ANDURAY, Plutarco. President of the official Commission for the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights (CNPPDH), 1985-87. Born September 20, 1916, in Chinandega. Received his MD from UNAN. Also studied in Panama and Mexico. One-time company doctor for the United Fruit Company. A founding member of the PLI in 1944, more recently closely allied with the FSLN. Active in the Chinandega chapter of the communist-front Republican Mobilization formed by the Moscow-line communist party (PSN) and the FSLN in the mid-1960s. Traveled to the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe in 1964. A Vice President of the Sandinista-packed Council of State in the early 1980s. Appointed President of the CNPPDH on June 27, 1985 after it was rocked by several embarrassing defections, including that of its long-time Director, Mateo Guerrero Flores, when they were not allowed to investigate the government's forced relocation of entire rural populations and other abuses related to forced conscription. Anduray became president as part of the reorganization to bring the Commission back into the FSLN line. Now retired to Chinandega, he has been replaced by FSLN militant Vilma Nunez.
ARGUELLO Hurtado, Alvaro. Jesuit priest. Director of Central American Historical Institute at UCA in Managua associated with institute by same name at Georgetown University, Washington, DC Member of the Council of State, until Pope instructed clergy to withdraw from political office.
CHAMORRO Cardenal, Xavier. Director of El Nuevo Diario, FSLN-aligned "independent" newspaper. Born on October 7, 1945, in Managua. Took over La Prensa after his brother Pedro Joaquin Chamorro's murder in January 1978. Used the paper to back Sandinistas until the National Guard destroyed its Managua physical plant in June 1979. Split with his brother Jaime and sister-in-law Vio- leta (who by then had left the FSLN-dominated junta) over whether to criticize the revolutionary government. Began publishing El Nuevo Diario in association with FSLN militant Danilo Aguirre Solis in May 1980.
CORDOVA Rivas, Rafael. Lawyer. Born on November 29, 1923, in San Jose, Costa Rica. Defended Tomas Borge in the 1977 trials. Head of UDEL, 1978. Longtime friend and close political confidant of Pedro Joaquin Chamorro. One of the FAO negotiators in the fall of 1978 (along with Alfonso Robelo and Sergio Ramirez). Imprisoned April-May 1979 with Robelo for organizing union strikes against Somoza. After Somoza's downfall, served on the Supreme Court until appointed to the junta in May 1980 when Violeta Chamorro and Alfonso Robelo refused to continue "fronting" for the Sandinistas and resigned. Served on the junta until the Conservative Party split over whether to participate in the November 1984 elections. Often accused of having been coopted by the Sandinistas, Cordova now heads a Conservative faction recognized by the Sandinistas but which has virtually no popular base. His daughter is married to Rodrigo Cardenal, the FSLN Ambassador to East Germany.
CORONEL Urtecho, Jose. The foremost pro-Sandinista intellectual in Nicaragua today. Born on February 8, 1906, in Granada. Studied in San Francisco, California. Influenced by Ezra Pound. Founded the Vanguard Movement of poets and intellectuals in Nicaragua in 1927. Believing Somoza Garcia was the answer to Nicaragua's history of factionalism and civil war, he proposed naming Somoza Garcia "President for Life" and served as a Somoza diplomat in Spain. Influenced two generations of Nicaraguan poets. Considered the intellectual mentor of Sandinista Vice President Sergio Ramirez, he moved away from Somoza and proclaimed the rise of the Sandinistas as "the birth of freedom." A recognized historian, most notably for his multivolume Reflexiones sobre la histo- ria de Nicaragua (de Gainza a Somoza).
CUADRA Chamorro, Joaquin. Member of the National Planning Council. President of the Central Bank of Nicaragua. Born March 8, 1918, in Granada. Scion of two prominent upper- class Conservative families. Belonged to the pro-Somoza fascist "Blue Shirts" in the 1930s. A leading tax lawyer and lawyer for the Banco de America group. In 1977, he became a member of the Twelve at the request of his son, FSLN Commander Joaquin Cuadra Lacayo, now Chief of Staff of the EPS. Served as Finance Minister until 1985. His three daughters all married FSLN comandantes. The Guzman-Cuadras are his nephews.
EVERTSZ Velez, Adolfo Jose. Marxist theorist and head of the Moscow-line communist PSN paramilitary wing in the late 1950s and early 1960s, he advised Daniel Ortega when Ortega entered his first terrorist cell
(with Edmundo Avilez and Francisco Moreno) in 1960. The cell placed a series of bombs at public places, such as the Cine Tropical, and the homes of pro-Somoza politicians, such as Dr. Oscar Sevilla Sacasa and Dr. Juan Jose Morales Marceno. Now a PSN delegate in the National Assembly.
