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96

BALLSTON

SPi* —BALTIC

SEA

Senor Santa Maria, and in the latter capacity carried compulsory civil marriage and several other legislative measures highly obnoxious to the clergy. In 1886 he was elected president. It soon appeared that he was irreconcilably at variance with the majority of the Assembly, and refusing to accept the alternative “sesoumettre ou se demettre,” prescribed by Gambetta to Marshal MacMahon, on 1st January 1891 he sought to terminate an intolerable situation by the desperate remedy of a coup d etat, refusing to convoke the Assembly, and ordering the continued collection of the taxes on his own authority. A week afterwards the navy revolted almost en masse, and the unprecedented spectacle was seen of the legal representatives of the nation huddled together in a small port at the northern extremity of the republic—safe, however, under the protection of the fleet, while the executive retained the allegiance of the army, and was apparently obeyed throughout the rest of the country. So matters continued until August, when the party of the Assembly, having completed their preparations, disembarked at Coquimbo, and with some assistance from treachery overthrew Balmaceda’s troops in the two desperate battles of Conchon, 21st August, and Placilla, 28th August. The unfortunate president, abandoned by all, committed suicide on 18th September, the anniversary of his elevation. Seldom has there been a more forcible illustration of the maxim that the master of the sea is also master of the land ; and the contest is further memorable as definitively establishing the parliamentary regime in Chile. Balmaceda was a capable and probably a well-intentioned man, but his imperious character disqualified him for the first place in a free state. (See also Chile.) (r. g.) BellTclITIpur, a town of British India, in the Gonda district of Oudh, which gives its name to one of the largest talukdari estates in the province. The raja was conspicuously loyal during the Mutiny, and was rewarded with accessions of territory and hereditary privileges. His Ballston Spa, capital of' Saratoga county, New death gave rise to prolonged litigation, and the estate was York, U.S.A., situated in the eastern part of the State, in recently under the court of wards. The income is esti43° 00' N. lat., and 73° 5T W. long., on the Delaware mated at Rs.18,00,000, paying a revenue of Rs.7,00,000. and Hudson Railway, at an altitude of 294 feet. It Numerous schools and hospitals are supported. The town contains fine chalybeate springs, which attract a large of Balrampur is situated in 27° 25' N. lat. and 82° 13' E. number of visitors every summer. Population (1880), long., near the river Rapti, 28 miles from Gonda; railway station. Population about 15,000; municipal income 3031 ; (1890), 3527; (1900), 3923. (1897-98), Rs.5756. Balrampur contains a large palace, Bally castle, a seaport and watering-place in the handsome new temple, an Anglo-vernacular school, and a county of Antrim, Ireland, on a bay of the same name printing-press. opposite Rathlin Island. The town is now connected with Baltic Sea. — The Baltic Sea (Ostsee of the Ballymoney by a light railway. In 1899, 134 vessels were registered in the fishing district, employing 284 Swedes, Danes, and Germans, Baltiiskoye Mot ye of the Russians) lies between 54° and 66° N. lat., and 9 hands. Population (1891), 1481 ; (1901), 1476. and 30° E. long.; it is surrounded by the territories Ballymena, an inland town and urban sanitary of Sweden, Russia, Germany and Denmark. Its greatest district in the county of Antrim, Ireland, on the river length is about 960 miles; greatest breadth, about Braid and the Belfast and Northern Counties Railway, 33 400 miles; and length of coast-line, 5000 miles. Its cenmiles N.N.W. of Belfast. The value of brown linens tral axis runs approximately from south-west to northalone produced annually averages £1,000,000. There are east. The Baltic is connected with the North Sea by the frequent markets and fairs. Light railways now run from winding channel between the south of Scandinavia and the Ballymena to Larne, 23 miles distant, and to Parkmore, Cimbrian peninsula. This channel is usually included in 13 miles distant. Population (1901), 10,880. the Baltic. The part of it west of a line joining the Skaw Balmaceda, Jose Manuel (1838-1891), with Christiania fjord receives the name of Skagerrak; President of the republic of Chile, was born in Santiago in east of this line the channel is called the Kattegat. At 1838. His parents were wealthy, and in his early days he its southern end the Kattegat is blocked by the Danish was chiefly concerned in industrial and agricultural enter- islands, and it communicates with the Baltic proper by prise. In 1865 he was one of the representatives of the narrow channels called the Sound, the Great Belt, and the Chilian Government at the general South American con- Little Belt. The real physical boundary between the gress at Lima, and after his return took an active part in North Sea and the Baltic is formed by the plateau on the proceedings of the National Assembly, obtaining great which the islands Zealand, Funen, and Laaland are distinction as an orator. After discharging some diplo- situated, and its prolongation from the islands Falster matic missions abroad he became successively minister of and Moen to the coasts of Mecklenburg and Rugen. ^ East of this line the Baltic proper forms a series of foreign affairs and of the interior under the presidency of

in 1895 j and in 1896 Louisiana and Utah. In 1895, too, New York adopted the blanket ballot in place of separate party ballots, but arranged the names of candidates in party columns. The only state to abandon the Australian ballot after once adopting it has been Delaware, which in 1898 returned to the system of separate ballots, with no provision for booths where the ballot might be marked in secret. Up to 1901 four other states had not yet adopted the Australian ballot, viz., North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Nevada. Owing to the large number of officials chosen at one time in American elections, the form and appearance of the ballot used is very different from that in Great Britain. At the quadrennial presidential election in New ork state, for example, the officers to be voted for by each elector are thirty-six presidential electors, one congressman, state governor, lieutenant-governor, and five other state officers, a member for each house of the state legislature, several judges, a sheriff, county clerk, and other county officers. The column with the list of the candidates of each party for all of these offices is two to three feet in length; and as there are often eight to ten party tickets in the field, the ballot paper is usually from 18 to 20 inches in width. Each voter receives one of these “blanket” ballots on entering the polling place, and retires to a booth to mark either a party column or the individual candidates in different columns for whom he wishes to vote. Where, as in Massachusetts, the names of candidates are arranged by offices instead of in party lists, every voter must mark the name of each individual candidate for whom he wishes to vote. Connecticut, New Jersey, and Delaware continue to use the system of separate party ballots, the voter selecting the ballot he wishes to vote, on which he can write any changes he may wish to make. (See also the article Voting Machine.) (j. A. Fa.)