Nicaraguan Biographies/Inner Circle

Nicaraguan Biographies
United States Department of State • Office of Public Affairs
The Sandinista Regime: Inner Circle

Gaps in the transcribed text are denoted by triple slashes (///). Possibly missing material is denoted by triple Spanish question marks (¿¿¿). Formatting (such as the chart on p. 17, or italics) may not be perfectly reproduced from the original.

The Inner CircleEdit

ARCE Castano, Bayardo. FSLN National Directorate member. Vice Coordinator of the FSLN Executive Commission. Commander of the Revolution. Born in Managua in 1950. Joined the FSLN as a student and La Prensa reporter in 1969. Active in the FSLN's student front, the FER. Responsible for the rural logistical network in the northern highlands, 1974-76. Named in Havana to represent Borge's GPP faction on the unified FSLN National Directorate in March 1979. Key link between the FSLN and the Salvadoran FMLN guerrillas, for whom he coordinated negotiations for military training and arms deliveries in 1980. Generally responsible for coordinating Sandinista support for Latin American insurgent groups. In May 1980, became president of the Council of State after the Sandinistas packed it with their supporters. In September 1980, became coordinator of the FSLN's Political Committee and its National Secretariat. Played a lead role in managing the November 1984 elections. A leading party theorist and an ideological hardliner, Arce is widely known for his then-secret May 1984 speech before the Moscow-line communist PSN in which he made clear the FSLN's goal of creating a one-party state. His brother, Gerardo Arce Castano, is a Sandinista Army captain against whom numerous human rights complaints have been documented.

BORGE Martinez, Tomas. Only surviving FSLN founder. Minister of Interior. Member of the FSLN National Directorate, the FSLN Executive Commission, and the FSLN Defense and Security Commission. Commander of the Revolution. Born in Matagalpa on August 13, 1930. Enrolled in law school at the UNAN in Leon in 1954. Joined Moscow-line communist PSN with Fonseca and Silvio Mayorga in 1955. Jailed after the assassination of Somoza Garcia in September 1956. Escaped from house arrest in 1959 and traveled to Costa Rica for military training. Traveled to Cuba in 1960 to seek additional training and support from Fidel Castro. Founded the FSLN with Fonseca and Mayorga in Tegucigalpa, Honduras, in July 1961. Received extensive military training in Cuba with Fonseca and other early Sandinistas before returning as a leader of the Rio Coco guerrilla campaign of 1963. Director of the Republican Mobilization's newspaper in the joint PSN/FSLN 1965-66 attempt at above-ground organizing. Returned to armed tactics at Pancasan in 1967, fleeing subsequently to Costa Rica where he was arrested in January 1969. Lived in Cuba and Peru and may have visited the PLO in Lebanon. Accused of rape while in Cuba. Reentered Nicaragua from Mexico as a simple militant. Directed the training of FSLN recruits during the mid-1970s, but never again led forces in combat. Captured in Managua in February 1976 and severely tortured in prison. Freed by the Pastora-led National Palace takeover of August 1978, he flew to Panama and then Cuba. Leader and spokesman for the Prolonged Popular War faction. Named to the reunified National Directorate announced in March 1979 in Havana. His first wife Yelba was killed in June 1979 by the National Guard. In July 1979, became Minister of Interior. Succeeded Luis Carrion Cruz as the FSLN National Directorate member in charge of the Atlantic Coast. Has traveled to the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, and Libya as well as Cuba.

CABEZAS Lacayo, Omar. MINT Brigade Commander. Vice Minister of Interior and Chief of its office responsible for political indoctrination and enforcement. Member of the FSLN Assembly and the FSLN Defense and

Tomas BORGE.


FSLN Directorate (with then-junta member Rafael CORDOVA Rivas and Vice President Sergio RAMIREZ), May 1984. From left to right: Tomas BORGE, Victor TIRADO, Daniel ORTEGA, Humberto ORTEGA, Henry RUIZ, CORDOVA, Jaime WHEELOCK, Bayardo ARCE, Carlos NUNEZ. Luis CARRION, and RAMIREZ.

