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the intimate, friendship with Thiers and Mignet which continued all his life. In 1833 he quitted politics for a time to devote himself to literature, and especially the study of ancient philosophy. Victor Cousin had won fame as the translator of Plato, Barthelemy Saint-Hilaire in like manner attached himself to Aristotle, and undertook a translation of his' works. The first of thirty-five volumes appeared in 1837 and the last in 1892. This great work gained him the patronage of Cousin, a seat in the Academy, and the professorship of ancient philosophy at the College of France. During its progress he published a treatise on The Logic of Aristotle, 1839, and another on The School of Alexandria, 1845. The revolution of 1848 brought him back for a while to public life; he entered the Assembly, and was president of the commission on public instruction, but upon Louis Napoleon’s coup d'etat he again gave up concern in public affairs. Absorbing himself in Sanskrit studies he produced important works on the Vedas, 1854, and on Buddhism, 1858. In 1855 he travelled in Egypt, and in the following year published a book on the country, warmly vindicating his friend Lesseps’s project, at that time much contested, for the construction of the Suez Canal. After the disasters of 1870 M. Barthelemy Saint-Hilaire reappeared in politics, exerted his utmost efforts to secure the election of Thiers as provisional President of the Republic, and upon this taking place became his secretary, and continued his most intimate confidant and counsellor until the statesman’s death. In 1875 he was made perpetual senator, and he was Minister of Foreign Affairs in Jules Ferry’s cabinet, from September 1880 to November 1881. The most important event of his administration was the annexation of Tunis under the form of a French protectorate, which he actively promoted. His latter years were chiefly employed in writing the life and publishing the correspondence of his former patron, Victor Cousin, who had bequeathed him a handsome fortune; he also commenced a new edition of Cousin’s translation of Plato, which he did not live to complete. He died, labouring to the last, on 24th November 1895. Among his other works may be named Mahomet et le Coran, 1865, a translation of Marcus Aurelius, and a metrical version of the Iliad. (r. g.) Bartlett, John (1820 ), American publisher and compiler, was born in Plymouth, Massachusetts, on the 14th of June 1820. He became the university bookseller (and also a publisher) in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and from 1865 to 1889, when he retired, was a member of the bookselling and publishing firm of Little, Brown, and Co., in Boston. In 1855 he published the first edition of his dictionary of Familiar Quotations, long the best-known collection of the sort, and in 1894 (although it had been copyrighted five years before), after many years’ labour, he published his New and Complete Concordance or Verbal Index to Words, Phrases, and Passages in the Dramatic Works of Shakespeare; witli a Supplementary Concordance to the Poems—surpassing any of its predecessors in the number and fulness of its citations from the poet’s writings. Bartlett, John Russell (1805-1886), American historical and linguistic student, was born in Providence, Rhode Island, 23rd October 1805, and died there 28th May 1886. Several of his minor writings were devoted to matters connected with the earlier or later history of Rhode Island, of which he was secretary of state between 1855 and 1872 ; but his place in American scholarship is chiefly due to his Dictionary of Americanisms, of which the first edition appeared in 1850 ; a pioneer work which, although later dialect-changes have of course deprived it of completeness or final authoritative-

B A S E-B ALL ness, was long of value to students of language, and remains the chief contribution to the subject. Barwani, a native state of India, in the Bhopawar agency. It lies in the Satpura Mountains, south of the Narbada. Area, 1362 square miles; population, about 80,000; average density, 59 persons per square mile. Many of the inhabitants are Bhils. Revenue (1897-98), Rs.3,14,246; subsidy to Bhil corps, Rs.4000. The chief, whose title is Rana, is a Rajput of the Sesodia clan, connected with the Udaipur family. The forests are under an English official. The town of Bhawani is situated near the left bank of the Narbada. Population, about 5500. Barye, Antoine Louis (1795-1859), one of the greatest sculptors of the French school, was born in Paris in 1795. Like many of the sculptors of the Renaissance he began life as a goldsmith. After studying under Bosio, the sculptor, and Gros, the painter, he was admitted to the Ecole des Beaux Arts. But it was not till 1823, when he was working for Fauconnier, the goldsmith, that he discovered his real bent from watching the wild beasts in the Jardin des Plantes, making vigorous studies of them in pencil drawings worthy of Delacroix, and then modelling them in sculpture on a large or small scale. In 1830 he exhibited a “Tiger,” and in 1832 had mastered a style of his own in the “ Lion and Snake ” (see Plate). Thenceforward Barye, though engaged in a perpetual struggle with want, exhibited year after year these studies of animals—admirable groups which reveal him as inspired by a spirit of true romance and a feeling for the beauty of the antique, as in “Theseus and the Minotaur,” “Lapitha and Centaur,” and numerous minor works now very highly valued. Barye was no less successful in sculpture on a small scale, and excelled in representing animals in their most familiar attitudes. As examples of his larger work we may mention the Lion of the Column of July, various Lions and Tigers in the Gardens of the Tuileries, and the four groups—War, Peace, Strength, and Order. The fame he deserved came too late to the sculptor. He was made professor at the museum in 1854, and was elected to the Academy of Fine Arts in 1868, only five years before his death. The mass of admirable work left to us by Barye entitles him to be regarded as the greatest artist of animal life of the French school, and as the creator of a new class of art which has attracted such men as Fremiet, Peter, Cain, and Gardet, who are regarded with justice as his worthiest followers. See Emile Lame. Les Sculpteurs d'Animaux: M. Barye, Paris, 1856.—Gustave Planche. “M. Barye,” llevue des Deux Mondes, July 1851.—Theophile Silvestre. Histoires des Artistes Vivants, Paris, 1856.—Arsine Alexandre. Les Artistes Celebres: A. L. Barye, Paris, 1889. (h. Fr.) Base-ball.—Base-ball, especially in the United States, has two distinct phases—one professional, and the other amateur. The sport itself has been traced back through various forms of trap ball, “ one old cat,” and rounders, to a comparatively early period. While England was developing cricket, America developed baseball. The principal feature in the American pastime, as distinguished from cricket, is the limited time in which a game can be finished. One other vital point in which the two sports differ is that in base-ball if the ball is knocked in a certain direction it is called a foul, and the player who knocked it has not the privilege of making a run, but he may be caught out. This rule seems to a cricket lover a blunder in legislation, because if a player is not privileged to take advantage of the hit by making a run he ought not to be put to the risk of being caught out. Professional base-ball in the United States began soon after 1850; but the sport itself was not regarded then as a pro-