Page:1902 Encyclopædia Britannica - Volume 26 - AUS-CHI.pdf/192

This page needs to be proofread.


1(»2

BASEL

retire or put out the side at bat. Each side has nine turns —which besides the town includes three country districts at the bat. The arrangement of the men in the field, with —and Basel Landschaft (rural Basel). The total area of the exception of pitcher and catcher, is in the form of two Basel Stadt is 13‘8 square miles, of which 11‘7 square arcs facing the home plate, whose radii are, roughly speak- miles are reckoned as “productive.” Of this 1A square ing)’ 30 and 60 yards. The arc with the lesser radius miles are covered by woods, and 0 19 square miles b The statistics of this half canton axe as consists of four men called the in-fielders, and named vineyards. ioMovrs'.—Population.—(1880) 64,207, (1900) 112,246. the first, second, and third basemen and the short-stop. The last-named player stands midway between the second In 1900 there were 8133 inhabitants to each square and third basemen. The other arc is composed of the mile the highest rate of density in Switzerland. Religious. out-fielders, and they are named, right, centre, and left ■—Protestants, (1880) 44,236, (1888) 50,081, (1900) fielders. Inside the diamond, and distant in a straight 73,126 : Romanists, (1880) 19,288, (1888) 22,132, (1900) 987 ; Jews, (1880) 830, (1888) 1086, (1900) 1903. line in front of the home plate some 55 feet, is the pitcher’s 36 position, upon which he is obliged to stand when deliver- Linguistic.— German - speaking, (1880) 62,644, (1888) ing the ball to the batsman. The catcher’s position is not 71,113, (1900) 107,205 ; French-speaking, (1880) 1901, thus defined, but according as necessity requires he stands (1888) 2040, (1900) 2741 ; Italian-speaking, (1880) 338, either close behind the batsman, or, when no runner is on (1888) 346, (1900) 2361. The capital of this half canton the bases, and the batsman has not reached his last strike, is Basel. The cantonal constitution dates from 1889. some 70 feet behind the plate. When standing thus he The executive of seven members and the legislature of simply performs the duty of returning the ball to the 130 members are elected by a popular vote, each for three pitcher, as it is then unnecessary for him to catch it. The years. Since 1875 the “obligatory referendum” obtains all laws, while 1000 citizens can exercise the right of players of the side at the bat take their turn in regular for “initiative” in legislative matters, or demand the revision rotation, and continue until three of them have been put the cantonal constitution. In 1897 the state revenue out by the opponents. This retires that side to the field, of was 9,359,412 frcs. (a rise of 101 per cent, since 1885), and the other comes in to the bat. The batsman has a certain space marked off in which he must stand when and the state expenditure 9,352,414 frcs. (a rise of 99 per striking at the ball. The batsman becomes a base- cent, since 1885), while in 1898 the surplus was 461,519 runner immediately he has made a “ fair hit (that is, frcs.; but in 1900 there was a deficit of 1,190,631 frcs. knocked the ball so that it will fall in front of the foul In 1897 the public debt was 30,050,800 frcs. The total area of Basel Landschaft is 163‘8 square miles, lines), or when he has had “three strikes’ (that is, three of which 158-8 square miles are classed as “productive.” fair opportunities of hitting the ball), or, finally, when the Of this 55-9 square miles are covered by forests and 1‘/ pitcher has delivered “four balls,” none of which have passed over the plate at the proper height, or have been square miles by vineyards. The statistics of this half struck at by the batsman. In this latter case he is canton are as follows: — Population. (1880) 59,171, entitled to occupy first base without being put out. In (1900) 68,451. In 1900 there were 411 inhabitants each square mile. Religious. — Protestants, (1880) the other cases, i.e., when he has made a fair hit or has to had three strikes, he must start to make the round of the 46,670, (1888) 48,698, (1900) 52,617 ; Romanists, (1880) bases, which are to be taken in regular order (first, second, 12,109, (1888) 12,921, (1900) 15,775; Jews, (1880) 223, German-speaking, third, and home), and the first of which at least he must (1888) 165, (1900) 135. reach before he is temporarily safe from being put out. (1880) 58,961, (1888) 61,507, (1900) 66,581 ; FrenchWhen he completes this circuit and crosses the plate without speaking, (1880) 217, (1888) 303, (1900) 598; Italianbeing put out, he scores a run; and the number of runs speaking (1880) 72, (1888) 115, (1900) 1470 (Earlier thus scored in nine innings decides the match. A bats- figures are untrustworthy.) The capital of Basel Landschalt man is put out if he hits the ball and the ball is caught by is Liestal. The cantonal constitution dates fiom 189lj. an opponent before touching the ground, or if ho. make The executive of five members and the legislature (one three foul bunts (that is, attempts to block the ball with the member per 800 inhabitants or fraction over 400) are bat). (By recent legislation a foul counts as a strike elected by a popular vote. The “ obligatory referendum ” until a batsman has had two strikes.) A base-runner obtains in the case of all laws, while 1500 citizens have may be put out in any one of the following ways if, the right of “initiative” whether in legislative matters or having made a fair hit, the ball be caught by an oppo- in demanding the revision of the cantonal constitution. nent before touching the ground, or, having touched the In 1897 the state revenue was 1,496,726 frcs. (a rise of ground, be held by a fielder any part of whose person is 123 per cent, since 1885) and the state expenditure touching the first base, before the runner reaches the base; 1 480,684 frcs. (a rise of 126J per cent, since 1885), while debt m if, after three strikes, the ball be caught before it touches the surplus in 1898 was 49,382 frcs.; the public w A B c 1897 was 56,000 frcs. ( - -) the ground, or, having touched the ground, be held at first base as above described; and, finally, if he be touched by Basel, or Bale, the capital of the Swiss half canton the ball in the hands of a fielder at any time duiing his circuit of the bases when he is not touching the base of Basel Stadt or urban Basel. It is now the largest city the Swiss confederation except Zurich. It is also the which he is legally entitled to occupy. To provide for in richest city in Switzerland, having vastly increased m the satisfactory conduct of the game an umpire is agreed wealth and importance since the opening of the St. upon by the contesting Nines, and it is his duty to Gotthard railway in 1882. Its statistics are as follows . see that all the provisions of the rules are observed. He Population.—(1880) 60,550, (1900) 107,287, is also the judge of good and bad balls, put-outs, and —Protestants, (1880) 41,308, (1888) 47,007, ( ) runs. Any other point liable to become a point of 70,520; Romanists, (1880) 18,556, (1888) 21>312, (1900) dispute comes under his jurisdiction. Sometimes two 36,524; Jews, (1880) 801, (1888) 1047, (1900) 1898 umpires act at the same time, one at the plate and the Linguistic.—German - speaking, (1880) 59,00-., (1888) other at the bases. . (w* Ca ) 67,265, (1900) 104,155; French-speaking, (1880) 18bq (1888) 1997, (1900) 2720; Italian-speaking, (1880) 3^4, Basel, or Bale (Basle is a wholly erroneous form), (1888) 305, (1900) 2348. The university library now one of the Swiss cantons, which since 1833 has been ‘ divided into two half cantons—Basel-Stadt (urban Basel) contains 220,000 volumes and 4000 MSS., while in the