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Order 98: Iraqi Ombudsman for Penal and Detention Matters



Pursuant to my authority as Administrator of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA)
and under the laws and usages of war, and consistent with relevant U.N. Security Council
resolutions, including Resolutions 1483 and 1511 (2003),

Recognizing the need to promote the development of an effective framework for officials
of the Iraqi Government to participate in the oversight of the detention of individuals in

Determining the necessity of an independent means of investigating complaints of abuse
and acting in accordance with UNSCR 1483 to promote the protection of human rights,

Acting in accordance with the consultations between the Coalition Provisional Authority
and the Iraqi Interim Government,

I hereby promulgate the following:

Section 1

1) “Detaining authority” means any Iraqi, Multinational Force or contracted personnel
employed, engaged in, supervising or commanding, criminal or security custody in
Iraq with respect to persons held in such custody for any period. This does not include
Multinational Force detention of its own personnel.

2) “The Government” means the Iraqi Interim Government and the Iraqi Transitional

3) “Complainant” means a person complaining of adverse treatment by a detaining

4) “Conduct” means any action or inaction relating to the behavior or administrative
functions of a detaining authority.

5) "Head of Government" means, before June 30, 2004, the CPA Administrator, and
thereafter means the Prime Minister of the Iraqi Interim Government or the Iraqi
Transitional Government.

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Section 2
Office of the Ombudsman

1) The Head of Government may, on the recommendation of the Minister of Justice,
appoint an Ombudsman on such terms and conditions, consistent with and subject to
this Order, as are specified in the instrument of appointment.

2) For administrative purposes, and without prejudice to the powers and responsibilities
vested in the Ombudsman under this Order, the Ombudsman shall be considered an
officer of the Ministry of Justice and shall be entitled to a salary at a level
commensurate with the duties and responsibilities of the office, as determined by the
Minister of Justice, which salary shall not be reduced during the Ombudsman’s

3) Subject to this Order, the Ombudsman holds office for such period, not exceeding
seven years, as is specified in the instrument of his or her appointment and is eligible
for re-appointment.

4) To be eligible for appointment as Ombudsman the person must:

a) be an Iraqi national,

b) be of high moral character and reputation for impartiality and integrity,

c) have a background of opposition to the Ba`ath Party, non-membership in the
Ba`ath Party or membership that does not fall within the leadership tiers described
in CPA Order 1, dated May 16, 2003 and entailed no involvement in Ba`ath Party
activity, and

d) have no criminal record unless the record consists only of a political or false
charge made by the Ba`ath Party regime.

The Head of Government may replace an Ombudsman from office of Ombudsman, if
the Head of Government considers that one or more of the following grounds have
been established, but such grounds shall be presented in writing and shall be subject
to appeal to the Courts of Iraq:

acceptance of any gainful employment outside the duties of the office, unless with
the permission of the Minister of Justice;

decision to stand for election as a member of the National Assembly or of the any
provincial governate or council,

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resignation of the office by instrument in writing addressed to the Head of

d) physical or mental disability affecting his or her capacity to perform his or her
functions, or failure in the execution of his or her functions; or

conviction for a criminal offense punishable by a term of imprisonment.

The Ombudsman has and may exercise the functions conferred or imposed on the
Ombudsman by or under this or any other law.

Section 3
Deputy and Assistant Ombudsmen

1) The Ombudsman may appoint one or more Deputy Ombudsmen and Assistant
Ombudsmen. Deputy or Assistant Ombudsmen shall exercise such authority and
perform such duties as the Ombudsman delegates, without limitation.

2) The Ombudsman may employ such assistance as he or she deems proper for the
carrying out of any inquiry or investigation, and may, in writing, authorize any person
so employed to inspect and report upon documents or other items, or (without
affecting the generality of the foregoing) accounts, he/she considers relevant to the
subject matter of the inquiry.

Section 4
Right to Complain

1) Subject to this section, any person (including a public authority) may complain in
writing to the Ombudsman about the conduct of a detaining authority unless the
conduct took place before the date of entry into force of this Order.

2) A member of the Government may complain to the Ombudsman on behalf of a

3) A detaining authority must permit and facilitate the confidential transmission of a
complaint to the Ombudsman, including transmitting immediately and unopened any
written matter addressed to the Ombudsman.

4) The Ombudsman may accept a complaint that is not in writing, in which case he or
she shall reduce the complaint to writing within three days of receiving the complaint.

Section 5

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1) Notwithstanding any provision of law existing at the time of the signing of this
Order, the Ombudsman may investigate conduct referred to in Section 16, regardless
of whether a complaint has been filed, however nothing herein authorizes the
Ombudsman to investigate any matter that occurred prior to the date of this Order.

