Niger Delta Ecosystems: the ERA Handbook/Subject index A-L

INDEX

  1. A
  2. Aba
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    245, 246, 247, 257, 258
  3. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    91
  4. Adventitious
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    91
  5. Adverse environmental impacts of projects
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    164
  6. Aerial Roots
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    70
  7. Afara
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  8. African Charter of Human and People's Rights
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    30
  9. African Rice
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  10. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  11. Age of tropical rainforest trees
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    75
  12. Agenda 21
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    31
  13. Agip
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157, 160, 222, 223, 224, 233, 236,
  14. 240
  15. Agroforestry
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    138, 140
  16. Agroforestry, traditional
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    138
  17. Agro-industry
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    144
  18. Akassa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    40, 41, 54, 62, 146, 147, 148,
  19. 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 224,
  20. 225, 226, 228, 229
  21. Akassa, modern society
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    222
  22. Akassa, natural ecosystem
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    219
  23. Akassa, soils
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    218
  24. Akassa, topography
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    217
  25. Akintola weed
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    136
  26. Akwa Ibom
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    175, 178, 193, 250
  27. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  28. Algae
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    103
  29. Alley cropping
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    140
  30. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74, 84, 228
  31. Amphibians
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  32. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  33. Anaerobic
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    53
  34. Animal communities
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    38
  35. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  36. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  37. Anthocleista nobilis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  38. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    136
  39. Anthocleista vogelli
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  40. Anyama District
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    211
  41. Anyama District, economy
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    215
  42. Anyama District, modern society
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    214
  43. Anyama District, soils
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    212
  44. Anyama District, topography
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    211
  45. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  46. Aonyx spp
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  47. Aquatic animals
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    43
  48. Aquatic ecosystems
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    120
  49. Arable crops
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    134
  50. Arable farming
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    148
  51. Artherurus africanus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  52. Arthropods
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    57, 58, 75
  53. Artiodactyla
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  54. Associated Gas
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    152, 158
  55. Atoms
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    106
  56. Autotrophs
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    43
  57. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    91
  58. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    91
  59. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    92, 96
  60. Awolowa Weed
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    136, 232
  61. B
  62. Back-swamps
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    228, 229
  63. Balance
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    46
  64. Bamboo
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    83, 85, 91
  65. Bananas
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  66. Bassambiri
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    117, 225
  67. Bats
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  68. Bauchi State
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    156
  69. Bayelsa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    170, 211, 216
  70. Beach Strand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    100
  71. Beecroft’s flying squirrel
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  72. Bekekiri
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    147
  73. Benin Estuary
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    89, 222
  74. Benue Basin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    49
  75. Bight of Benin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    36, 50
  76. Bight of Biafra
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50
  77. Bight of Guinea
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94, 110, 113, 115
  78. Bilharzia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    119
  79. Bioactivity
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    46, 57, 73, 83, 103, 139
  80. Biodiversity
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    41, 72, 120, 127
  81. Biogeographical Regions
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    40
  82. Biomass
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    45, 83, 140
  83. Biomes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    40
  84. Biosphere
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    31, 40, 44, 46, 47, 107, 110,
  85. 112, 185
  86. Birds
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    87, 88, 95, 101, 105
  87. Bitumen
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    153
  88. Black duiker
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  89. Black fly
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118
  90. Black-bellied pangolin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  91. Black-water
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    51, 86
  92. Blue duiker
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  93. Bonga
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  94. Bonny
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    173, 194, 245, 247
  95. Bonny Island
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    173
  96. Bonny river
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    49, 50, 90, 129, 146, 147,
  97. 151, 188, 200, 202, 203, 220, 222,
  98. 229, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 256
  99. Bosman's potto
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  100. Botam
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    200, 208
  101. Brachystegia eurycoma
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  102. Brackish water
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    51
  103. Brackish-water
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    89
  104. Brass island
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50, 62, 99, 117, 147, 161,
  105. 194, 217, 219, 222, 224, 225, 229,
  106. 236
  107. Brass river
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    49, 51, 146, 217, 220, 222,
  108. 225
  109. Brush-tailed porcupine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  110. Buffalo
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  111. Bulinus truncatus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    119
  112. Bush Mango
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82, 127, 142
  113. see also Irvingia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    206
  114. Bush Meat
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    126
  115. Bushbuck
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  116. Bushcow
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  117. Bushpig
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  118. Butane
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    152
  119. C
  120. Cadmium
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    188, 254