FIALLOS Oyanguren, Mariano. President of the Supreme Electoral Council (CSE). Born on June 28, 1933, in Leon. LL.M. from Southern Methodist University, 1956. Law Degree, UNAN, 1957. PhD from the University of Kansas, 1968, where his dissertation was on "The Nicaraguan Political System." Rector of UNAN, Leon, 1974-84. President of the Supreme Electoral Council for the 1984 Nicaraguan elections. Reappointed in February 1985 for a 6-year term. Visiting professor, University of Kansas, 1985. His father, Mariano Fiallos Gil, was a longtime university autonomy activist and UNAN rector (1957-64). The university autonomy and extraterritoriality granted in 1958 under Somoza (and codified in the constitutional reforms of 1966) facilitated San- dinista recruitment and organization of their primarily urban political cadre under the rectorships of Carlos Tunner- man (1964-74) and Fiallos Oyanguren. After the student riots of June 1959, for example, National Guard troops were not allowed physical access to the campus — not even to enroll for courses as students. Since the first 1979 mass firings of professors, in contrast, Sandinista police, army, and mass organizations operate freely and widely on the campuses. University hirings, firings, and curricula are determined in coordination with the FSLN. The re- establishment of university autonomy is one of 17 constitutional reforms proposed by all 14 opposition parties.
GOROSTIAGA, Xabier. Director of the Regional Center of Economic and Social Research (CRIES) in Managua. Jesuit priest. Born in Spain; lived in Panama. Founding Director of the Center for Social Studies and Action in Panama. Moved to Nicaragua after Somoza's fall, becoming Director of National Planning for Nicaragua from 1979 to 1981. Commented shortly before the November 1984 elections that "My impression is that the internal dynamics of this country don't require us to have elections. The elections are much more for external benefit. They are a symbolic gesture." Member of the Inter- American Dialogue and of the International Commission on Central American Recovery and Development (the San- ford Commission).
MOLINA, Uriel. Franciscan priest. Leading figure in the "popular church" and head of the Antonio Val- divieso Center. Born in mid-1930s. Ordained in the Franciscan Order in 1959. Worked in a poor Managua barrio in the early 1960s. Obtained a law degree. Studied in Europe. In the early 1970s, he organized community living experiments, taught at the university, and developed concepts of liberation theology. Headed a Christian base community in Managua's Barrio Riguero. Advised the Christian Revolutionary Movement (MCR), through which several young Nicaraguan Christians (including Joa- quin Cuadra Lacayo, Marta Cranshaw, and current FSLN National Directorate member Luis Carrion Cruz) moved toward Marxism. Kept in contact with the radical students after the MCR merged into the FSLN in 1973. After 1979, became head of the Confederation of Religious, then of the Valdivieso Center, serving as contact between foreign visitors interested in liberation theology and the FSLN.
PARAJON, Gustavo. Director of the Protestant Committee for Aid and Development (CEPAD). Appointed in August 1987 to the Government's National Commission on Reconciliation. Physician, Baptist minister, and missionary. Born on November 15, 1935, in Chinandega. Undergraduate degree from Denison University in Ohio. Attended Western Reserve University Medical School, medical residency at Cleveland General Hospital. Masters in Public Health from Harvard University. Appointed to the National Junta for Social Assistance and Provision (JNAPS) in 1968 (JNAPS was headed by Somoza's wife, a close friend of Para- jon's wife). Founded CEPAD in the aftermath of the December 1972 Managua earthquake. In the closing weeks of the Somoza regime, Parajon sent Sixto Ul- loa (now CEPAD International Relations Director and Sandinista member of the National Assembly) to Costa Rica to establish ties to the FSLN. Although technically independent of the FSLN, Parajon and Ulloa use CEPAD to obtain foreign development and religious money for the FSLN and to maintain relations with the international evangelical community on behalf of the FSLN. Appointed in June 1985 to the government's National Commission for the Protection and Promotion of Human Rights, in the same reorganization that brought Plutarco Anduray to its presidency.
TEFEL Velez, Reynaldo Antonio. Director of the Nicaraguan Social Security and Welfare Institute since late 1979. Born on September 1, 1925, in Managua. Educated in sociology in the United States and Europe. Founder of UNAP with Pedro Joaquin Chamorro in 1948. Active in Christian Democratic wing of the Traditional Conservative Party (PCT) from 1957 to 1963. Visited Cuba with Chamorro and participated in the 1959 "Olama y Mollejones" invasion attempt. Led the Christian Democratic walkout of the PCT in May 1963. Joined the Social Christian Party and sought contacts with the FSLN in the 1970s. Part of the 1976 founding leadership of the Popular Social Christian Party that split from the PSC. Held leadership positions in UDEL and the Broad United Front. Became a member of the Group of 12 after Felipe Mantica's resignation.
Rafael CORDOVA Rivas.
Joaquin CUADRA Chamorro.
Gustavo PARAJON. (© The Plain Dealer. Cleveland)