Security Commission. Born in Leon in 1950. Joined the FSLN through the FER in 1968 while a student at UNAN in Leon with Bayardo Arce and Doris Tijerino. Never finished law school, becoming a combatant with Borge's GPP faction in 1974. On the general staff of the FSLN's Northern Front during the final offensive. An FSLN representative on the Council of State after Somoza's fall. Instrumental in establishing the new Sandinista education system and literacy campaigns along Marxist lines. Since coming to the Interior Ministry, has served as Chief of the Political Directorate and was involved in early Atlantic Coast autonomy talks. Author of successful book, Fire from the Mountain, portraying student politics in Leon and guerrilla activity in Matagalpa.

CARRION Cruz, Luis F. Member of the FSLN National Directorate and of the FSLN Defense and Security Commission. First Vice Minister of Interior since April 1980. Commander of the Revolution. Born in 1952 in Managua into one of Nicaragua's wealthiest families. His father, Luis Carrion Mon- toya, a banker, was one of the largest stockholders and owners of BANIC, a financial group which dominated much of the Nicaraguan economy before 1979. Primary education at Catholic schools in Nicaragua. High school at the Jesuit- run Centro America in Granada, the most prestigious prep school in the nation. Transferred to the Phillips Exeter Academy in New Hampshire for his senior year, graduating in June 1970. Attended Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute for 1 year before dropping out. An early friend of Jaime Wheelock. One of the original members of Father Uriel Molina's MCR that worked to politically organize the Managua barrios in 1972. Formed the first FSLN Christian cell with Joaquin Cuadra and Alvaro Bal- todano in 1974. Purged from the FSLN with Wheelock and the urban "Marxist- Leninist Proletariat Tendency" (faction) for "sectarianism and insubordination" in October 1975. (Wheelock and Carrion advocated a "traditional" Marxist approach to power through development of proletarian consciousness among urban and rural workers and had therefore come into conflict with the rural guerrilla warfare strategy influenced by the Chinese and Vietnamese then being pushed by the GPP.) Named to the reunified FSLN National Directorate announced in Havana in March 1979. Led the Carlos Roberto Huembes Eastern Front in Chontales during the final offensive. Vice Minister of Defense from December 1979 until April 1980. Attended the Sixth Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam in Hanoi in December 1986 with Olga Aviles. Upon his return he noted, "the solidarity between our peoples [the Nicaraguan and the Vietnamese] fundamentally expresses itself on the political plane, in respect to the causes which we defend and in the interchange of the revolutionary experiences of our two countries. " His brother Carlos is Political Secretary of the FSLN and headed the Sandinista Youth (JS-J19) from 1979 until 1985; his sister Gloria was General Secretary of AMNLAE, the Sandinista Women's Association. A nephew of Ar- turo Cruz, he is also a cousin of Javier Carrion McDonough.

CERNA Juarez, Lenin. MINT Brigade Commander. Director of State Security in the Interior Ministry. Member of the FSLN Defense and Security Commission and the FSLN Assembly. Born on September 29, 1946, in Leon. Son of a Moscow-line communist PSN activist. Joined an FSLN military squad in 1963 and brought his neighborhood friends, the Ortega brothers, into the FSLN. Participated in guerrilla training, sabotage, and bank robberies. Imprisoned from December 1968 until freed and flown to Cuba after the 1974 Christmas party hostage-taking. Received military training in Cuba. ¿¿¿


Totalitarian Controls

Eight years after the fall of Somoza was to usher in a democratic order, the 112 members of the FSLN Directorate (9) and FSLN Assembly (103) hold at least 237 of the top positions in Nicaragua, playing a role similar to that of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. A sampling of additional positions held by FSLN militants and organizations dominated by party members further clarifies the FSLN's totalitarian ambition.