  121. Calabar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    194
  122. Calamus deerratus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  123. Cameroon
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    89
  124. Camwood
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  125. Canals
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    120
  126. see also Slots
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    175
  127. Canals, environmental impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    176
  128. Canoes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  129. Capillary Moisture
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    67
  130. Carbohydrates
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  131. Carbon cycle, the
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    108
  132. Carbon dioxide
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    53, 108, 111, 158, 185,
  133. 186, 253
  134. Carnivores
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    43, 76
  135. Cassava
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    134
  136. Casuarina trees
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42, 221
  137. Catfish
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104, 121
  138. Cauliflory
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    71
  139. Ceiba pendantra
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    71, 73, 84
  140. Ceiba pentandra
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    202, 213
  141. see also Silk Cotton Tree
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    213
  142. Celtis zenkeri
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  143. Cephalophus jentinki
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  144. Cephalophus maxwelli
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  145. Cephalophus niger
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  146. Cephalophus rufitatus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  147. Cephalophus sylvicultor
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  148. Cercocebus spp.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  149. Cercopithecidae
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  150. Cercopithecoidae
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  151. Cercopithecus erythrogaster
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  152. Cercopithecus mona
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76, 95
  153. Cercopithecus nictitans
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  154. CFCs
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    112
  155. Chevron
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157, 160, 231
  156. Chewing sticks
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  157. Chicoco
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55, 90, 93, 95, 117, 145
  158. Chimpanzee
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76, 87
  159. Chloroflurocarbons
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    112
  160. Chlorophora excelsa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74, 84, 130
  161. Cholera
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118
  162. Chromalaena odorata
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    204, 232
  163. Chromalina
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    136
  164. Chromalina ordorata
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    136
  165. Chromium
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    188
  166. Civets
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  167. Clay
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    161
  168. Cleistopholis patens
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  169. Cleitopholis patens
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  170. Climate
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    36, 50, 54, 62
  171. Climate change
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    186
  172. Climatic Stability
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    56
  173. Cocoa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    140, 171, 194, 206, 232
  174. Cocoyams
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  175. Cola acuminata
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    127
  176. Cola laurifolia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  177. Colacasia spp
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  178. Colobus monkeys
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  179. Colobus Monkeys
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  180. Colobus spp.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  181. Coloidae
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  182. Colonisation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42
  183. Combretodendron africana
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  184. Communities communities
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  185. Communities, animal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    57, 58, 94, 96
  186. Communities, animals
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    86, 101
  187. Communities, plant
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    61, 83, 92
  188. Community Resource Centres
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    32
  189. Compound farming
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    139
  190. Condensation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    66
  191. Conocarpus erectus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    100
  192. Conservation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42
  193. Continental Shelf
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    97
  194. Copper
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    188
  195. Cost Benefit Analyses
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    131
  196. Crabs
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95, 96, 100
  197. Crassostrea gasar
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94
  198. Crested porcupine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  199. Cricetomys ugambianus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  200. Croaker
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  201. Cross river
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50, 57, 90, 129, 194, 202, 229
  202. Cross River State
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  203. Crossarchus obscurus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  204. Crustaceans
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95, 103
  205. Cusimanse
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  206. Cyclicodiscus gabunensis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  207. Cynometra hankei
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  208. Cynometra vogelli
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  209. Cyperus spp.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  210. D
  211. Dahomey Gap
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    48, 57, 63
  212. Dams
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    172
  213. Decomposers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    43
  214. Dendrohyrax dorsalis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  215. Dependency
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    45
  216. Depobelts
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    151
  217. Derrick
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    154
  218. Desertifcation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    109
  219. Detritus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    43, 44, 94
  220. Diarrhoea
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118, 178
  221. Dicotyledons
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81
  222. Diesel
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    153
  223. Diobu
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    245, 247, 248, 258
  224. Dioscorea spp.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  225. Diospyros mespiliformis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  226. Distemonathus benthamianus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  227. Disturbed forest
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    62
  228. diversity
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    41, 57, 69, 104, 212,
  229. 213, 219, 220, 228
  230. Diversity
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    37, 38, 42, 56, 61, 73,
  231. 87, 94, 101, 127, 214
  232. Dolphins
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    105
  233. Dracunculatus dedinesis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118
  234. Dragonflies
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  235. Dredging,environmental impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    176
