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BALLANCE — BALLIA 93 the colonial floras. In 1858 he stood for Limerick, but Ballantine, William (1812-1887), English ■was beaten, and he then gave up politics and devoted barrister, was born 3rd January 1812, being the son of himself to natural history. He was first president of the a London police-magistrate. He was educated at St, Alpine Club (founded 1857), and it is for his work as an Paul’s School, and called to the Bar in 1834. He began Alpinist that he is now remembered, his well-known Alpine in early life a varied acquaintance with dramatic and Guide (1863-68) being the result of innumerable climbs literary society, and his experience, combined with his and journeys and of careful observation recorded in a clear own pushing character and acute intellect, helped to and often entertaining style; he wrote the article Alps obtain for him very soon a large practice, particularly in in the ninth edition of the Ency. Brit. He also travelled criminal cases. He became known as a formidable crossin Morocco (1871) and South America (1882), and re- examiner, his great rival being Serjeant Parry. The corded his observations in books which were recognized three great cases of his career were his successful as having a scientific value. He died 21st October 1889. prosecution of the murderer Franz Muller in 1864, his skilful defence of the Tichborne claimant in 1871, and Ballance, John (1839-1893), Hew Zealand his defence of the Gaekwar of Baroda in 1875, his fee in statesman, eldest son of Samuel Lallance, farmer, of this last case being one of the largest ever known. Glenavy, Antrim, Ulster, was born on 27th March Ballantine became a serjeant-at-law in 1856. He died 1839. He was educated at a national school, and, on on 9th January 1887, having previously published more leaving, was apprenticed to an ironmonger at Belfast. than one volume of reminiscences. Serjeant Ballantine’s Thereafter he was clerk in a wholesale ironmonger’s house private life was decidedly Bohemian ; and though he earned in Birmingham, and migrated to Hew Zealand, intending large sums, he died very poor. to start in busirress there as a small jeweller. After settling at Wanganui, however, he took an opportunity, Ballantyne, Robert Michael (1825-1894;, soon offered, of founding a newspaper, the Wanganui Scottish writer of fiction, was born at Edinburgh on Herald, of which he becanre editor, and remained chief 24th April 1825, and came of the same family as the owner for the rest of his life. During the fighting with famous printers and publishers. When sixteen years the Maori chief litokowaru, in 1867, Ballance was con- of age he went to Canada, and was for six years in cerned in the raisirrg of a troop of volunteer horse, in the service of the Hudson Bay Company. He rewhich he received a commission. Of this he was deprived turned to Scotland in 1847, and next year published his owing to the appearance in his newspaper of articles first book, recording his experiences in the “Wilds of criticizing the management of the campaign. He had, Horth America.” lor some time he was employed by however, behaved well in the field, and, in spite of his Messrs Constable, the publishers, but in 1856 he gave up dismissal, was awarded the Hew Zealand war rrredal. He business for the profession of literature, and began the entered the colony’s parliament in 1875 and, with oire series of enjoyable stories of adventure for the young with interval (1881-81), sat there till his death. Ballance was which his name is popularly associated. The Coral Island, a member of three ministries, that of Sir George Grey The World of Ice, The Young Fur-Traders, Ungava, The (1877-79); that of Sir Robert Stout (1884-1887); and Dog' Crusoe, The Lighthouse, Deep Down, The Pirate City, that of which he himself was premier (1891-93). His Erling the Bold, The Settler and the Savage, and other alliance with Grey errded with a notorious and very pain- books, to the number of upwards of a hundred, followed ful quarrel. In the Stout government his portfolios were in regular succession, his rule being in every case to write those of lands and native affairs; but it was at the as far as possible from personal knowledge of the scenes he Treasury that his prudent and successful finance made the described. His stories had the merit of being thoroughly chief mark. As native minister his policy was pacific healthy in tone, with considerable graphic force. Ballantyne and hurrrane, arrd irr his last years he contrived to adjust was also no mean artist, and exhibited some of his waterequitably certain long-standing difficulties relating to re- colours at the Royal Scottish Academy. He lived in later served lands orr the west coast of the Horth Island. He years at Harrow, and died on 8th February 1894, at Rome, was resolutely opposed to the sale of Crown lands for cash, where he had gone to attempt to shake off the results of and advocated with effect their disposal by perpetual lease! overwork. His system of State-aided “village settlements,” by which Ballarat and Ballarat East, a city and a town small farms were allotted to peasants holding by lease from the Crown, and. money lent them to make a beginning of Victoria, Australia, in the county of Grenville, 74 of budding and cultivation, has been on the whole success- miles by rail W.H.W. of Melbourne, divided by the ful. To Ballance, also, was due the law reducing the Yarrowee creek. The former is the second city and chief hfe-tenure of legislative councillors to one of seven years. goldfield town of the state. These municipalities are in He was actively concerned in the advocacy of woman the centre of the richest alluvial goldfields ever opened suffrage. . But his best known achievement was the im- up, but the yield has greatly declined, and gold is now position, in 1891, of the progressive land-tax and progres- chiefly obtained by quartz crushing, the deep levels giving sive income-tax still levied in the colony. As premier he a fair return. The total output of gold for the district in brought together the strong experimental and progressive 1899 was 208,920 ozs. It is an important railway centre, party which in 1901 still held office in Hew Zealand. In from which six lines branch, and has iron foundries, woollen office. he showed debating power, constructive skill, and mills, and other factories. There are several recreation diet in managing menbut in 1893, at the height of grounds, including the Botanic Gardens. Connected with ms success and popularity, he died at Wellington of an the latter is a lake of 600 acres, where pisciculture is intestinal disease after a severe surgical operation. Quiet carried on with great success. Altitude, 1438 feet. Mean for the year, 55*2° F.; for January, 66'7° F. ; and unassuming in manner, Ballance, who was a well- temperature J read man, always seemed fonder of his books and his July, 43‘5 F.; rainfall (17 years), 27 inches. The popuchessboard than of public bustle; yet his loss to his lation of the city of Ballarat was in 1901, 25,448; of party was great, and the mark he left on Hew Zealand the town of Ballarat East in 1901, 18,262. politics bids fair to be enduring. A statue has been Ba.Het. See Spectacle. erected to his memory in front of Parliament House Ballia, a town and district of British India, in the Wellington. (w. P. E.) Benares division of the Horth-West Provinces. The town