BALFOUR 87 form a province 1860 square miles in area, divided into Drummond Wolff, and Sir John (then Mr) Gorst, the five administrative districts and sixty-one parishes. The quartette becoming known as the “Fourth Party,” and population was 289,035 in 1877, and 312,646 in 1887, gaining notoriety by the freedom of the criticisms directed when Mallorca contained 248,993 inhabitants, Menorca by its leader, Lord Randolph Churchill, against Sir Stafford 38,959, Ibica 22,509, Fromentera 1984, and the smaller FTorthcote, Lord Cross, and other prominent members of islands the remaining 201. In 1897 the total population the “ old gang.” In had decreased to 309,807. This decrease has not been these sallies, however, due exclusively to emigration, as barely 650 inhabitants Mr Balfour had no in all depart annually for Algeria or the Spanish mainland. direct share. He was In 1897 the live stock numbered only 176,113 head, this thought to be merely figure including 1737 horses, 17,289 mules, 8928 asses, amusing himself with 7275 cattle, 94,290 sheep, 10,432 goats, and 36,162 pigs. politics. It was reOnly 15,000 acres are irrigated, but wheat is grown on garded as doubtful 139,535 acres; oats, rye, barley on 101,187 acres; pod whether his health fruit on 35,877 acres ; vines on 35,460 acres, and the olive could withstand the on 67,100 acres. The export of oranges has greatly de- severity of English clined, their culture having been abandoned owing to an winters, and the insect plague. Figs also are now only used to feed live delicacy of his physique stock and for consumption in the province. Besides the and the languor of his salt mines of Ibica, eight lignite, and ten lead mines are manner helped to actually worked in the islands, and there are seventy-four create the impression unproductive mines, mostly lignite. The output of lignite that, however great his amounted to 18,000 tons in 1898. The means of com- intellectual powers munication are being improved by the local corporations. might be, he had Forty-eight miles of railways have been completed in neither the bodily Mallorca, the main line (40 miles) running from Palma to strength nor the energy Manacor. The standard of primary education is well up of character requisite Arthur James Balfour. to the average for Spain, and there are higher schools in for a political career. <JVom “ ^t0^h ^ miM and Frv> London.) the principal towns. The local industries are thriving. He was the “odd man” of the Fourth Party, apparShoemaking is one of the most prosperous trades in the ently content to fetch and carry for his colleagues, islands. There is not a very active trade direct with and was believed to have no definite ambitions of foreign countries, as the principal imports—cotton, leather, his own. His reputation in the Parliament of 1880-86 petroleum, sugar, coal, and timber—are introduced into was that of a dilettante, who allied himself with the three the islands through Barcelona. The export trade is chiefly politicians already named from a feeling of irresponsibility with the peninsula, France, Italy, Algeria, and the Spanish rather than of earnest purpose; he was regarded as one West Indies. Most of the agricultural products are sent who, on the rare occasions when he spoke, was more to the peninsula ; wine, figs, marble, almonds, lemons, and desirous to impart an academic quality to his speeches rice, to Europe and Africa. In 1898 the imports of the than to make any solid contribution to public questions. Balearic isles were valued at .£143,687 and the exports at The House, indeed, did not take him quite seriously. £442,942. ^ Members did not suspect the reserve of strength and The best modern work on the Balearics is that of the Archduke ability beneath what seemed to them to be the pose of Ludwig Salvator, published in several volumes at Leipzig 1869-90 a parliamentary flaneur, looking upon him merely as a of which an abridged edition in Spanish was published at Palma in young member of the governing classes who remained 1886> (A. E. H.) in the House because it was the proper thing for a man Balfour, Arthur James (1848— —), British of family to do. As a member of the clique known as statesman, eldest son of the late James Maitland Balfour the “Souls” he was, so to speak, caviare to the general. of Whittinghame, Haddingtonshire, and of Lady Blanche Indolence was supposed to be the keynote of his character Gascoyne Cecil, second daughter of the second Marquis —a refined indolence not, however, without cleverness of of Salisbury, was born 25th July 1848. He was educated a somewhat cynical and superior order. at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. In 1874 he That these views were not shared by Lord Salisbury was elected in the Conservative interest for Hertford, and is sufficiently shown by the fact that in his first Adminisrepresented that constituency until 1885. When, in the tration (June 1885-January 1886) he made Mr Balfour spring of 1878, Lord Salisbury became Foreign Minister on the resignation of the 15th Lord Derby, Mr Balfour President of the Local Government Board, and in forming his second administration (July 1886) secretary for Scotbecame his private secretary. In that capacity he land with a seat in the Cabinet. These offices gave accompanied Lord Salisbury to the Berlin Congress, few opportunities for distinction, and may be regarded and gained his first experience of international politics in connexion with the settlement of the Kusso-Turkish merely as Mr Balfour’s apprenticeship to Departmental conflict. It was at this time also that he became known responsibilities. The accidents of political life suddenly in the world of letters, the intellectual subtlety and literary opened out to him a career which made him, next to Lord Salisbury, the most prominent, the most admired, capacity of his Defence of Philosophic Doubt (1879) and the most attacked Conservative politician of the suggesting that he could, if he chose, make a reputation as a speculative thinker. Belonging, however, to a class day. Sir Michael Hicks-Beach, who was chief secretary to which the responsibilities of government are a tradi- for Ireland, suffered from an affection of the eyes, and tional duty, Mr Balfour divided his time between the found it desirable to resign, and Lord Salisbury aphis nephew in his stead. The selection took political arena and the study. Being released from his pointed the political by surprise, and was much criticized. duties as private secretary by the general election of By the Irishworld Nationalists it was received with con1880, he began to take a rather more active part in parliamentary affairs. He was for a time politically temptuous ridicule, for none suspected Mr Balfour’s immense strength of will, his debating power, his ability associated with Lord Randolph Churchill, Sir Henry in attack, and his still greater capacity to disregard
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