In deciding whether to investigate or discontinue the investigation of a complaint, the
Ombudsman may consider such matters as he or she thinks fit, including but not
limited to whether:

the complaint is frivolous, vexatious or not in good faith,

b) the subject matter of the complaint is trivial,

the conduct complained of occurred at too remote a time to justify investigation, or

d) internal remedies have previously been exhausted.

3) Where the Ombudsman declines to investigate a complaint, or discontinues the
investigation of such complaint, the Ombudsman shall inform the complainant in writing
of his or her decision and the reasons for the decision.

4) The Ombudsman, upon deciding to investigate the conduct of a detaining authority,
shall give notice of the decision:

to the complainant, and

b) to the head of the detaining authority and, if practicable, to the detaining authority.

c) A notice under this section must be in writing, must describe the conduct under
investigation, and must, so far as practicable, identify the detaining authority and
may request that the alleged perpetrator of the conduct be removed from direct
control, supervision of, or contact with the complainant.

Section 6
Public Disclosure

An investigation under this Order shall not be disclosed to, and shall be made in the
absence of, the public until completion. The names of individuals shall be withheld
until the completion of any civil, criminal or administrative proceedings that may
involve those individuals. The name of a complainant shall not be publicly disclosed
without that person’s consent

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Section 7
Detaining Authority to Give Information

1) For the purposes of an investigation under this Order, and subject to Subsection (3) of
this Section, the Ombudsman may require a detaining authority:

a) to give the Ombudsman a statement of information,

b) to produce to the Ombudsman any document or other thing, or

c) to give the Ombudsman a copy of any document.

2) A request under this section must be in writing, must specify or describe the
information, document or thing required, and must fix a time and specify a place for

3) The Ombudsman may request the Multinational Force Commander or his delegate to
produce documents, copies of documents or real evidence. The Multinational Force
Commander or his delegate may deny such requests if concurrence would result in an
unacceptable breach of operational security or if otherwise prevented or denied
pursuant to law.

4) The Multinational Force Commander or his delegate may submit, and the
Ombudsman shall consider, the results or report of any Multinational Force
investigation concerning the subject of an investigation.

5) The Ombudsman shall maintain the confidentiality of all confidential or classified
information and date obtained, with special attention being given to the safety of
complainants and witnesses.

Section 8

1) In an investigation under this Order, the Ombudsman may make or hold inquiries.

2) Where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Ombudsman that any person is
substantially and directly interested in any subject-matter of the inquiry, or that the
person's conduct in relation to any such matter has been challenged to the person's
detriment, the Ombudsman may authorize such person to appear at the inquiry.
Persons involved in such an inquiry have the right to be represented by legal counsel.

3) Any legal counsel so appointed and any person so authorized or the person's legal
counsel may, with the leave of the Ombudsman, examine or cross-examine any

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witness on any matter which the Ombudsman deems relevant to the inquiry.

4) The Ombudsman may by notice in writing summon any person who is not a member
of the Multinational Force to attend an inquiry at a time and place named in the
summons, and then and there to give evidence and to produce any documents or other
things in the person's custody or control which the person is required by the summons
to produce.

5) The Ombudsman may request the Multinational Force Commander or his delegate to
permit the attendance of Multinational Force personnel as witnesses at an inquiry. The
Multinational Force Commander or his delegate may deny such requests if he or his
delegate determines that compliance would result in an unacceptable breach of
operational security, provision of the personnel would prejudice the conduct of
operations, such witnesses are not reasonably available or their attendance is
otherwise prevented by law.

6) The Ombudsman may administer an oath to any person appearing as a witness at the
inquiry, whether the witness has been summoned or appears without being
summoned, and may examine the witness upon oath or affirmation.

7) Every witness who has been summoned to attend the commission shall appear and
report from day to day unless the witness is excused from attendance or until the
witness is released from further attendance by the Ombudsman.

8) A witness summoned, in accordance with Subsection (4) of this Section, to attend
before the Ombudsman shall not be entitled to refuse to:

a) be sworn or to make an affirmation,

answer any question relevant to the inquiry put to the witness by the Ombudsman,

c) produce any document or other thing in the witness's custody or control which the
witness is required by the summons to produce.

9) Nothing in this Order shall make it compulsory for any witness:

to answer any question or produce any document or other thing if the witness has a
reasonable excuse for refusing, or

b) to disclose any operationally classified information or material.

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Section 9
Inspection and Copies of Documents

1) The Ombudsman may retain documents or other material for such reasonable period
as required to complete an inquiry.

2) When the retention of a document or other material ceases to be reasonably necessary
for the purposes of the inquiry to which it relates, the Ombudsman is required, if a
person who appears to the Ombudsman to be entitled to the document or other thing
so requests, to cause it to be returned to that person.

3) The requirement under Subsection (2) does not apply if the Ombudsman has furnished
the document or other thing or proposes to furnish it to a person or body referred to in
section 12 or the Ombudsman deals with it or proposes to deal with it otherwise
according to law.

