Niger Delta Ecosystems: the ERA Handbook/Subject index M-Z

  1. M
  2. Mackerel
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  3. Mahogany
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74, 75, 82
  4. Malaya
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    91
  5. Malaysia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    91
  6. mammals
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    87, 180, 182, 202, 205, 220
  7. Mammals
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    57, 76, 87, 95, 101, 105
  8. Manatee
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    87, 95, 105
  9. Mangabeys
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  10. Mangrove forests
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    89, 90
  11. Mangroves
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    89, 92, 180, 181, 221,
  12. 222, 226, 227, 228, 229, 232
  13. Manihot esculenta
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    134
  14. Manis gigantea
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  15. Manis tetradactyla
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  16. Manis tricuspis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  17. Market Impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    193
  18. Maxwell's duiker
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  19. Mbe Mountains
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  20. Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    72
  21. Mendel’s Law of Segregation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    72
  22. Methane
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    152, 158, 185, 186
  23. Mimusops djave
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  24. Mining
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    149
  25. Mining companies
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    150
  26. Mitragyna ciliata
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  27. Mitragyna stipulosa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84, 219, 228
  28. Mobil
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157, 160
  29. Modern society
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    47
  30. Molecules
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    107
  31. Molluscs
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94, 103
  32. Mona monkey
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  33. Mongooses
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  34. Monocotyledons
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81
  35. Morals
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    150
  36. Mosquitoes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  37. Mudskipper
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95, 104
  38. Mullet
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  39. Murders
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    198
  40. Musa spp
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  41. Musanga cecropioides
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  42. Mutual Coexistence
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    45
  43. Myrianthus arborus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  44. Myrianthus grandifolia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  45. N
  46. Natural ecosystems, Akassa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    219
  47. Natural ecosystems, Anyama
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    212
  48. Natural ecosystems, Ogoni
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    201
  49. Natural ecosystems, Okoroba
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    227
  50. Natural Ecozones
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    192
  51. Natural gas , see gas
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157
  52. Natural Gas
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157
  53. Natural gas formation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157
  54. Natural society
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    47
  55. Nauclea diderrichii
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  56. Nauclea pobeguinii
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  57. Nematodes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94
  58. Nembe
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50, 55, 93, 117, 145,
  59. 187, 211, 217, 219, 220, 225, 226, 227, 228,
  60. 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 258
  61. Nephrolepis biserrata
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  62. New Calabar river
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    49, 51, 118, 129, 222
  63. Niche
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42
  64. Nickel
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    188
  65. Niger Coast Protectorate
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    194
  66. Niger/Benue river system
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    36, 40,
  67. 48, 49, 50, 51, 97, 99, 117, 151, 172
  68. Nigerian National Oil Company
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157
  69. Nipa palm
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    247
  70. Nipa Palm
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    91
  71. Nitrogen
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42
  72. NNPC
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157
  73. Noise
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    183
  74. Non-associated Gas
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    158
  75. Non-renewable resources
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    115, 149
  76. Non-timber Forest Products
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    126
  77. NTFPs
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    126
  78. Nun river
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    86
  79. Nutmeg
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  80. Nutrient cycle
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    44
  81. Nutrients
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    44
  82. Nymphaea lotus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  83. Nymphaea micranthus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  84. Nypha fructicans
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    91
  85. O
  86. Ogbia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    117, 211, 213, 225, 226, 228, 258
  87. Ogbolumabiri
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    117, 225
  88. Ogoni
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    139, 187, 199, 200, 201,
  89. 202, 203, 204, 209, 210, 228
  90. Ogoni and Shell
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    209
  91. Ogoni elephants
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  92. Ogoni Plain
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    56, 200, 201, 202, 203, 228
  93. Ogoni, economy
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    204
  94. Ogoni, modern society
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    203
  95. Ogoni, natural ecosystem
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    201
  96. Ogoni, soils
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    201
  97. Ogoni, topography
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    200
  98. Oil
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    151
  99. Oil - environmental impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    166, 168
  100. Oil Blowouts
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    177
  101. Oil companies
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157
  102. Oil drilling, noise
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    83
  103. OIl flowlines, environmental impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    187
  104. Oil formation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    152
  105. Oil industry, social impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    178
  106. Oil market
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157
  107. Oil palm
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81, 143
  108. Oil Palm
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    141, 195
  109. Oil pipelines, environmental impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    187
  110. Oil price
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    157
  111. Oil Processing
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    155
  112. Oil Production
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    155, 173
  113. Oil production, environmental impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    184