  236. Drilling
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    172
  237. Drilling Bit
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    154
  238. Drilling fluids
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    154
  239. Drilling for oil
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    154
  240. Drilling for oil, Directional
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    155
  241. Drilling Line
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    154
  242. Drilling string
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    154
  243. Drill monkeys
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  244. Drypetes gossweileri
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  245. Dysentery
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118
  246. E
  247. Earthworm Ridges
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  248. Ebubu
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    177
  249. Ecological history
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    170
  250. Economic Activity, local
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    206
  251. Economic Impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    192
  252. Economic trees
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    142
  253. Economy, local
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    215, 223, 231
  254. Economy, the global
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    110
  255. Ecosystem
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    60
  256. ecosystems
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    64
  257. Ecosystems
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    35, 39, 40, 42, 43,
  258. 44, 45, 47, 48, 51
  259. Ecotone
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    41
  260. Ecozone
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    41
  261. Ecozones of the Niger Delta, Natural
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    59
  262. EIA
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    163, 164, 165
  263. EIA - what is it?
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    162
  264. EIA, Macro-EIA
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    166
  265. Ekole Creek
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    211, 213, 214
  266. Elaeis guineensis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81
  267. Electric eel
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    86
  268. Elements
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    107
  269. Elephants
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77, 139
  270. Elephants of Ogoni
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  271. Elf Oil
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157, 160
  272. Empowerment
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    33
  273. Endemic
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81
  274. Energy
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    44, 45, 53, 141, 153, 196, 198
  275. Entandophragma macrophylum
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  276. Entandrophragma angolensis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    75
  277. Entandrophragma utile
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    75
  278. Environmental Impact Assessment (also see EIA)
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    162
  279. Epiphytes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    61
  280. Epixerus spp.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  281. ERA
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 56, 58, 79, 89,
  282. 111, 114, 139, 159, 162, 171, 176,
  283. 178, 179, 183, 198, 199, 200, 209,
  284. 215, 216, 225, 234, 236, 238, 239,
  285. 240, 242, 243, 248, 249
  286. Eremospatha laurentii
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  287. Eremospatha wendlandiana
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  288. Erosion by rivers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    98
  289. Erosion in estuaries
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    99
  290. Estuaries
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    102
  291. Euphobic Layer
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    65
  292. Euphotic
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  293. Evaporation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    66
  294. Evapotranspiration
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    66
  295. Evolution
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42, 56, 72
  296. Extinction
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    109
  297. F
  298. Faeces
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94
  299. Fagara
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  300. Fair Trade
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    32
  301. Farmers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    86
  302. Farming
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    134, 136, 142, 143, 145, 146,
  303. 148, 187, 203, 204, 205, 206, 214,
  304. 215, 221, 222, 229, 232, 239, 240,
  305. 249
  306. Farming, small farmer
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    144
  307. Ferns
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85, 91
  308. Fertiliser
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    141
  309. Fish
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    57, 95, 104, 120, 121
  310. Fish catch, marine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    123
  311. Fishing
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95, 121, 122, 123, 148, 195,
  312. 222, 223
  313. Flaring (see gas)
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    155
  314. Floating grass
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  315. Flow lines
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    155
  316. Flow station
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    155
  317. Food Chains
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    93
  318. Forcados river
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    49, 90, 99
  319. Forcardos estuary
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    222
  320. Forcardos river
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    86
  321. Forest classification
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    125
  322. Forest clearance
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    98
  323. Forest elephant
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  324. Forest resources
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    125, 126
  325. Forest sponge effect
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    98
  326. Freshwater
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50, 51
  327. Frogs
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  328. Fufu
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  329. Fulani
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    109
  330. Futuma elastica
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  331. G
  332. Galago demidovii
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  333. Gamete
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    72
  334. Garcinia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  335. Garri
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    134
  336. Gas
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    152, 157, 158
  337. see Natural Gas also
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157
  338. Gas flaring
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    159, 160, 168, 183
  339. Gas flaring - legislation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    167
  340. Gas flaring,environmental impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    185
  341. Gas liquefaction
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    173
  342. Gas processing
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    159, 160
  343. Gas Processing
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    155, 173
  344. Gas production
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    159
  345. Gas Re-injection
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    155
  346. Gas reserves
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    159
  347. Gas, associated
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    152
  348. Gas, economic importance
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    159
  349. Gas, re-injecting
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    155
  350. Gas, trace elements in
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    158
  351. Gashua
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    109
  352. Gathering
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95, 195
  353. GDP
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    171
  354. Genes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    72
  355. Genet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    87
  356. Genetic Mutation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    72
  357. Genets
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  358. Genetta spp.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  359. Geology
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    36, 49
  360. Geology of Oil
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    151
  361. Geology of the Niger Delta
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    151
  362. Geophone
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    153
  363. Giant forest squirrel
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  364. Giant pangolin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  365. Giant rat
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  366. Gills
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    120
  367. Gin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    126, 128, 142, 147, 194, 204, 206,
  368. 215, 221, 223, 232
  369. Global warming
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    111,186
  370. Gorillas
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  371. Grass-cutter
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  372. Greenhouse Effect
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    185
  373. Green-House Effect
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    111
  374. Greenhouse gases
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    186
  375. Greenpeace
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    177
  376. Grewia coriacea
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  377. Gross Domestic Product
