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BAROTSE- -BARRACKS 151 changed by the construction of handsome public buildings, these wild tribes under reasonable subjection. There is a the laying-out of parks, and the widening of the streets. good deal of the West African strain in the manners and An excellent water-supply is provided from the Ajwa lake. customs, trade and religion, of the Barotse, or more properly The cantonments, garrisoned by a native infantry regiment, speaking, of the Baloi. Having, however, for many years are under British jurisdiction, and have a population of past (from the Bechuana invasion and the settlement of 4000. They contain an Anglo-Indian school, and 2 the French Protestant missionaries) been brought into vernacular schools for boys and girls. In 1894-95 the connexion with British South Africa commercially, and Baroda high school was attended by 560 boys, of whom finally politically, there is a certain amount of “ Cape ” 38 passed the Bombay matriculation; and the Anglo- influence in the new civilization which is springing up. vernacular school by 351 boys. There are also 31 vernacular On the other hand, the Batoka, and still more the schools, with 4984 pupils. The chief hospitals are called Bashukulumbwe, are in a completely savage state. The after the countess of Dufferin, Jamnabai, and Sayaji Rao, men go absolutely naked (as was formerly the case with with a total of 2856 indoor patients. (j. s. Co.) allied tribes in West Nyasaland) and wear their hair with artificial additions in a tremendously long peak which is Barotse.—This is the name given to a country and drawn to a fine whip-like point. Physically, they are a a people in South-Central Africa. The name is sometimes fine, handsome race, though the Barotse are not so, spelt Barutse, and is said to be derived from a corruption resembling rather the West African Negroes in appearof Bahurutse, the name of a Bechuana tribe. The word ance. It is probable that the Bashukulumbwe are in remote is also given with a different plural prefix as Marotse. It origin nearly allied to the Zulu Kaffirs. The Batoka and will probably survive for general use in the form which Bashukulumbwe country is fairly healthy, and adapted for heads this article. Barotseland lies along both banks of European settlement as much as the Rhodesian territory the upper Zambezi, from the junction of the Kabompo and to the south. On the other hand, Barotseland proper is the Liambai to the junction of the Kwando and the main exceedingly unhealthy, and quite unfitted for European Zambezi at Kasungula. Politically, it may be also held to occupation. In flora and fauna Barotseland is closely coninclude the adjoining countries inhabited by the Batoka nected with British Central Africa, though in the northand the Bashukulumbwe—in short, the basins of the upper west there is a marked infusion of West African forms. Zambezi and of the Kafue rivers. On the north it is Politically, the country lies within the limits of the British bounded by Portuguese West Africa and the Congo Free Empire. It remains under the government of its king, State, on the east by British Central Africa (of which it but the British South Africa Chartered Company has by is sometimes considered to form a geographical part), on treaty a certain interest in its government, and maintains the south by Rhodesia, and on the west by the German a Resident at the court of King Lewanika. For geographiand Portuguese possessions. Barotseland proper is the cal reasons it is probable that Barotseland will one day very marshy and unhealthy country along the banks of form part of the South African congeries of states, and will the upper Zambezi, which at certain seasons of the year be administered quite independently of its eastern neighspreads its floods far and wide. The extreme north of bour, British Central Africa, which in peoples, languages, Barotseland is densely forested; elsewhere trees are few history, and methods of administration tends much more and far between. The Batoka and the Bashukulumbwe towards Eastern Africa and Zanzibar. countries chiefly consist of plateaux with an average See Livingstone. Missionary Travels and Researches in South elevation of about 2500 feet, here and there rising into Africa. London, 1857.—Major Serpa Pinto. How I Crossed hills and mountain ranges of no great altitude. The Africa. London, 1881.—Coillard. On the Threshold of Central river Kafue, which is also known as the Kafukwe and the Africa. London, 1897.—Major St H. Gibbons. Exploration Luenge, is the second most important river of Barotseland, and Hunting in Central Africa. London, 1898.—“ Journeys in Barotseland,” Geographical Journal, 1901.—Bertrand. Aux Pays and is by some geographers considered to have been the des Barotse, Haul Zamb'eze. Paris, 1898.—Di'cle. Three Years original head-waters of the Zambezi, in the days before the in Savage Africa. London, 1898. (H H j present upper Zambezi by means of the crack known as Barquisimeto, capital of the state of Lara, in the Victoria Falls was deflected towards the Indian Venezuela, in a valley, 1711 feet above the level of the Ocean. The indigenous Negro race of Barotseland proper is sea. Its population numbers 40,000. It is an important known as the Baloi or Balui. They are Bantu Negroes, commercial centre, having great facilities for communicaspeaking dialects more nearly related to those of the tion with the states of Carabobo, Zamora, and Falcbn, southern Congo basin than to the Zambezi tongues. Their and is connected by rail with the port of Tucacas. country was invaded in the early part of the 19th cen- It is the seat of an episcopal chair, has many colleges tury by ravagers from Bechuanaland across the Zambezi, a and schools, both public and private, hospitals, Ac. The people who generally went by the name of Mokololo, but main buildings are the Government palace, the barracks, who eventually adopted the term Barotse. These Bechuana the market, the cathedral, and several other churches. conquered Barotseland, and ruled it for about forty years, Barrackpore, or North Barrackpore, a town when an uprising among the indigenous Baloi drove them of British India, in the Twenty-four Parganas district of from power and replaced them by a native dynasty. Bengal, lies on the left bank of the Hooghly, 15 miles Nevertheless, Bechuana influence in the country is very above Calcutta. Population, about 21,000. It is the marked, and for some time the Bechuana language was the largest cantonment in Lower Bengal, having accommodaCourt tongue. The present king of Barotseland is named tion for two batteries of artillery, the wing of a European Lewanika, and his capital city on the upper Zambezi is regiment, and two native battalions. It is a station on Lialui. Lewanika is a very enlightened monarch as the Eastern Bengal railway. A fine park along the river African princes go, and rules his country with wisdom, contains the country residence of the Viceroy. The and much under the advice of a Resident of the British English high school was attended in 1896-97 by 201 •South Africa Company and of French Protestant mission- pupils. aries, who have long been settled in the country. Barracks.—Barracks are necessary accompaniments Lewanika’s hold upon the Batoka and the Bashukulumbwe of a standing army. As long as operations in the field is very dubious, but it is probable that for political pur- were carried on by means of troops levied especially for poses it may be strengthened, as the best means of bringing ■ the war in hand, no barracks apart from fortifications