the Executive Officer of the Segovia Regional command before becoming the founding Commander of the Independence Task Force in mid-1985. On July 3, 1986, he lost a leg to a Sandinista landmine.

RODRIGUEZ, David. Former Mis- kito Indian Commander. Born about 1958. From La Esperanza, Rio Coco, Northern Zelaya. A coordinator of the MISURASATA youth organization when it cooperated with the Sandinistas. Rodriguez was a youth leader in Puerto Cabezas in 1979 who came to resist the FSLN's attempts to either control or close independent organizations. On February 20, 1981, in an episode remembered by the Indian Resistance as a major action, Sandinista army troops entered a Moravian Church and attempted to arrest Indian leader Elmer Prado. The Indians rose to Prado's defense; four Indians and four Sandinistas died in the struggle. The surviving Indian youths, one of whom was Rodriguez, recovered the Sandinistas' weapons and went into the bush. Rodriguez became a leading political-military figure in MISURASATA and one of the first Miskito. combatants. Participated in the 1985 negotiations between the Sandinistas and MISURASATA. In January 1986, while escorting Brooklyn Rivera and North American Indian Rights activist Russell Means on a tour of Nicaragua's Atlantic Coast, Rodriguez lost a leg in a Sandinista Air Force attack on the group at Layasiksa. No longer a combatant, he is now responsible for YATAMA international relations.

SACASA, Marta Pasos de. Spokeswoman for the Nicaraguan Resistance. Born in Managua on May 15, 1949. Daughter of Luis Pasos, a prominent Somoza opponent in the Nicaraguan Conservative Party. Family lived in political exile in Washington (1954-55), returned under a Somoza grant of amnesty. Became directly involved in politics through anti-Somoza protests after the January 1978 assassination of Pedro Joaquin Chamorro. One of her sisters is Major Rosa Pasos, Chief of Public Relations for the Sandinista Ministry of Defense. Another sister, Maria Isabel Pasos, works with the Sandinista news agency, ANN. Involved in press and public affairs activities since the beginning of armed opposition to the Sandinista regime, Marta says: "It's important that members of the government, those who are with the Sandinistas, realize that we [the Resistance] really are looking for a reconciliation; we are not after a firing squad where we would kill them. And there are hundreds and thousands of others who have families on both sides — I think that is good in one sense because there is still the belief on both parts that reconciliation can be achieved."

SALAZAR, Lucia Cardenal de. Widow of slain opposition leader Jorge Salazar Arguello. Educated in Nicaragua and the United States. During the struggle against Somoza, the Sal- azars worked with the Sandinistas by harboring Sandinista militants being sought by the National Guard. Two of her brothers were Sandinista guerrillas; a third went to El Salvador and joined the leftist guerrillas there. Her brother Gabriel, an artist and FSLN propagandist, was arrested and executed by the National Guard in 1979. After the revolution, her husband, Jorge Salazar, a progressive and charismatic democratic opposition leader, was shot and killed by Sandinista State Security police in a November 1980 trap. After the murder, Mrs. Salazar fled to Honduras and joined the leadership of the armed opposition.

SANCHEZ Herdocia, Enrique "Cuco." Agrarian Sector delegate and official spokesman of the RN Assembly.

SANCHEZ Herdocia, Fernando. RN representative in Guatemala. Social Christian Party member in exile.

SANDINO, Alfonso. Christian Democrat, attorney, and economist. Former political secretary of UNO. Born about 1947. Active in the opposition to Somoza since his university days at UNAN's Leon campus. Professor at the Jesuit University of Guatemala. Former Legal Adviser to the Central American Integration Secretariat. Currently resides in Guatemala, where he participated in an August-September 1987 hunger strike protesting the Sandinistas' arrest of Lino Hernandez and Alberto Saborio. President of the Christian Family Movement in Guatemala from 1981-83. An active organizer of the Nicaraguan exile communities in Central America, he currently resides in Guatemala. Author of a book on the human rights of Central American children and other writings.

SELVA, Maria Elena. Social Democratic Party delegate to the RN Assembly. Sociologist and political activist. Born on August 19, 1948, in Managua. Received a doctorate in sociology and political science from the Sorbonne in Paris; MA in psychology from the University of Paris. Returned to Nicaragua in 1978; worked in urban planning and development in the private sector. Active in the Social Democratic Party and the MDN, participating in political protests and business strikes against the Somoza regime. Joined the Sandinista government, worked in the social security and agrarian reform institutes. Resigned at the end of 1980 out of disagreement with the revolution's direction. As she states: "The meddling of the Cubans was stifling the chances of Nicaraguans to develop; the foreign interference and ideological interference was even attacking our system of values." Returned to private sector, training PSD youth, serving as COSEP director of analysis, information, and human resources. Advised the organization of


market vendors on issues ranging from social welfare to the defense of their economic rights. Adviser to the CUS on socio-political matters. Largely because of analyses she published through COSEP on subjects such as the economy, the Sandinista military draft, and the privileges of the Sandinista elite, Selva was persecuted by State Security forces. Went into exile in June 1984. Joined the Resistance in December 1986 as a political adviser.

SOMARRIBA Gonzalez, Leonardo. Businessman, Resistance political cadre. Born on February 22, 1938, in Matagalpa. Received civil engineering degree from University of Maryland. As a fellow private sector leader (Vice President of Chamber of Commerce, 1978-80), was associate of Jorge Salazar. The same day Salazar was murdered, Somarriba was arrested as part of the supposed plot led by Salazar to overthrow the government. After a year in prison, went into exile at the end of 1981. Joined the Resistance in 1986 as Secretary General of UNO. In charge of the RN's administrative and financial affairs.