FSLN Assembly Members

Executive President

Vice President

12 of 16 Cabinet Ministers

9 of 9 Regional Minister- Delegates

FSLN Directorate


National Assembly


First Vice President


Minister of Interior, all 3 Deputy/Vice Ministers, the Political Director, and the Chiefs of Internal Affairs and Personal Security Chief of State Security (DGSE), 3 of 5 Deputy Chiefs and the Chief for Foreign and Clandestine Operations

National Police Chief and Deputy

Mass Communications and Organizations

Director, Barricada Newspaper

Director, Voice of Nicaragua Radio Network

Director, National Council for Higher Education

Director, Nicaraguan Women's Association (AMNLAE)

Director, Committees for the Defense of Sandinismo (CDS)

Director, Sandinista Youth (JS-J19)

President, Union of Nicaraguan Farmers and Cattlemen (UNAG)

Secretary General, Association of Rural Workers (ATC)

Secretary General, Confederation of Sandinista Workers (CST)

Secretary General, Association of Cultural Workers (ASTC)


The Minister and Vice Minister of Defense

Chiefs of the Secretariat and the Political Directorate

Chief of General Staff and both Deputy Chiefs

7 members of the General Staff

5 of 7 Military Region Commanders

Key ambassadorships, including USSR, Cuba, Vietnam (plus Cambodia and Laos), Colombia, and the United Nations

All additional members of the Army General Staff

Director of Mail, Telephone and Telegraph

Military Judge Advocate

Army Political Director for Judicial Affairs

Chief, Censorship Department

Chief, Immigration and Alien Affairs

Chief, Penitentiary System

Director of Customs

61 of 96 seats in National Assembly

6 of 7 Supreme Court justices

Mayor of Managua

Director, Enterprise for Basic Foods (ENABAS)

ANN News Agency

Sandinista Television System (SSTV)

Anti-Somocista Peoples' Tribunal (TPA)

Red Cross of Nicaragua

Evangelical Council for Aid and Development (CEPAD)

El Nuevo Diario newspaper

Radio Sandino, Voice of Nicaragua, and the People's Broadcasting Corp. (CORADEP) radio network

Association of Sandinista Children (ANS)

Nicaraguan Journalists Union (UPN)

8000-10000 army and police officers

Party Militants ¿¿¿


¿¿¿ After the fall of Somoza, he was assigned to the Nicaraguan Embassy in Honduras, where he directed assassinations of regime opponents in exile, among them former National Guard Capt. Pablo Emilio Salazar ("Comandante Bravo," the effective and professional leader of the Guard's efforts against Eden Pastora's Southern Front), murdered in October 1979 in Tegucigalpa. As chief of the Secret Police, Cerna has been instrumental in the coordination of Cuban, East German, and Soviet training of members of the state security apparatus. Widely believed to have personally tortured civil opposition activists, including Sofonias Cisneros, President of the Union of Christian School Parents, in May 1985. Brother of Engels Cerna.

CUADRA Lacayo, Joaquin. Army Major General. Vice Minister of Defense and EPS Chief of Staff. Member of the FSLN Assembly and of the FSLN Defense and Security Commission. Guerrilla commander. Born about 1952. While studying law at UCA in the early 1970s, became involved in the FER's political prisoner protests and the MCR's barrio organizing. Received military training under Oscar Turcios on the Carrion family estate. Squad leader in the FSLN's December 1974 Christmas party hostage-taking. Returned from exile in Cuba and elsewhere to participate in the Tercerista's Northern Front campaign of October 1977. Served on the Internal Front Command with Carlos Nunez and Moises Hassan during the June 1979 battle of Managua. With the Sandinistas' rise to power, became Army Chief of Staff and Commander of Operations in Managua. Appointed Vice Minister of Defense in 1980. Since 1979, has traveled to the United States as well as to the Soviet Union, Poland, and Bulgaria. With his long-time friend, Col. Alvaro Baltodano, he is said to have been involved in the 1980 assassination of Jorge Salazar. Also involved with directing the FSLN's assistance to the FMLN rebels in El Salvador and to other Marxist guerrilla groups in Latin America. Son of Joaquin Cuadra Cham- orro. His cousin and brother-in-law, Os- waldo Lacayo, is his deputy. His two sisters are divorced from FSLN National Directorate member Carlos Nunez and Hugo Torres, Chief of the Political Section of the EPS General Staff.

