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BAMBARALAND — BAMBERG

Naga (snakes) of Scythic origin. Southern Baluchistan affords a most interesting field for the ethnographer. It has never yet been thoroughly explored in the interests of ethnographical science. The Baluch character is influenced by its environment as much as by its origin, so that it is impossible to select any one section of the general community as affording a satisfactory sample of popular Baluch idiosyncrasies. The Rind, or Baluch Arab, is perhaps the dominant type, and as he is least affected by foreign influence he is usually selected as the representative Baluch. The Baluchis of Arab extraction exhibit their Semitic origin strongly in their features, and possess much of the courage and chivalry of the original stock. They are a manly, hardy, and physically welldeveloped race, following no priestly leading, and not given to fanaticism, but banded together in a sort of feudal confederation under their tribal chiefs, who are their leaders in council as they are in war. Their courage and their loyalty to their chiefs are noble characteristics; and they are characteristics which render them far more amenable to British control than is the republican Pathan. In war it leads them to attack in the open, and in council it places the conduct of negotiations in the hands of but a recognized few. The strategical position of Great Britain in Baluchistan is a very important factor in the problem of maintaining order and good administration in the country. The ever-restin’terest0 by ^essthe Pathan tribesofofthe theZhob Sulimanis heldtheincentral check occupation valley; are whilst dominant position at Quetta safeguards the peace and security of Kalat, and of the wildest of the Baluch hills occupied by the Maris and Bugtis, no less than it bars the way to an advance upon India by way of Kandahar. Nominally all the provinces and districts of Baluchistan, with the exception of the ceded territory which we call British Baluchistan, are under the Khan of Kalat, and all chiefs acknowledge him as their suzerain. But it may be doubted if this suzerainty was ever complete, or could be maintained at all but for the assistance of the British Government. The Baluch is still essentially a robber and a raider (a trait which is common to all tribes), and the history of Baluchistan is nothing but a story of successful robberies, of lawless rapine and bloodshed for which plunder and devastation were accounted a worthy and honourable return. Extensive changes have taken place in the climatic condition of the country—changes which are some of them so recent as to be noted by surveyors who have found the remains of Cllma e ' forests in districts now entirely desiccated. Possibly the ordinary processes of denudation and erosion, acting on those recent deposits which overlie the harder beds of the older series, may have much to say to these climatic changes, and the wanton destruction of forests may have assisted the efforts of nature ; but it is difficult to understand the widespread desiccation of large areas of the Baluch highlands, where evidences of Arab irrigation works and of cultivation still attest to a once flourishing agricultural condition, without appealing to more rapidly destructive principles for the change. There is ample proof throughout the country of alterations of level within recent geologic periods; and there have even been compressions, resulting in a relative rise of the ground, over the crests of anticlinal folds, within historic record. ‘ ‘ Proof that this compression is still going on was given on 20th December 1892, when a severe earthquake resulted from the sudden yielding of the earth’s crust along what appears to be an old line of fault, west of the Khojak range, whereby an adjustment took place indicated by a shortening of some 2^ feet on the railway line which crossed the fault.”1 Nor should the evidences of active volcanic agency afforded by the mud volcanoes of the coast be overlooked. It is probably to climatic changes (whatever their origin may have been), rather than to the effects of tribal disturbances, that the Arab’s disappearance from the field of trade and agriculture must be attributed. Law and order, and with them prosperity, were revived for a short space by the treaty of 1854 between the Khan of Kalat and the British Government, but with the breaking of that M 0 ,er/1 treaty came a renewal of the old state of confusion to s ^ory ‘ which it was intended to put an end. The chiefs of Las and Wad, the Maris and Bugtis, Kej and Makran, all threw off their allegiance, and anarchy became so widespread that the British Government again interfered. The treaty of 1854 was renewed in 1876 by Lord Lytton (under Sandeman’s advice), and the Khan received substantial aid from the Government in the form of an annual subsidy of a lakh of rupees, instead of the 50,000 previously assigned to him. The treaty of 1854 was a treaty of alliance offensive and defensive. The treaty of 1876 renewed these terms, but utterly changed the policy of non - intervention which was maintained by the former, by the recognition of the sirdars as well as the Khan, and by the appointment of the British Government as referee in cases of dispute between them. British troops were to be located in the Khan’s country ; Quetta was founded ; telegraphs and railways were projected; roads were made ; and the reign of 1 Oldham, Journal R.G.S. vol. iii. p. 184.