  114. Oil refineries, environmental impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    188
  115. Oil reserves
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    156
  116. Oil revenues
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    171
  117. Oil Rivers Protectorate
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    194
  118. Oil spills
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    177, 178
  119. Oil Spills
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    177
  120. Oil terminals, environmental impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    188
  121. Oil well
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    154
  122. Oil, abandoned wells
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    156
  123. Oil, drilling, environmental impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    181
  124. Oil, economic costs
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    188
  125. Oil, economic costs and benefits
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    189
  126. Oil, economic importance
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    156
  127. Oil, environmental impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    173, 179, 204
  128. Oil, international importance
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    156
  129. Oil, Nigerian Light
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    156
  130. Oil, seismic prospecting, environmental impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    179
  131. Okoroba
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    176, 211, 212, 219, 225,
  132. 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 233,
  133. 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240
  134. Okoroba, soils
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    226
  135. Okoroba, topography
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    225
  136. Okrika
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    187, 244, 246, 250
  137. Oligophootic layer
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    65
  138. Oligophotic
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    86
  139. Omnivores
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    43
  140. Onchocerciasis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118
  141. Opobo
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    194, 200, 203
  142. Orashi river
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    51
  143. Orysa glaberrima
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  144. Orysa sativa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  145. Osse
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    51, 97
  146. Otter
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  147. Otters
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  148. Ovia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    51, 97
  149. Oxidation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    53
  150. Oxygen
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    53, 120
  151. Oysters
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94
  152. P
  153. Pachymelania aurita
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94
  154. Palms
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81, 83
  155. Palm-wine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    91, 232
  156. Pan troglodytes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  157. Pandanus candalabrum
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  158. Pandanus palm
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  159. Pangolin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  160. Panthera pardus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  161. Parasites
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    71
  162. Parkia bicolor
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  163. Participation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    165, 166
  164. Participation in urban management
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    254
  165. Participatory research
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    32, 33
  166. Participatory Rural Appraisal
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    33
  167. Paspalum
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  168. Paspalum vaginatum
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    96
  169. Peat
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    83
  170. Pembrokeshire
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    178
  171. Penaeus notali
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  172. Pepper, "European"
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    140
  173. Percolation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    67
  174. Periophthalmus spp
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  175. Periwinkle shells
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    161
  176. Periwinkles
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94
  177. Perodicticus potto
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  178. Petroleum Hydrocarbons
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    152
  179. pH
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    103
  180. Pholidota
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  181. Photosynthesis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    53
  182. Phytoplankton
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    103
  183. Pigmy Hippopotamus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    87
  184. Pink Shrimp
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    103
  185. Pioneer communities
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    90
  186. Piper nigra
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    140
  187. Piptadena africana
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  188. Piptadenia africana
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    73
  189. Plankton
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    103
  190. Plantains
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  191. Plantations, mixed
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    139
  192. Pneumataphores
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81
  193. Pneumatophores
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    70, 84, 92
  194. Pneumorrhizae
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    202, 213, 228
  195. see also peg roots
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    213
  196. Polychaete worms
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94
  197. Pongidae
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  198. Population
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    213
  199. Population, human
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    39, 46, 110, 112,
  200. 113, 114, 117, 135, 136, 137, 138,
  201. 146, 147, 163, 169, 170, 171, 191,
  202. 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199,
  203. 200, 201, 203, 205, 214, 221, 222,
  204. 229, 231, 240, 245, 246, 247, 248,
  205. 249, 252, 253, 256
  206. Population, rural
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    138, 140
  207. Populations
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    106
  208. Port Harcourt
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    49, 50, 55, 62, 90, 117,
  209. 118, 151, 159, 179, 188, 189, 196,
  210. 198, 199, 200, 207, 209, 211, 217,
  211. 222, 225, 229, 231, 232, 236, 237,
  212. 238, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248,
  213. 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255,
  214. 256, 258, 259
  215. Port Harcourt, ecology
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    247
  216. Potamochoerus porcus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  217. Poverty
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    31, 138, 171, 197, 198, 249,
  218. 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255
  219. Prawns
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  220. Primates
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76, 87
  221. Proboscidea
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  222. Productivity
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    45
  223. Propagule
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    92
  224. Protectorate of Southern Nigeria
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    194
  225. Protein
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    122
  226. Protoxerus stangeri
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  227. Protozoa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94