MONTERO Corrales, Renan. Former Cuban intelligence case officer for the FSLN when he was with the Americas Department of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party; now MINT Lt. Col. and member of the FSLN Defense and Security Commission. Chief of Directorate V (Foreign Intelligence and Clandestine Activities Abroad), Ministry of Interior since June 1983. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born Andres Bar- ahona Lopez in Cuba in the late 1930s, he reportedly fought with Che Guevara in Cuba and Bolivia, and may have been among the Cubans sent back to Cuba after El Chaparral in 1959. While a member of Cuban intelligence, he joined the FSLN in the 1960s, specializing in weapons smuggling; his job was to "keep the FSLN in line in the cities." After the FSLN came to power, he was given Nicaraguan citizenship at the request of Fidel Castro. Helped Borge set up the security services, serving as first chief of the DGSE in 1979. Today, Montero is responsible for external intelligence, operations, propaganda, and support for other Latin American revolutionary groups. Travels regularly to Cuba, Panama, and Costa Rica.

MURILLO Zambrana de Ortega, Rosario Maria. Wife of Daniel Ortega, President of Nicaragua. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Secretary General of the Sandinista Association of Cultural Workers, an FSLN mass organization. Born on June 22, 1951, in Managua. Educated in Switzerland. A secret member of the FSLN during her years as the personal secretary to Pedro Joaquin Chamorro at La Prensa from 1971 until his death in 1978. Murillo's first husband, also an FSLN militant, was killed in the war against Somoza.

NUNEZ Tellez, Carlos. FSLN National Directorate member. President of the National Assembly. Commander of the Revolution. Coordinator of the FSLN mass organizations. Born on July 26, 1951, in Leon. Son of a Leon artisan and a street vendor. Through the FER and Olga Aviles, he joined the FSLN in 1969 with his brother Rene. Involved in political organizing in Leon and in Managua after he moved there in 1974. Came under the direction of Edu- ardo Contreras in Managua. After Con- treras led the December 1974 Christmas party hostage-taking, Nunez came under the direction of Carlos Roberto Huembes. Helped Huembes, Jaime Wheelock, and Luis Carrion secretly reenter Nicaragua. Became a member of the FSLN Political Commission after the death of Huembes in November 1976. Director of the FER and the Christian Revolutionary Movement (MCR) in 1977. Went abroad for foreign military and guerrilla training. Chief of Staff of Wheelock's Marxist- Leninist Proletarian Tendency. Joined the reunified FSLN National Directorate announced in Havana in March 1979. Coordinator of the Internal Front along with Joaquin Cuadra and William Ramirez. Led the Internal Front during the Battle of Managua and the retreat to Masaya in June 1979. Replaced Bayardo Arce as president of the Council of State until 1984, when it was replaced by the National Assembly, of which he became President. At one point National Directorate member responsible for the FSLN's Department of Propaganda and Political Education. Since the Sandinista rise to power, has traveled to the United States, Western Europe as well as numerous times to the Soviet Union, Cuba, and Eastern Europe. Divorced from Berta Cuadra, daughter of Joaquin Cuadra Chamorro and sister of Army Chief of Staff Joaquin Cuadra Lacayo. Brother of Rene Nunez Tellez.

ORTEGA Saavedra, Daniel Jose. FSLN National Directorate member. President of Nicaragua. Coordinator of the FSLN Executive Commission and Chairman of the National Planning Council. Commander of the Revolution. Born on November 11, 1945, in La Lib- ertad, Chontales. His father was an accountant for a mining concern. Moved to Juigalpa and later to Managua where his father ran a small import-export business. Studied at private and church schools, including the Christian Brothers' Pedagogic Institute of Managua, where Jaime Wheelock Roman was also a student. Briefly studied for the priesthood in a Salesian seminary in El Salvador where one of his teachers was Miguel Obando y Bravo. Joined JPN in 1960. Arrested after JPN youths tried to seize a National Guard barracks. Under the direction of Adolfo Jose


