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BALIKISRI — BALKAN PENINSULA 89 musical instruments, wood-carving, cotton, silk, and gold more severe than that of the sister peninsulas, and the thread weaving are of importance. The value of the temperature is liable to sudden changes. The winter, though combined exports and imports of late years has been about short, is often intensely cold, especially in the Danubian plain ,£400,000-,£500,000. The area of the island is 2240 and in Thrace, the rigorous climate of which is frequently square miles, the population on Dutch territory being alluded to by the Latin poets. Bitter north-easterly winds 103,101, and in the autonomous states 1,259,135. prevail in the spring, and snow is not uncommon even in Vax Eck. Schetscn van het eiland Bali. Tijdsch. van Xcderl. the low-lying districts of Greece. Indie, 1878-79.—Dr. Jacobs. Eecnigen tijd onder de Balicrs, (For further details with regard to the physical features, Batavia, 1883.—Dr. Tonkes. Volks Kunde von Bali. Halle, 1888.—Liefrinck. De rijst cultuur op Bali. Indische Gids. etc., see Turkey, ninth edition, vol. xxiii. p. 653, and the 1886. articles there quoted; also Bulgaria in the present Balikisri, the chief town of the Karasi sanjak, in supplement.) Asia Minor, altitude 575 feet, situated on rising ground The following figures show the area and population of the various above a broad ^ fertile valley which drains to the sea of political divisions of the Balkan Peninsula. Among these it is to include the kingdom of Rumania, of which, however, Marmora. It is a centre of trade in opium, silk, and customary only a small portion (the Dobruja, pop. about 110,000) lies within cereals. Population, 20,000 (Moslems, 15,000; Christians, the generally accepted limits. 5000). The sanjak lies to the south of the sea of Marmora, and is fertile and well-watered. It is also rich in mineral Area, Pop. per sq. kilo. Population. sq. kilo. wealth; silver mines are worked at Balia, and boracite Turkish possessions (excludinsr mines at Susurlu. Crete) ... 162,550 5,812,300 34 B«llkcin Peninsula.—The Balkan Peninsula, Rumania .... 131,020 5,417,249 41 formerly known as Turkey in Europe, is the most easterly Bulgaria (including Eastern Rumelia) .... 95,704 3,310,713 34-5 of the three large peninsulas which form the southern Servia 48,303 2,384,205 49 extremities of the European continent. Its area is slightly Montenegro .... 9,080 227,841 25 greater than that of the Iberian peninsula, and somewhat Greece ..... 65,119 2,433,806 37 less than twice that of Italy. Its northern boundary is Bosnia and Herzegovina (under Austrian administration) . 51,028 1,568,092 31 generally regarded as marked by the courses of the rivers Novi-bazar (with three Austrian Danube, Save, and Ivulpa; but may, perhaps, be more garrisons) .... 7,350 153,000 21 accurately defined by a line drawn from the Kilia mouth Dalmatia (Austro - Hungarian of the Danube to the northern extremity of the Adriatic monarchy) 12,835 527,426 41 near Trieste. On the east it is bounded by the Black 582,989 21,834,632 37-4 Sea, the Sea of Marmora, and the Aegean; on the south by the Mediterranean; on the west by the Ionian Sea and The Peninsula is inhabited by a great variety of races, whose the Adriatic. With the exception of the Black Sea coast ethnological limits are far from corresponding with the existing poliand the Albanian littoral, its shores are considerably in- tical boundaries. The Turkish population, descended Faces, dented and flanked by groups of islands. The Peninsula in part from the Ottoman invaders of the 14th and 15th in part from colonists introduced at various epochs from in its general contour resembles an inverted pyramid or centuries, Asia by the Tmkish Government, has considerably declined during triangle, terminating at its apex in a subsidiary peninsula, the past century, especially in the countries withdrawn from the the Peloponnesus, or Morea. Its surface is almost entirely Sultan s authority. It is diminishing in Thessaly ; it has entirely mountainous, the only extensive plains being those formed