  228. Pterocarpus santaniloides
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82, 84
  229. Pterocarpus soyauxii
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  230. Pterygota macrocarpa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  231. Putty-nosed monkey
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  232. Pycnanthus angolensis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  233. Q
  234. Quaternary
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    49, 50, 151
  235. R
  236. Raffia palm
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81, 91, 142,195
  237. Raphia gigantia
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81
  238. Raphia hookei
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81
  239. Raphia vinifera
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    81, 91
  240. Rattan palms
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82, 84
  241. Reclamation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    117
  242. Red Mangrove
  243. see Rhizophora racemosa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    220, 227
  244. Red River hog
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  245. Red-flanked duiker
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  246. Reduction
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    53
  247. Relief
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    49
  248. Renewable Natural Resource Sector
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    171
  249. Renewable resources
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    115
  250. Reptiles
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    87, 95
  251. Resource cycles
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    45, 106, 46, 108, 109,
  252. 115
  253. Resource Demand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    170
  254. Resource management
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    115
  255. Rhizophora harrisonii
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    90
  256. Rhizophora mangle
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    91
  257. Rhizophora racemosa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    90, 91, 92, 93,
  258. 161, 227
  259. Rhizophora spp
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94
  260. Ribbon fish
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  261. Rice
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135, 142, 143, 145
  262. Risonpalm
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    143, 214, 215, 216
  263. River Blindness
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118
  264. River Deltas - other
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    48
  265. Rivers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    86
  266. RNR
  267. see Renewable Natural Resources
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    171
  268. Roads, environmental impact
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    175
  269. Rodents
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  270. Roots
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    69, 83
  271. Royal Niger Company
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    221
  272. Rubber
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74, 194, 206, 232
  273. S
  274. Sahel, the
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    109
  275. Salt
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    161
  276. Saltiness
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    89
  277. Salvina
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  278. Sanaga Estuary
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    89
  279. Sand
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    160
  280. Sand Bars
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    97
  281. Sand-barrier Islands
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    97
  282. Sanga river
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50
  283. Sangana
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    217
  284. Sardine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  285. Saro-Wiwa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    198, 208, 209
  286. Satin Wood
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  287. Sawfish
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    105
  288. Schistosoma haematobium
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    119
  289. Schistosomiasis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    119
  290. Sciophile plants
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    65
  291. Sclater's guenon
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    229
  292. Sea
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    93
  293. Sea Empress oil spill
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    178
  294. Sea levels, rising
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    172
  295. Seawater
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    89
  296. Seaweed
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    103
  297. Secondary Forest
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  298. Sedges
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  299. Seismic prospecting for oil
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    153, 172
  300. Seismogelite
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    153
  301. Settlement
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    195, 214, 248
  302. Sewage
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    119
  303. Shell Oil
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    124, 153, 157, 160, 176, 187,
  304. 208, 209, 210, 230, 232, 233, 234,
  305. 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 242,
  306. 245, 246
  307. Shifting agriculture
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    138, 195
  308. Shiny-nose
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    105
  309. Shot-holes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    153
  310. Shrimps
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  311. Silk Cotton
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    73
  312. Silk Cotton tree
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    71
  313. Silk Cotton Tree
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84, 202, 213
  314. see also Ceiba
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    213
  315. Siluriformes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    121
  316. Slave trade
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    146, 147, 194, 203, 213,
  317. 214, 220, 221, 229
  318. Slots
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    120, 175
  319. Snails
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    119
  320. Snakes
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    87
  321. Snapper
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  322. Social Discontent
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    179
  323. Society
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    38, 39, 46, 47, 74, 110, 133,
  324. 138, 146, 147, 150, 162, 164, 166,
  325. 174, 179, 191, 194, 195, 196, 202,
  326. 208, 209, 213, 214, 215, 216, 220,
  327. 221, 224, 228, 234, 251, 254
  328. Soil
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    37, 38, 51, 52, 53, 56, 63, 133
  329. Soil catenas
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    54
  330. Soil horizons
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    52
  331. Soil profiles
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    52
  332. Soil, as a resource
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    133
  333. Soil, common types
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    54
  334. Soils of Ogoni
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    201
  335. Soils,
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    83
  336. Soils, ‘Hydromorphic’
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55
  337. Soils, Acid Sulphate
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55
  338. Soils, Akassa
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    218
  339. Soils, and human activity
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    56
  340. Soils, Anyama district
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    212
  341. Soils, Cat-clays
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55, 92
  342. Soils, Chicoco
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55, 90, 92, 93, 95, 145
  343. Soils, colluvial
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    54
  344. Soils, eluvial
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    54
  345. Soils, Higher levee