Evertsz Velez (then head of the communist PSN's paramilitary operations), entered his first terrorist cell in mid-///, with Edmundo Avilez and Francisco Moreno, both of whom later followed Ortega into the FSLN and were killed at Pancasan in ///. The cell placed small bombs at the Cine Tropical movie house and the homes of pro-Somoza politicians. Arrested in /// for fire-bombing vehicles at the US Embassy. Recruited into the FSLN in /// by Lenin Cerna and became active in the student protest movement. Briefly attended law school at UCA before becoming a leader of the Managua underground. Arrested in Guatemala in ///, turned over to Nic- araguan authorities. His torture on that occasion is said to have led him to participate in a four-man FSLN squad that in October ¿¿¿ shot to death Sgt. Gonzalo Lacayo of the National Guard's Office of National Security (OSN), notorious for his ruthlessness against the Sandinistas and reputation as a torturer. First traveled to Cuba in ///. Arrested in November ¿¿¿ on bank robbery charges; convicted and sentenced to 8 years in jail. Acted as an enforcer of ideological discipline in the Sandinista cell block in Carcel Modelo prison. Freed from prison after 7 years by the Christmas party hostage-taking in /// and flew to Cuba. Joined the FSLN National Directorate and collaborated with his brother Humberto in the formation of the Tercerista insurrectional strategy. Returned from Cuba in ///. One of the leaders of the Northern Front during the October and February ¿¿¿ offensives. Served as liaison between the Southern Front and the FSLN National Directorate in ///-79. Joined the reunified National Directorate in March ¿¿¿. After the war, emerged as a member of the governing Junta (and hence implicitly Borge's superior) and its chief international representative. Junta Coordinator, ///-84. Traveled to Hanoi, Vietnam, where he was received by Premier Pham Van Dong on March 10, ///. In Phnom Penh, Cambodia, on March ///, ///, he declared, "If you permit us, we are ready to struggle by your side, with weapons in hands, against the Beijing expansionists. In the political and military fields the Nicaraguan revolution is always by the side of the Kampuchean [Cambodian] Revolution and wholeheartedly supports it." Between /// and ///, Ortega made at least six public visits to the USSR — including

1 Daniel ORTEGA and Mikhail Gorbachev in Moscow, April. (© Reuters/Belimann Newsphotos) 2 Humberto ORTEGA. (© AP/Wide World Photos)


three for the funerals of Brezhnev, Andropov, and Chernenko. Elected president for a 6-year term in November 1984; took office January 10, 1985.

ORTEGA Saavedra, Humberto. FSLN National Directorate member. Member of the FSLN Executive Commission and FSLN Defense and Security Commission. Minister of Defense and EPS Commander in Chief. General of the Army (the only "four star" in the Army; Borge has three). Commander of the Revolution. Brother of President Daniel Ortega. Born circa 1942. Taught Catholic catechism classes in Managua as a youth before his repudiation of Christianity. After leading the Nic- araguan Patriotic Youth (JPN) in 1962 he founded the "Sandinista Brigades." Formally joined the FSLN in 1965. He and Brigade members were suspended from the FSLN for 8 months for "ultra- leftist tendencies," among them unauthorized military actions. During the government crackdown after Pancasan (1967), fled to Cuba, where he received military training. Lost the use of his right arm from wounds received in an unsuccessful attempt to free Carlos Fonseca from a Costa Rican jail in December 1969. Released from jail with Fonseca in October 1970 as a result of the hijacking of an airliner by an FSLN squad under the command of Carlos Aguero. Fonseca and Ortega flew to Havana for a hero's welcome. From Havana, Ortega went to the Soviet Union for a year, where he worked on rehabilitating his arm and developing his contacts with the Soviets. He then returned to Cuba. Received General Staff military training in North Korea in 1971 as a member of an FSLN delegation which also included Carlos Fonseca, Rufo Marin, and Carlos Aguero. Reportedly trained in PLO military camps in the mid-East in the mid-1970s. Returned and joined the FSLN National Directorate. In a major FSLN split over strategy, he was expelled from the FSLN along with his brother Daniel and Victor Tirado in 1977. Under the guiding hand of Fidel Castro, the three were named to the reorganized National Directorate as leaders of the Tercerista faction in March 1979. The major theorist behind the Tercerista's "insurrectional" strategy, which advocated immediate violence in the framework of a broad tactical alliance with all anti-Somoza sectors of Nicaraguan society. Directed the 1977-79 war from Costa Rica. Named Commander-in-Chief of the EPS in October 1979. Minister of Defense since January 1980. The EPS, the Sandinista Navy, the Sandinista Air Force and Air Defense, and the Sandinista Militia all fall under his command. Since the Sandinistas' rise to power, has traveled regularly to Cuba, the Soviet Union, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Algeria, Vietnam, Laos, North Korea, Cambodia, and Panama. Advocate of hard-line security policies, including closer ties to the Soviet Union. Married to Carlos Aguero's widow.