disappeared in the rest of Greece, almost entirely in Servia and continues to decrease in Bulgaria notwithstanding the efforts of by the valleys of the Danube and Maritza and the basin the authorities to check emigration. It is nowhere found in of Thessaly, drained by the Salambria (Peneus). The compact masses except in north-eastern Bulgaria and the region Danubian plain is enclosed by the Carpathians on the between Adrianople, the Black Sea, and the Sea of Marmora. north, and the Balkans (from which the peninsula derives Elsewhere it appears in separate villages and isolated districts, or the larger towns and their immediate neighbourhood. The total its name) on the south: these ranges form together the m Turkish population of the Peninsula scarcely exceeds 1,800,000 great semicircular mountain - chain, known as the anti- The Slavonic population, including the Serbs and Bulgars, is by Dacian system, through which the Danube finds a passage far the most numerous; its total aggregate approaches 9,000,000. at the Iron Gates. The other mountain-systems display Ihe Serbs, whose progenitors entered the Peninsula in the 6th inhabit Bosnia, Herzegovina, Montenegro, the kingdom great complexity of formation ; beginning with the Dinaric century, of Servia, and the north-western portion of Macedonia, known as Alps and the parallel ranges of Bosnia, they run, as a rule, Old Servia Their numbers, exclusive of the Serbo-Croats of from north-west to south-east: the great chain of Rhodope Dalmatia (about 300,000), may be estimated at 4,500,000. The traverses the centre of the Peninsula, throwing out spurs Bulgars, who descend from a fusion of the Slavonic element with a later Ugro-Finnish immigration, inhabit the principality of Bultowards the Black Sea and the Aegean; farther west are garia Eastern Rumelia), the Ddbruja, and the greater the lofty Shar Dagh and the mountains of Montenegro part of(including Macedonia, except Old Servia and the yEgean littoral. and Albania, continued by the Pindus range and the Apart from their colonies in Bessarabia and elsewhere, they may heights of Akarnania and vEfolia. The principal summits be reckoned at 4,100,000. Only a portion of the widely-spread are Liubotrn in the Shar Dagh (3050 metres), Olympus Ruman or Vlakh race, which extends over a great part of Transylvania, the Lanat, and Bessarabia, as well as the Rumanian kingdom, overlooking the Gulf of Salonika (2985 m.), MusalU falls within the limits of the Peninsula. It is found in numerous (2924 m.), and Popova Shapka (2699 m.), both in the detached settlements in Macedonia, Albania, and northern Greece, Rhodope system; Elin, in the Perm Planina (2681 m.); and in colonies of recent date in Servia and Bulgaria. The nomad and Kiona in -Etolia (2511 m.). The geological forma- Vlakhs or Tzintzars of these countries call themselves Ammani or they are either a remnant of the native Latinized tion has hitherto been imperfectly studied, especially “ Romans ”or: descendants of Daco-Roman refugees, who fled southm the districts under Turkish rule. Owing to the dis- population wards after the abandonment of Dacia by Aurelian. The entire tribution of the mountain-chains the principal rivers flow Ruman population of the Balkan countries may be set down m an easterly or south-easterly direction: the Danube approximately at 5,600,000, of which 5,000,000 belong to the Rumanian kingdom. The Albanians, who call themselves Shkipetar falls into the Black Sea; the Maritza, Mesta, Struma or Arber, are the representatives of the primitive Illyrian popula(Strymon), Vardar, and Salambria into the AEgean. The tion ; they inhabit the Adriatic littoral from the southern frontier only considerable rivers flowing into the Adriatic are the of Montenegro to the northern boundary of Greece, and are found in considerable numbers in the latter country. They have

  • /.renta’ Drin, and Viossa. The principal lakes are those

a tendency to advance in a north-easterly direction towards of Okhrida, Prespa, Scutari, and lannina. The climate is shown the Servian frontier, and the movement has been encouraged for S. II. — 12