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    56
  346. Soils, hydromorphic
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  347. Soils, illuvial
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    54
  348. Soils, Inceptisol Aquept Gley
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  349. Soils, Inceptisol Aquepts
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    54
  350. Soils, Okoroba
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    226
  351. Soils, Saline Sandy
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55
  352. Soils, Sulphaquepts
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55
  353. Soils, Udic Oxisols
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55
  354. Soils,'Gley'
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    55
  355. Sombreiro
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    49, 50, 51, 55
  356. Spathodea campanulata
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  357. SPDC
  358. see Shell
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    187
  359. Species
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    41
  360. Spit
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    93
  361. Sprat
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  362. Squirrels
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    87, 95
  363. St. Nicholas river
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    217
  364. Starch
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  365. Sterculia oblonga
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  366. Stomata
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    66
  367. Strand vegetation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    42
  368. Strategic Environmental Assessment
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    113, 166
  369. Stress in urban areas
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    254
  370. Strombosia postulata
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    75
  371. Sulphaquept soils
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    133
  372. Sunfleck
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    65
  373. Sustainable development
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    33
  374. Swamp vine
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  375. Swamps
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  376. Symbiosis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    68
  377. Symphonia gabonensis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  378. Syncerus caffer
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  379. T
  380. Terminalia superba
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    71, 84
  381. Termites
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    106
  382. Terrestrial Animals
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    43
  383. Tertiary
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    49, 151
  384. Texaco
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    147, 157, 221, 222
  385. Threadfin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    104
  386. Thryonomys swinderianus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  387. Tidal step
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    93
  388. Timber
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    126
  389. Toads
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  390. Topography
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    36
  391. Trade
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    32, 140, 146, 147, 193, 194, 203,
  392. 213, 216, 220, 221, 223, 229, 231
  393. Tragedy of the Commons
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    194
  394. Tragelaphus scriptus
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  395. Transpiration
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    66
  396. Tree crops
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    139
  397. Tree hyrax
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  398. Trichechus senegalensis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    95
  399. Trichilia heudelotica
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  400. Triplochiton scleroxylon
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  401. Tropical Rainforest
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    60, 83
  402. Tropical rainforest, LEM
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    68
  403. Tropical rainforest, Light
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    62, 65
  404. Tropical Rainforest, Montane
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    61
  405. Tropical rainforest, Soil
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    62
  406. Tropical Rainforest, Temperature
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    62,65
  407. Tropical rainforest, Water
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    66
  408. Tropical rainforests, Nutrients
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    67
  409. Tubers
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  410. Typhoid
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118
  411. U
  412. U.A.C.
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    147, 221
  413. Uapaca guineensis
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    84
  414. Uapaca spp
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    82
  415. Udic-oxisol soils
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    134
  416. Umbrella Tree
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  417. Ungulates
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  418. United Africa Company
  419. see UAC
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    221
  420. Urban environment
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    253
  421. all Chapter 20
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    243
  422. V
  423. Vegetation
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    37, 38, 53, 54, 56, 84
  424. Vegetation, climax
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    57
  425. Vertebrates
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    57, 58, 75, 95
  426. Viability
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    43, 46
  427. Viable society
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    47
  428. Vivera civetta
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  429. Volta
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    200, 202, 211, 217, 220, 229
  430. Vossia cuspidata
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  431. W
  432. Walnut
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  433. Warri river
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50, 51, 55
  434. Warri town
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50, 51, 90, 117, 135, 147,
  435. 188, 189, 220, 238, 247
  436. Water
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    108, 117
  437. Water hyacinth
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    53
  438. Water In Plants
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    66
  439. Water lilies
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  440. Water pollution
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118, 172
  441. Water Pollution
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    118, 119
  442. Water Processing
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    155
  443. Water-cabbage
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    85
  444. Whales
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    105
  445. White Afara
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    71
  446. White-bellied pangolin
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  447. White-throated monkey
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    76
  448. White-water
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    50, 86
  449. Whitewood
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  450. With and Without Scenarios
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    163
  451. World Bank
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    117, 168, 172, 175, 176,
  452. 177, 183, 185, 188, 196, 198, 246
  453. Y
  454. Yams
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    135
  455. Yellow-backed duiker
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    77
  456. Yoruba uplands
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    64
  457. Yoruba Uplands
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    51
  458. Z
  459. Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    74
  460. Zooplankton
    ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
    94