RAMIREZ Mercado, Sergio. Vice President of Nicaragua since November 1984. Member of the FSLN Assembly and of the National Planning Council. Novelist and author. Appointed in August 1987 to the Government's National Commission on Reconciliation. Born on August 5, 1942, in Masatepe, Masaya. His father was a small-scale coffee planter who belonged to Somoza's Liberal Party and was Mayor of Masaya; his mother was the director of the Es- cuela Normal, the "Instituto General Anastasio Somoza Garcia." In his youth, Sergio Ramirez directed the magazine Poliedro, a publication that fervently defended the Somoza regime. As a reward for his propaganda services to the dictatorship, Somoza financed his education, including studies in West Germany. Studied at the University of Kansas at Lawrence. Studied law at UNAN from 1959 to 1964. Participated in the July 1959 student protests. Helped found the FER with Carlos Fonseca in 1961. Became established as a major Nicaraguan literary figure and leftist intellectual as editor of Ventana. Raised a family in Costa Rica while serving as secretary-general of the Central American Superior Council of Universities. Lived in Berlin in 1973-75. Formally joined the FSLN in 1975. Helped recruit the Group of 12 in 1977 as part of the Tercerista broad front alliance strategy. Served as spokesman for the Group of 12 and negotiator in October 1978 mediation. Served on the junta from June 1979 until 1984. Visited Iran, noting on August 26, 1987, that the Sandinistas' strategic ties with Iran were "very deep, sincere and brotherly." His brother, Rogelio, is an FSLN delegate to the National Assembly, director of its Foreign Relations Committee, and member of the FSLN Assembly. His sister, Marcia, is the Chief of Administration for the Social Security Institute (INSSBI).

RAMOS Arguello, Julio Cesar. Army Colonel. Member of FSLN Defense and Security Commission. Commander, EPS Military Region III (Managua and environs) since 1985. Member of the FSLN Regional Directorate for Region III. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born about 1951, he studied medicine at UNAN in Leon in the early 1970s. Joined the FSLN while in school in 1973, participating in a series of bank robberies. Joined Borge's GPP guerrilla faction in the northern mountains in 1977. Became Army Intelligence and Communications Chief in 1979. Replaced by Ricardo Wheelock Roman as head of the Military Intelligence Directorate, a central point of contact for foreign revolutionaries seeking military training (and sometimes action) in Nicaragua. Said to be heavily assisted in his duties by a large contingent of Cuban military advisers.

RUIZ Hernandez, Henry II- defonso. Member of the FSLN National Directorate. Member of National Planning Council. Minister of Foreign Cooperation. Commander of the Revolution. Born in 1940. From a modest Jinotepe family. As a child, won the national elementary school award for best student, awarded by Luis Somoza Debayle. A Moscow-line communist PSN youth cadre, he attended Moscow's Patrice Lumumba University on a Cuban passport in 1966 but did not complete his studies (he opposed the official Soviet line against guerrilla warfare as the appropriate path to power in Latin America). Went to Cuba for guerrilla training, then joined the FSLN after the Pancasan disaster of 1967. Participated in the 1968 meetings in Costa Rica that laid the groundwork for the Prolonged Peoples' War doctrine adopted as official FSLN strategy after1969. Deported from Nicaragua, he received military training with the PLO and traveled to North Vietnam. He returned to Nicaragua in 1971, devoting himself to organizing guerrillas in rural areas. After the deaths of Fonseca and Carlos Aguero, he became the foremost


guerrilla commander in the GPP, remaining in the mountains with the "Pablo Ubeda" Column until 1978. Named to the reunified National Directorate announced in Havana in March 1979. Three weeks after the victory over Somoza, he went to Moscow, Bulgaria, Libya, and Algeria "to conclude technical agreements." Minister of Planning from 1979 until stepping down in 1985 to become Minister of Foreign Cooperation. In charge of the Miskito Indian resettlement program in the early 1980s. A leading advocate of Soviet positions on the FSLN National Directorate.

