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BAMBERGER — BANCROFT 105 Bamberger, Ludwig (1823-1899), German and Sarikol. Chahilburj, 28 miles from Zari, on the road economist and politician, was born on the 22nd of July to Balkh by the Balkhab, at the east end of the Sokhtagi 1823 at Mainz of Jewish parents. After studying at valley ; fehahr-i-Babar, about 45 miles above Chahilburj ; Giessen, Heidelberg, and Gottingen, he entered on the and Gawargin, 6 miles above Shahr - i - Babar, are all practice of the law. When the Revolution of 1848 broke fortified sites of about the same age as the relics at out he took an active part as one of the leaders of the Bamian. At Haibak there is a very perfect excavation Republican party in his native city, both as popular orator called the Takht-i-Rustam (a general name for all incomand as editor of one of the local papers. In 1849 he joined prehensible constructions amongst the modern inhabitants the Free Corps, who attempted a Republican rising in the o Afghan Turkestan), which consists of an annular ditch Palatinate and Baden j on the restoration of order he was enclosing a platform, with a small house about 21 feet condemned to death, but he had escaped to Switzerland. square above it, all cut out of the solid rock. There are The next years he spent in exile, at first in London, then in hundreds of caves in this neighbourhood, all pointing to a Holland; in 1852 he went to Paris, where, by means of line of Buddhist occupation connecting Balkh with Kabul. private connexions, he received an appointment in the - H°n M G. “The Rock-cut Caves and Statues of bank of Bischolf heim and Goldschmidt, of which he became tJ™' Bamian, Journal H. .Austral, Soc. vol. xviii. Part 3. managing director, a post which he held till 1866. During (t. h. h.*) these years he saved a competence, and gained a thorough Bamra, a feudatory state of India, in the Chhattisacquaintance with the theory and practice of finance. of the This he put to account when the amnesty of 1866 enabled f.88 dmsion Central Provinces. Its was area81covers square miles. The population in 1881 286 • him to return to Germany. He was elected a member of m 1891, 104,367; and in 1901, 123,289, showing a conthe Reichstag, where he joined the National Liberal party, tinuous increase. The estimated revenue is Rs.76,000 • for like many other exiles he was willing to accept the Rs.1500. Most of the country is forest, producing results of Bismarck’s work. In 1868 he published a tribute, only timber and lac, but said to be rich in iron ore. The short life of Bismarck in French, with the object of producing a better understanding of German affairs, and in northern border is touched by the Behgal-Nagpur railway 1870, owing to his intimate acquaintance with France and with a station at Bamra town. with finance, he was summoned by Bismarck to Versailles Banbury, a municipal borough (extended 1889) and to help in the discussion of terms of peace. In the market-town in the Banbury parliamentary division (since German Reichstag he was the leading authority on matters 1885) of Oxfordshire, England, on the river Cherwell, 77 of finance and economics, as well as a clear and persuasive miles N.W. of London by rail. Recent erections include a speaker, and it was chiefly owing to him that a gold temperance hall, an institute, and a municipal secondary and currency was adopted and that the German Imperial Bank technical school; the infirmary has also been enlarged Poputook its present form j in his later years he wrote and lation (1881), 12,072; (1891), 12,768; (1901), 12,967. spoke strongly against bimetallism. He was the leader of the Free Traders, and after 1878 refused to follow Banca (Dutch, Banka), an island off the east coast Bismarck in his new policy of Protection, State Socialism, of Sumatra, from which it is separated by Banca Strait, and colonial development; in a celebrated speech he and from Billiton (on its east) by Gaspar Strait. Area' declared that the day on which it was introduced was a dies 4458 square miles. Geologically it resembles the Malay nefastus for Germany. True to his Free Trade principles Peninsula, its formations being mainly granite, Silurian he and a number of followers left the National Liberal and Devonian slate, frequently covered with sandstone, party and formed the so-called “Secession” in 1880. He late rite (red ironstone clay) of small fertility, and alluvium’ was one of the few prominent politicians who consistently The granite extends from W.N.W. to S.S.E., forming the maintained the struggle against State Socialism on the one mountain chains (chief range the Maras). As these lie hand and Democratic Socialism on the other. In 1892 he near the east coast, it follows that the rivers of the west retired from political life, and died in 1899. Bamberger coast are the longer. Another chain runs from west to was a clear and attractive writer, and was a frequent con- east near. Muntok, the chief town. There are no volcanoes tributor on political and economic questions to the Nation on the. island. The chief rivers (Jering, Kotta, and and other periodicals. His most important works are Waringin) are navigable nineteen miles from their mouths, those on the currency, on the French war indemnity, his and are used for the transport of tin. The rainfall’ criticism of socialism, and his apology for the Secession. of great importance for the tin exploitation, is 120 inches An edition of his collected works (including the French yearly. It rains, on. an average, 168 days. Politically life of Bismarck) was published in 1894 in five volumes. the island is divided into nine mining districts, including After his death in 1899 appeared a volume of reminiscences, 120 mines, under government control, with, in 1898-99, which, though it does not extend beyond 1866, gives an 12,000 workmen, producing 167,369 piculs of tin. The interesting picture of his share in the Revolution, and of population in 1898 was 93,600, of whom 260 were his life in Paris. (j. w. He.) Europeans, 32,187 Chinese, 209 Arabs, and about 60,937 natives. The natives cultivate rice, pepper, gambier, iS-H, a town in Afghanistan, some 80 miles north- Liberia coffee, and palms, but they are chiefly occupied in west of Kabul. It was visited by Major Maitland and Capt. fishing and in gathering in the produce of the forests. the Hon. M. G. Talbot during the progress of the Russo- Industry (mining excepted) is as unimportant as trade. Afghan boundary commission in November 1885. The Muntok, the only town of any size, on Banca Strait, has height of the valley was fixed at about 8500 feet, and the 4000 inhabitants. country around it carefully surveyed. The two colossal Zondervak. Banka en Zijne lev;oners. Amsterdam, 1895 (-with standing figures carved from the face of the cliff (see ninth bibliography).—Posewitz. Die Zinn-inseln im Indischen Ocean. ed. ii. p. 307) were measured, and drawings made by a For geology and the tin mines, Jaarboek vor het Mijnwezen in Ned. native artist. They proved to be 173 feet and 120 feet Ind. Amsterdam, 1877-84. high respectively. The Buddhist nature of the figures, and Bancroft, George (1800-1891), American of the caves with which they are surrounded, was verified and statesman, was born in Worcester, Mass., y the observations of these officers, who discovered other historian 3rd October 1800, and died in Washington, D.C., 17th Buddhist caves and excavations in the valleys of theBalkhab January 1891. His family had been in America since S. II.— 14