STERLING, Glenn. Political secretary of the Floyd Wilson Task Force, a Creole Resistance organization. Born on February 17, 1945. Sterling, a member of Nicaragua's Creole community, reportedly was raised and attended college in Managua. He left Nicaragua in 1983 and has since lived in Costa Rica and Honduras.

TABOADA Ti-ran. Alvaro. A legal adviser to the RN. Sandinista Ambassador to Ecuador from January 1980 until he defected in November 1982 due to his disdain for the "clearly Leninist structure that the Frente was imposing on Nicaragua." Born on February 13, 1945, in Leon. Studied law at UNAN, where he began his political involvement in the Christian Democratic student movement. Involved in simultaneous political struggles with Somocistas outside the university and with Sandinista organizations inside the university. "I believe that this is a small example of what happened in Nicaragua. The Somoza system was eliminating all space at the center, and as the regime's crisis deepened, we were forced to share the trenches with our ideological enemies on the far left." After graduating, remained active in opposition politics in the Social Christian Party (with Edgard Macias) and as a founding director of UDEL, a politi-

1 From left to right (kneeling): Modesto WATSON, Randall BENEDICT, Albert BENT, Teofilo ARCHIBALD. From left to right (standing): Jenelee HODGSON Bobb, Galen VARGNGHS, Norman DAVIS Cayasso, James WILSON, Carlos Kennards HODSGON Moody, Bertram BYERS, and Glenn STERLING.

2 From left to right: Anroyce ZELAYA Zeledon. Xavier ARGUELLO Hurtado, and "Iguana."

3 Fabio GADEA Mantilla.


cal-labor coalition led by Pedro Joaquin Chamorro. After the 1972 Managua earthquake, also active in the International Fund for Reconstruction with Alfredo Cesar. In 1978, Taboada's house in Leon was attacked by Somoza's National Guard, forcing Taboada into exile in Honduras. After breaking with the Sandinistas, he became Deputy Director of the BOS International Relations Commission. Member of the RN's juridical commission. Author of "Aspects of the Evolution of the Law in Sandinista Nicaragua" in Conflict in Nicaragua: A Multidimensional Perspective, which details the use of the law as a political weapon.

ULVERT, Carlos. Businessman, researcher. Born on April 17, 1945, in Managua. BS in chemistry, University of Illinois, 1966. Postgraduate studies in agronomy, Paris, 1966-68. Institute of Political Studies, Paris, 1968-69. MBA Harvard University, 1976-78. Central Bank, department of research, 1969-78. Vice Director, INCAE, 1979. Left Nicaragua, December 1979. Spokesman in United States for Negro Chamorro and FARN, 1983-85. When UNO was formed, moved first to Costa Rica, then to Washington, DC Secretary for International Relations of UNO, 1986-87. Now lives in Miami.

URROZ Castillo, Roberto J. Member of the five-person Resistance Cease-Fire Commission. Vice President of the Nicaraguan Democratic Movement. Born on December 11, 1946, in Managua. A civil engineer, he studied at the University of Central America (1963-68), the Technology Institute of Monterrey, and the National Autonomous University of Mexico. Anti- Somoza activist since his university days, he was a cofounder of the social- democratic MDN. Became Vice Minister of the Nicaraguan Institute of Energy after Somoza's overthrow. Resigned from the Sandinista government in April 1980 after Violeta Chamorro and Alfonso Robelo left the junta. Elected General Secretary of the MDN in 1982. Denied an exit visa by the Sandinista government, Urroz escaped through the mountains and over the border into into Costa Rica in 1982. Re- elected General Secretary of the MDN- in-exile in 1984. Became ARDE Executive Secretary in 1984. Currently a member of the Nicaraguan Resistance Assembly.

WATSON, Modesto. Activist with the Nicaraguan Coast Peoples Struggle, an organization of Atlantic Coast Nicaraguans founded in 1986 and dedicated to establishing democracy to Nicaragua. Born in San Carlos, Rio Coco, northern Zelaya in the early 1950s to a Creole father and a Miskito mother. Watson was a teacher and radio broadcast teacher in Puerto Cabezas before leaving Nicaragua in 1981 as a result of the Sandinistas' forced relocation of Atlantic Coast minorities. Watson worked for 2 years in Brooklyn Rivera's MIS- URASATA organization and then was director of a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Limon, Costa Rica, from 1984 to 1985 before joining the Resistance. Watson still has many family members living in Nicaragua, including his 78-year-old father. One sister and her husband, however, were murdered by Sandinista security police in April 1983 after the husband began to publicly criticize Sandinista rule. The two were shot while sitting on the doorstep of their home. Watson is married to a former US Peace Corps Volunteer, Fran Vaughn.

WIGGINS, Armstrong. One of the brain trusts of the former MIS- URASATA movement. Works with the Indian Law Resource Center. Unofficial Miskito ambassador to Washington.

ZELEDON Rosales, Marco A. A Director of the FDN after going into exile. Born in 1932. President of COSIP (the predecessor of COSEP) and chairman of the Chamber of Industry (CADIN) in the mid-1970s, his oratory and organizing skills unified the business community in opposition to Somoza.