Section 10
Communication of Information

The Ombudsman may communicate any information or furnish any material
(including evidence) that it obtains in the course of the inquiry conducted by it to a
law enforcement agency, if the information or material relates or may relate to a
breach of a law of Iraq in relation to Iraqi detaining authorities.

Section 11
Entry to Premises

In an investigation under this Order, the Ombudsman may, at any time:

a) enter and inspect any premises occupied or used by a detaining authority to
deprive persons of their liberty, and

b) inspect any document or thing in or on the premises,

subject only to the limitation that the Multinational Force Commander or his delegate
may deny access for reasons of imperative military necessity as an exceptional and
temporary measure, or prevent the inspection of operationally classified documents.

Section 12
Persons to be Heard

1) In an investigation under this Order, the Ombudsman shall give an opportunity to the
subject of the investigation to make submissions.

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2) Where, in an investigation under this Order, the Ombudsman considers that there are
grounds for adverse comment in respect of any person, the Ombudsman, before
making any such comment in any report, shall, so far as practicable:

a) inform that person of the substance of the grounds of the adverse comment, and

b) give the person an opportunity to make submissions.

Section 13
Consultation with the Minister of Justice

1) In an investigation under this Order, the Ombudsman shall, on request by the Minister
of Justice, consult the Minister on the conduct of the investigation.
2) Before publishing a report under this Order the Ombudsman:
a) shall inform the Minister of Justice that he or she proposes to publish such a
report, and
b) shall, on request by that Minister, consult that Minister.

Section 14
Report of Investigation

1) Where, in an investigation under this Order, the Ombudsman finds that the conduct
the subject of the investigation, or any part of the conduct, is of any one or more of
the following kinds:

a) contrary to law,
b) unreasonable, unjust, oppressive or improperly discriminatory,
c) in accordance with any law or established practice but the law or practice is,

unreasonable, unjust, oppressive or improperly discriminatory,
d) based wholly or partly on improper motives, irrelevant grounds or irrelevant

e) based wholly or partly on a mistake of law or fact, or
f) otherwise wrong,
the Ombudsman shall make a report accordingly, giving his or her reasons.

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2) In preparing his or her report, the Ombudsman will consider any report of an
investigation concerning the same or a similar subject that the Multinational Force has
made available for his or her review.

3) In a report under this section, the Ombudsman may recommend that:
a) action be taken to rectify, mitigate or change the conduct or its consequences,
b) reasons be given for the conduct,
c) any law or practice relating to the conduct be changed,
d) compensation be paid to any person, or
e) any other appropriate actions be taken.

4) The Ombudsman shall give a report under this Section to the:
a) Head of Government and the Minister of Justice, and
b) the head of the detaining authority whose conduct is the subject of the report.

5) The Ombudsman may give a copy of a report or summary of the factual findings and
recommendations under this Section:
a) where the investigation arises out of a complaint to the Ombudsman, to the
complainant, and
b) to the detaining authority to whose conduct the report relates.

6) The person to whom a report is given under Subsection (3) (b) may, and on request by
the Ombudsman shall, notify the Ombudsman of any action taken or proposed in
consequence of a report under this section.

Section 15
Serious Misconduct

Where the Ombudsman is of the opinion that a detaining authority is or may be guilty
of misconduct in the course of performing his or her functions to such an extent as, in
the opinion of the Ombudsman, may warrant dismissal, removal or punishment, the
Ombudsman shall report the opinion to the Head of Government, the Minister of
Justice and to the head of the detaining authority, giving reasons for the opinion.

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Section 16
Incriminatory Statement

1) Where a person is required under this Order to give a statement that tends to
incriminate that person, neither the requirement nor the statement may be used in any
proceedings against that person.

2) Subsection (1) applies whether the person required to give a statement objects to
giving it or not.

Section 17
Disclosure by Ombudsman or Officer

The Ombudsman shall not, nor shall an officer of the Ombudsman, disclose any
information obtained by the Ombudsman or officer in the course of the Ombudsman's
or officer's inquiry or investigation, unless the disclosure is made:

a) where the information is obtained from a detaining authority, with the consent of
the head of that authority or of the Minister of Justice,

b) where the information is obtained from any other person with the consent of that
person, or

c) the disclosure is pursuant to section 12 or 16 herein.

Section 18

1) A person shall not:

a) without lawful excuse, willfully obstruct, hinder or resist the Ombudsman or an
officer of the Ombudsman in the exercise of the Ombudsman's or officer's powers
under this or any other Order, law or regulation,

b) without lawful excuse, refuse or willfully fail to comply with any lawful
requirement of the Ombudsman or an officer of the Ombudsman under this or any
other Order, law or regulation, or

c) willfully make any false statement to or mislead, or attempt to mislead, the
Ombudsman or an officer of the Ombudsman in the exercise of the Ombudsman's

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This work is in the public domain in the United States because it is a work of the United States federal government (see 17 U.S.C. 105).