TIRADO Lopez, Victor Manuel. FSLN National Directorate member. Commander of the Revolution. Born July 19, 1940, in El Rosario, Mexico. First came into contact with Sandinistas in Mexico in 1961, where he was a member of the Communist Party of Mexico during the early and mid-1960s. Joined the FSLN and fought on the Rio Coco in Nicaragua in 1963. Fled to Cuba in 1967 after the Sandinista defeat at Pancasan. Returned to Nicaragua in 1971 to become a leader of the GPP mountain guerrillas. A leader of the Northern Front column in the October 1977 offensive. Joined the FSLN National Directorate in March 1979. Became a Nicaraguan citizen in September 1979. Served as a member of the FSLN National Directorate's Executive Commission and as chairman of the State Committee of the FSLN National Secretariat until 1980, when he took over labor activities within the FSLN's Department of Mass Organizations. Has traveled extensively, visiting Algeria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Syria, Poland, East Germany, Vietnam, and the United States.

TORRES Jimenez, Hugo. Army Colonel. Chief of the Political Directorate of the Sandinista Army (EPS). Member of the FSLN Defense and Security Commission. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Guerrilla commander. Born on April 25, 1948. Son of a National Guard lieutenant from Leon. Joined the FSLN in 1971. Worked in barrio mobilization in the early 1970s. A squad leader under Eduardo Con- treras in the 1974 Christmas party hostage-taking. "Comandante Uno" (Pastora's second-in-command) during the August 1978 assault on the National Palace. Worked in logistics in Honduras for the FSLN's Northern Front. After 1979, he served as Vice Minister of Interior and Chief of State Security under Tomas Borge, before being moved to the Defense Ministry, where he was the EPS delegate to the Council of State. Has traveled to the Soviet Union to visit Nicaraguan students attending the Frunze Military Academy. Divorced from Cristina Cuadra (sister of Joaquin Cuadra Lacayo, Army Chief of Staff, who then married Oswaldo Lacayo, a long-time FSLN militant serving as Army Deputy Chief of Staff).

VIVAS Lugo, Rene. Vice Minister of Ministry of the Interior since April 1981. Member of the FSLN Defense and Security Commission. Brigade Commander. Member of the FSLN Assembly. Born in 1949 into a wealthy family aligned with the Conservative Party. Joined the FSLN in Europe in 1970. Received military training in East Germany and guerrilla training with the PLO in Lebanon and Jordan. Acted as Henry Ruiz's second in command. Led the GPP's "Pablo Ubeda" Column after Ruiz left the mountains in 1978. Led the seizure of the mining areas (eg, Siuna, Bonanza) of Zelaya Department in June 1979. Later served as National Director of the Sandinista Police. By the end of 1979, the training of police recruits by Panama (which had provided material, money, safehaven, and even a 300-man internationalist brigade to the struggle against Somoza) stopped, and the Panamanians were replaced with Cubans and East Europeans. Vivas also has served on the Sandinista government's official human rights commission.

WHEELOCK Roman, Jaime Stanley. FSLN National Directorate member. Minister of Agriculture, Livestock Development, and Land Reform. Member of both the FSLN Executive Commission and the National Planning Council. Commander of the Revolution. Born on May 30, 1947, in Managua. Son of wealthy landed family from Jinotepe, Carazo. Joined the FSLN in 1969 and briefly worked in the Leon organization. Accused of killing a National Guard officer in 1970, he fled to Chile, where he studied politics, sociology, and agricultural law. Studied in Germany from 1972 to 1973. Wrote several books of Marxist historical analysis. Returned to Nicaragua in 1975. Advanced a theoretical critique of the Maoist-oriented GPP strategy from an orthodox Marxist (ie, focusing on working-class rather than peasant concerns) perspective. Tomas Borge and the GPP-dominated FSLN National Directorate purged Wheelock and his "Marxist- Leninist Proletarian Tendency" (TP) for "sectarianism and insubordination" in October 1975 . According to Shirley Christian, "The antagonism toward Wheelock was so great among some Sandinistas that they sent a squad to kill him, but a priest gave Wheelock a hiding place." Led the TP's labor organizing efforts until it reunited with the FSLN in March 1979. Best theoretically trained Marxist of the FSLN National Directorate. His wife, Vanessa Castro Car- denal, is now Chief of the FSLN's Political Education Department and a member of the FSLN Assembly.