law and order established. The nebulous claims of Afghanistan to Sibi and Pishin were disposed of by the treaty of Gandamak in the spring of 1879, and the final consolidation of the existing form of Kalat administration was effected by Sandeman’s expedition to Kharan in 1883, and the reconciliation of Azad Khan, the great Naoshirwani chief, with the Khan of Kalat. British Baluchistan was incorporated with British India by the resolution of 1st November 1887, and divided into two districts—Quetta-Pishin and Tal Chotiali—to be administered by a deputy-commissioner and a regular staff. In 1890 and 1891 were carried out that series of politico-military expeditions which resulted in the occupation of the Zhob valley, the foundation of the central cantonment of Fort Sandeman, and the extension of a line of outposts which, commencing at Quetta, may be said to rest on Wana north of the Gomul. The effect of these expeditions, and of this extension of military occupation, has been to reduce the independent Pathan tribes of the Sulimani mountains to effective order, and to put a stop to border raiding on the Indus plains south of the Gomul. In 1893 serious differences arose between the Khan of Kalat and Sir James Browne, who succeeded Sir Robert Sandeman as agent to the governor-general in Baluchistan, arising out of Mir Khuidad Khan’s outrageous conduct in the management of his own court, and the treatment of his officials. Finally, the Khan was deposed, and his son Mir Mahommed Khan succeeded in November 1893. Since then the most important change in Baluch administration has been the perpetual lease and transfer of management to British agency of the Nushki district and Niabat, with all rights, jurisdiction, and administrative power, in lieu of a perpetual rent of 9000 rupees per annum. This was effected in July 1899. This secures the direct control of the great highway to Sistan which has been opened to Khafila traffic. The revenues of the Khan of Kalat consist partly of subsidies and partly of agricultural revenue, the total value being about 500,000 rupees per annum. Since 1882 he has received 25,000 rupees as government rent for the Quetta district, besides 30,000 in lieu of transit duties in the Bolan ; this has been increased lately by 9000 as already stated. In 1899 the total imports of Kalat were valued at 700,000 rupees, and the exports at 505,000. Authokities.—Very little has been published of late years about Baluchistan, in spite of the comparative wealth of new information. This is due to the fact that the records of the surveys of India, both topographical and geological, together with the Gazetteers (all of which are confidential), absorb most of the information collected by Indian Government officials. This article has been compiled chiefly from the unpublished notes of the author. The following are amongst the most accessible of recent works on Baluchistan which have been published since the Sistan Boundary Report of 1873 by Sir F. Goldsmid:—Floyer. Unexplored Baluchistan, London, 1882.—Thornton, T. Life of Sandeman, London, 1896.—Tate, G. P. Kalat (a memoir), Calcutta, 1896.— Holdich, Sir T. “Ethnographic and Historical Notes on Makran,” Calcutta, 1892 {Survey Report); “Antiquities, Ethnography, &c., of Las Bela and Makran,” Calcutta, 1894 {Survey Report); “Ancient and Medkeval Makran,” vol. vii. R.G.S. Journal, 1896 ; “PersoBaluch Boundary,” vol. ix. R.G.S. Journal, 1897.—M‘Mahon. “The Southern Borderland of Afghanistan,” vol. x. Journal R.G.S. 1897. Notes on Sir R. Sandeman’s tours in Baluchistan will be found in vols. v., xii., xiii., and xix. of the R.G.S. Proceedings. (T. H. H.*) Bambaraland. See Senegal. Bamberg1, a town and arcliiepiscopal see of Bavaria, Germany, district of Upper Franconia, on the Regnitz, 2 miles above its confluence with the Main, and 39 miles by rail N. from Nuremberg. The church of Our Lady, a Gothic structure of 1320-87, but rebuilt in the Rococo style in the 18th century, contains wood carvings by Veit Stoss. The Altenburg (1266 ft.) has been the fortalice of the prince bishops of Bamberg since 1251, but is of older origin. The former Benedictine monastery of St Michael contains the municipal picture gallery. The royal library has 300,000 vols. and more than 3000 MSS. There is a new astronomical observatory. Of the numerous bridges which span the arms of the Regnitz the principal is the Ludwig bridge, built in 1892. In 1880 the handsome Maximilian fountain, with bronze statues of kings, bishops, and the Emperor Henry II., was set up. Bamberg has developed into an important manufacturing centre, chiefly for cotton spinning and weaving, ropes, and brewing. There is a famous porcelain painting institute. Population (1885), 31,521; (1895), 38,940; (1900), 41,626.