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BANSWARA — BANTU LANGUAGES 137 square mile. Classified according to religion, MafiornmeIt must not be supposed for a moment that all the dans numbered 337,269; Hindus, 33,832; Sikhs, 1062; people who speak Bantu languages belong necessarily to Christians, 58, including 39 Europeans; “others,” 55. In a special and definite type of Negro. On the contrary, 1901 the population was 403,072, showing an increase of though there is a certain physical resemblance among 8 per cent. The total amount of land revenue and rates those tribes who speak the purest Bantu dialects (the was returned as Rs.4,93,138, the incidence of assessment Ba-yanzi of the Upper Congo, the people of the great being 3± annas per acre; the number of police was 514. lakes, the Ova-herero [Damara], Zulu-Kafirs, Awemba, In 1896-97, out of a total cultivated area of 628,734 acres, and some of the east coast peoples), there is nevertheless 166,575 were irrigated, almost entirely from private canals. a great diversity in outward appearance, shape of head, Salt is quarried on Government account at Kalabagh, and and other. physical characteristics, among the negroes alum is largely obtained in the same neighbourhood. who inhabit Bantu Africa. Some tribes speaking Bantu The chief export is wheat. The main line of the North- dialects are dwarfs or dwarfish, and obviously akin to the Western railway, with a branch now in process of extension non- Bantu Bushmen or Forest Pygmies. Others betray northwards, runs for 93 miles through the cis-Indus tract; relationship to the Hottentots; others again cannot be and a military road, 80 miles in length, leads from Bannu distinguished from the most exaggerated forms of the town towards Dera Ismail Khan. The Indus, which is black vv est African Negro. Yet others again, especially nowhere bridged within the district, is navigable for native on the north, show traces of Galla or Nilotic intermixture. boats throughout its course of 76 miles. Education is But the general deduction to be drawn from a study of making fair progress. In 1896-97 there were altogether the Bantu languages as they exist at the present day is 291 schools attended by 6029 boys, the proportion of that at some period not much more than two thousand boys at recognized schools to those of school-going age years ago a powerful tribe of negroes speaking the Bantu being 12 per cent The death-rate in 1897 was 43 per mother language, and allied physically to the negroes of 1000; the rainfall in 1897 was 20’23 inches. the Western Nile and Southern Lake Chad basins, pushed Banswara, a native state of India, in the Raj- themselves forcibly into the southern half of Africa, which putana agency, with an area of 1505 square miles. The at that time was probably very sparsely populated except population in 1891 was 180,916, showing an average in the north-west, east, and south. The Congo basin at density of 120 persons per square mile. The estimated the time of the Bantu invasion would have been occupied gross revenue in 1896-97 was Rs.2,53,788; the tribute, on the Atlantic seaboard by west coast negroes, and in the Rs.38,000. The administration is in the hands of a centre by Forest Pygmies; the vicinity of Victoria Nyanza Hamdar or minister. The petty state of Kushalgarh is and the East African coast region down to opposite feudatory to Banswara; area, 432 square miles; popula- Zanzibar probably had a population partly Nilotic-negro tion (1891), 31,353; gross revenue, Rs.61,977. In 1901 and partly (in the south) Hottentot. From Lakes Tangathe population of the two states was 165,276, showing a nyika and Nyasa south-westwards to the Cape of Good Hope the population was Hottentot and Bushman. Over decrease of 22 per cent., due to the effects of famine. The town of Banswara has a population of about 7500. nearly all this area the Bantu swept with such a vehemence that they destroyed or absorbed the vast majority of the Bantam, the most western residency of Java, on preceding populations, of which, linguistically speaking Bantam Bay, with its chief town of the same name, 45 the only survivors are the scattered tribes of pygmies in miles west by north of Batavia. The soil is fertile only the forests of the Congo and Gabun, a few patches of in the central portion of the residency, which, from several quasi - Hottentot and Nilotic peoples between Victoria causes (cattle plague of 1879, fever epidemics, the erup- Nyanza and the Zanzibar coast, and the Bushmen and tion of Krakatao in 1883, causing the death of 24,000 Hottentots of South-West Africa. The first area of of the inhabitants, and the insurrection of 1888), is’less decided concentration on the part of the Bantu was very' populous and less cultivated than the rest of Java. The probably Uganda and the shores of Tanganyika. The industries are rice, coffee, katjang, and fishing. The mam line of advance south-west trended rather to the east capital is in a decayed state. The residency (area, 2989 coast of Africa than to the west. Finally, when the Bantu square miles) had, in 1897, a population of 709,339, in- had reached the south-west corner of Africa, their further cluding 302 Europeans, 1959 Chinese, 54 Arabs, and 35 advance was checked by two causes: first, the concentraother Asiatic foreigners. tion in a healthy, cattle-bearing part of Africa of the Hottentots (themselves only a superior type of Bushman, Ban try, a seaport in county Cork, Ireland, on but able to offer a much sturdier resistance to the big Bantry Bay, which is one of the headquarters stations of the Channel Squadron and an important fishing centre. black Bantu negroes than the crafty but feeble Bushmen), It is the terminal station of the Cork, Bandon, and South and secondly, the arrival on the scene of the Dutch and Coast Railway. The coaches on the famous Prince of British, but for whose final intervention the whole of Wales route to Glengariff start from here. The manufac- Southern Africa would have been rapidly Bantuized, as ture of Irish friezes and tweeds is now successfully carried far as the imposition of language was concerned. The theory thus briefly set forth of the origin and progress of on; also salmon fishing. Population, about 2900. the Bantu, and the approximate date at which their great Languages. — The greater part of southern exodus commenced, is to some extent attribuAfrica south of the equator possesses but one linguistic table to the present writer only, and has been traversed at lamily so far as its native inhabitants are concerned. This different times by other writers on the same subject. In clearly-marked division of human speech has been entitled found now standing alone, but it originally meant “object,” the Bantu, a name invented by the late Dr Bleek, and nowhere y Uffposs^meanings. “person.” withforms different prefixes it has h is, on the whole, the fittest general term to use to different Thus Combined (in the purer of Bantu languages) designate the most remarkable group of African languages.1 muntu means “a man,” bantu means “men,” kintu means “a thing,” bmtu “things,” kantu means “a little thing,” tuntu “little things,” so on. This term Bantu has been often criticized by writers, W^/liter?.lly Ba-ntu)is tlle most archaic and most widely spread and such as Sir H. M. Stanley, but no one has supplied a better, simpler en mankiud indicate ap?ily the A le >” “people,” in these languages. It also designation for this section of the negro race and of negro languages, eovprn of^ the unchangeable ^ding feature thisprefixes. group of The tongues, which-ntu is the governing rootofby syllable is and the term has now been definitely consecrated by a use of over forty years. S. II.— 18 L