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BARBERINO—BARBIZ0N SCHOOL 145 “ manjak,” or glance pitch, a form of asphalt, which- occurs out a new path. In considering individual members of in the older rocks of the Scotland district, which yielded this group, it is enough to say here that the art of Corot in 1899 £2297 at £4, 10s. per ton. The manufactures was not allied to that of any contemporary painter, and, of Barbados are few and comparatively insignificant— strictly speaking, owed nothing to Barbizon or its inrum distilleries, a sulphuric acid factory, chemical mixing fluences ; nor perhaps did the art of Daubigny. The disfactories, one cigar and tobacco factory, and one ice factory. tinctive note of the school is seen in the work of Kousseau There is a fortnightly mail service between Bridgetown, and of Millet, each of whom, after spending his early the capital of the island, and Southampton; and also a years in Paris, made his home in Barbizon. Unapprecifortnightly service between Canada and the Windward ated, poor, and neglected, it was not until after years of Islands and British Guiana, calling at Barbados, and fre- struggle that they attained recognition and success. They quent communication with the other West Indian Islands, both died there : Rousseau in 1867, and Millet in 1875. A total tonnage of 632,553 entered and 632,864 cleared It is difficult now to realize that their work, so unaffected during 1899; but this is exclusive of a large number of and beautiful, should have been so hardly received. To vessels merely touching at the port. There is no inland understand this, it is necessary to remember the conflicts telegraph, but a telephone service supplies its place, and a that existed between the classic and romantic schools in the railway (24 miles in extent) runs partly round the island. first half of the 19th century, when the classicists, followers In 1899 the island had three colleges, six secondary of the tradition of David, were the predominant accepted schools, and 171 elementary schools. In the last-named school. The romantic movement, with Gericault, Boningthere were 25,334 children on the rolls, with an average ton, and Delacroix, was gaining favour. In 1824 Constable’s attendance of 14,978. Codrington College was in 1899 pictures were shown in the Salon, and fixed the resolve of in danger of being closed for lack of funds due to the the younger men to abandon the lifeless pedantry of the decline of the value of the estates forming its endowment, schools and to seek inspiration, as he did, from nature. but a special subscription was raised in England and the As may be imagined, every new departure was contested island, and this misfortune was averted. The police force by the men in authority, who, quite honestly unable to consists of 355 officers and men. There are (1900) see merit in works which ignored their cherished ideals, stationed in the island the headquarters and four com- rejected them from the salons again and again. Rousseau panies of a British regiment and two companies of the was so often and persistently rejected that he was known West Indian regiment—the functions of the commanding as le Grand Refuse. In those troubled times Rousseau and officer extending throughout the British West Indies Millet unburdened their souls to their friends, and their pub(except Jamaica) and British Guiana. The colony lished lives contain many letters, some extracts from which possesses representative institutions, but not responsible will express the ideals which these artists held in common, government. The Crown has a veto on legislation, and and show clearly the true and firmly-based foundation on the Home Government controls the appointment of public which their art stands. Rousseau wrote, “It is good officers. The Government consists of the governor, an composition when the objects represented are not there executive council, a legislative council of nine members solely as they are, but when they contain under a natural appointed by the Crown, and a House of Assembly having appearance the sentiments which they have stirred in our twenty-four members elected annually on the basis of a souls. . . . For God’s sake, and in recompense for the life moderate franchise. The governor was for many years He has given us, let us try in our works that the manigovernor-in-chief of the Windward Islands, but in 1885 festation of life be our first thought: let us make a man Barbados was made a separate government. (a. h. k.) breathe, a tree really vegetate.” And Millet—“I try not to have things look as if chance had brought them Bar ben no, two towns of Italy (Tuscany, province together, but as if they had a necessary bond between of Florence): (1) B. di Mugello, 16 miles N. of Florence. Population, about 10,500. (2) B. di Val d’Elsa, 16 miles themselves. I want the people I represent to look as if S. by W. of Florence. It produces many chip and straw they really belonged to their station, and that imagination cannot conceive of their ever being anything else. People hats. Population, about 10,500. and things should always be there with an object. I want to. put strongly and completely all that is necessary, Barberton. See Transvaal. for I think things weakly said might as well not be said Barbizon School, The.—This designation is at all, for they are, as it were, deflowered and spoiled— applied to an illustrious group of French artists more or but I profess the greatest horror for uselessness (however less associated with the village of Barbizon, near the brilliant) and filling up. These things can only weaken forest of Fontainebleau, whose lives cover, roughly speak- a picture by distracting the attention toward secondary ing, the first three-quarters of the 19th century. Its things.” In another letter he says—“ Art began to decline leaders were Corot, Kousseau, Millet, and Daubigny; and from the moment that the artist did not lean directly and with them were associated Diaz, Dupre, Jacque, Frangais, naively upon impressions made by nature. Cleverness Harpignies, and others less known. They founded a naturally and rapidly took the place of nature, and deschool of painters of the country—of its landscape and its cadence then began. . . . At bottom it always comes to peasant life—whose influence is so widespread that it may this: a man must be moved himself in order to move be traced in the art of every western nation at the present others, and all that is done from theory, however clever, day.. Each of the leaders of this group possessed a strong can never attain this end, for it is impossible that it should and individual genius, yet with all the wide differences of have the breath of life.” It does not seem to-day that temperament, there exists in their work, taken as a whole, there is anything to contest in these words; nor is it easy a common impulse sufficiently evident to justify the rough now, on seeing how naturally the works of the Barbizon classification as a “school.” It is, however, impossible to painters take their place in true line of succession with draw a hard and fast line; other artists, such as Decamps, the masterpieces of the older schools, to imagine the Troy on, and Courbet, worked on similar lines ; but, broadly storms that raged round them in their early days. Time speaking, the distinction of the Barbizon group is that they were the greatest of those who put aside the conven- has justified them ; and those who led this little band now with the greatest of the many artists whom France tional idea of subject in their works, and in going direct rank proudly counts among her sons. to the fields and the woods for their inspiration, struck See D. Croal Thomson. The Barbizon School. Chapman and S. II. — 19