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  378. see GDP
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    171
  379. Grouper
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  380. Guara cedrata
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    75
  381. Guara thomsonii
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    75
  382. Guenons
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76, 87
  383. Guinea Abyssal Plain
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    151
  384. Guinea Worm
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118
  385. H
  386. Habitat
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42, 56
  387. Habitats
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    38
  388. Hargrove Agreement
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    244
  389. Harrier hawk
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    87
  390. Hausa, the
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    109
  391. Heliophilic plants
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    65
  392. Herbivores
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    43
    1. Herpestes spp.
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      76
    2. Herring or Bonga
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      104
    3. Heterotrophs
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      43
    4. Hevea; see Rubber
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      232
    5. Hibiscus tiliaceus
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      91, 100
    6. Hippopotamus
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      77, 87, 105
    7. Hippopotamus amphibius
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      77
    8. Homestead farming
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      139
    9. Hominidae
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      76
    10. Hominoidea
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      76
    11. Housing in Port Harcourt
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      252
    12. Housing in Urban Areas
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      179
    13. Human Activity
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      165
    14. Human society
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      46
    15. Hunting
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      58, 95, 195, 202, 206
    16. Hydrocoidea
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      77
    17. Hydrology
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      36, 50, 54
    18. Hypodaphnis zenkeri
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      74
    19. Hystrix cristata
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      77
    20. I
    21. Ibibio
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      202, 215
    22. Imo river
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      51, 77, 90, 97, 200,
    23. 202, 203, 208, 246, 247, 259
    24. Inceptisol aquept soils
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      133
    25. Income
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      178
    26. Inheritance
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      72
    27. Insects
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      58, 85
    28. Inshore Waters
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      102
    29. Interested Parties
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      165
    30. Invertebrates
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      103
    31. Ipomea pes-carpea
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      100
    32. Iroko
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      74, 84, 130
    33. Iron Pyrites
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      145
    34. Ironwood
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      71,73,84, 219, 229
    35. see also Lophora procera
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      229
    36. Irvingia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      127
    37. Irvingia gabonensis
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      142, 206, 229
    38. Irvingia grandifolia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      82
    39. Irvingia smithii
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      82
    40. J
    41. Jaja, King
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      194
    42. Jentink's duiker
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      77
    43. Jungle
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      62
    44. K
    45. Kai-kai
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      142, 147, 221
    46. Kainji dam
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      192
    47. Kainji Dam
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      222
    48. Kaolinite
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      54, 55, 161
    49. Kerosene
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      152
    50. Khaya grandiflora
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      82
    51. Khaya grandifolia
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      74
    52. Khaya ivorensis
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      75
    53. Kingdoms of Life
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      38
    54. Kola Nut
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      127, 139, 142, 206
    55. Korokoro
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      208
    56. L
    57. Lagoon
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      93
    58. Lake Chad Basin
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      156
    59. Lakes
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      85
    60. Land
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      116
    61. Land tenure
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      140
    62. Landscape
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      35, 36, 38, 39, 40, 49, 63,
    63. 93, 99, 136, 137, 138, 179, 191, 192,
    64. 193, 199, 200, 203, 205, 207, 211, 212,
    65. 213, 216, 225, 226, 227, 233
    66. Language
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      200, 202, 211, 217, 220, 229
    67. Larvae
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      85
    68. Lead
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      188, 254
    69. Legumes
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      42,67
    70. Leopards
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      76
    71. Lepidoptera
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      85
    72. Lesser Bush Baby
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      76
    73. Levees
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      212, 214, 225, 226, 229, 230
    74. Lianas
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      84
    75. Light
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      120
    76. Liquefied Natural Gas
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      160
    77. Liquefied Natural Gas project
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      158
    78. Liquid Petroleum Gases
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      158
    79. Littoral
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      101, 147
    80. Littoral Forest
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      101
    81. Liver fluke
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      119
    82. Lizards
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      87
    83. Local people
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      165, 166, 167, 170, 174,
    84. 175, 177, 178, 182, 183, 189, 190,
    85. 197, 201, 203, 207, 209, 210, 214,
    86. 215, 218, 222, 223, 230, 231, 232,
    87. 234, 239, 240, 242, 244, 249, 254, 257
    88. Local People
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      34, 207, 216, 234
    89. Long-shore Drift
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      97
    90. Lophira procera
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      71, 73, 84
    91. Lophora procera, see also Ironwood
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      229
    92. Lovoa trichiliodes
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      74
    93. Loxodonta africana
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      77
    94. Lugard, Lord
      ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
      244