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88

BALI

criticism. The debates on the Crimes Bill and the Irish years. His speeches and work throughout this period Land Bill quickly undeceived them, and the steady and took a wider range than before his accession to the even remorseless vigour with which the government of leadership of the Commons. During the. illness of Lord Ireland was conducted speedily convinced the House of Salisbury in 1898, and again in Lord Salisbury s absence Commons and the country that Mr Balfour was in his abroad, he was in charge of the Foreign Office, and it fell right place as Chief Secretary. His policy was that of to his lot to conduct the very critical negotiations with “coercion”—the fearless administration of the Crimes Russia on the question of railways in North China. To Act coupled with remedial legislation ; and he enforced his firmness, and at the same time to the conciliatory the5 one while he proceeded with the other, regardless of readiness with which he accepted and elaborated the the risk of outrage outside the House and of insult principles of a modus vivendi, the two Powers owed the within. Mr Balfour^ work at this period covered one avoidance of what threatened to be a dangerous quarrel. of the most turbulent and most exciting periods, in As a member of the Cabinet responsible for the Transvaal modern Parliamentary history and Irish administration. negotiations in 1899 he bore his full share of controversy, With a courage that never faltered he broke down the and during the war his high character and personal charm Plan of Campaign in Ireland, and in Parliament he not helped the Government over some awkward places, though only withstood the assaults of the Irish Nationalists, in his attitude on the charges of hospital deficiency made but waged successful warfare with the entire Home Rule by Mr Burdett Coutts, he permitted himself to depart party. He combined an iron will with a mastery of from the suavity which had usually distinguished his facts unsurpassed by any of his predecessors in the conduct in the House. At the general election of 1900 Secretaryship. Events, it is true, were in his favour. he was returned for East Manchester (which he had The disclosures before the Parnell Commission, the O’Shea represented since 1885) by a majority of 2453, and condivorce proceedings, the downfall of Mr Parnell, and tinued in office as First Lord of the Treasury. . His the disruption of the Irish party, assisted him in his leadership of the House of Commons in the first session of task; but the fact remains that by persistent courage the new Parliament was marked by considerable firmand undeviating thoroughness he reduced crime in Ireland ness in the suppression of obstruction, but there was a to a vanishing point. His work was also constructive, slight revival of the criticisms which had been current for he broadened the basis of material prosperity and in 1896. Mr Balfour’s inability to get the maximum social progress by creating the Congested Districts Board amount of work out of the House must, however,. be in 1890. During this period, from 1886-92, moreover, regarded in relation to the situation in South Africa, he developed gifts of oratory which made him one of the which absorbed the intellectual energies of the House and most effective of public speakers. Impressive in matter of the country and impeded the progress of legislation. On rather than in manner of delivery, and . seldom rising the subject of the South African war Mr Balfour delivered, to the level of eloquence in the sense in which that in the House and from the platform, various speeches quality was understood in a House which had listened to which rank among his best oratorical efforts. Besides the Defence of Philosophic Doubt Mr Balfour Bright and Gladstone, his speeches were logical and convincing, and their attractive literary form delighted has published Essays and Addresses (1893) and The a wider audience than that which listens to the mere Foundations of Belief being Notes introductory to the Study of Theology. He was made LL.D. of Edinburgh politician. In 1888 Mr Balfour served on the Gold and Silver University in 1881; of St Andrews University in 1885; Commission, currency problems from the standpoint, of of Cambridge University in 1888 ; of Dublin and Glasgow bimetallism being among the more academic subjects which Universities in 1891; Lord Rector, of St Andrews had engaged his attention. On the death of Mr W. H. University in 1886; of Glasgow University in 1890; Smith in 1891 he became First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of Edinburgh University in 1891; Member of leader of the House of Commons, and in that capacity the Senate London University in. 1888; and D.C.L. of introduced in 1892 a Local Government Bill for Ireland. Oxford University in 1891. He is a cultured musician The Conservative Government was then at the end of its and an enthusiastic golf player, having been captain of the tether, and the project fell through. For the next three Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews m 1894-95; years Mr Balfour led the Opposition with great skill and his taste for cycling is attested by his presidency of the address. On the return of the Unionists to power in National Cyclists’ Union, 1896. 1895 he resumed the leadership of the House, but not Bali, &n island E. of Java, Dutch East Indies, and at first with the success expected of him, his managefrom it by the Bali Strait. In 1882, for ment of the abortive education proposals of ’96. being separated administrative purposes, it was separated from Java and thought, even by his own supporters, to show a disinclination for the continuous drudgery of parliamentary manage- combined with the island of Lombok to form the residency ment under modern conditions. But after the opening of Lombok and Bali. Politically its divisions are two: session matters proceeded more smoothly, and Mr Balfour (1) the two districts, Buleleng and Jembrana, on Dutch regained his old position in the estimation of the House territory; and (2) the autonomous states of Ivlung Rung, and the country. He had the satisfaction of seeing a Bill Bangli, Mengui, Badung, and Tabanan. Exploration of pass for providing Ireland with an improved system of the island has proved its geological formation to include local government, and took an active share , in the debates (as does that of Java) three regions, the central volcanic, southern peninsula of Tertiary limestone, and alluvia on the various foreign and domestic questions that came the plains the older formations. The highest volbefore Parliament during 1895-1900. His championship canoes, between Tabanan, Batur, and Gunung Agung, have reof the Voluntary Schools, his adroit Parliamentary handling spectively the height of 7545, 7383, and 10,497 fee , e of the problems opened up by the so-called “ crisis in central chain having an average altitude , of 3282 feet. the Church” caused by the Protestant movement against The only roadstead safe all the year round is Temukus on ritualistic practices, and his pronouncement in favour of a Roman Catholic University for Ireland—for which, he the north coast. The rivers are not navigable. Agriculis the chief means of subsistence. Rice is cultivated. outlined a scheme that met with much adverse criticism ture Other crops grown for export are coffee, tobacco, cocoa, both from his colleagues and his party,—were the most and indigo. Gold-working, the making of arms and important aspects of Mr Balfour’s activity during these