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(1894), The Yellow Book (1894-95), The Savoy Magazine was a great deal too (though little to his blame) in Lord Salomd (1896), The Rape of the Lock (1896). Malmesbury’s observation that he was not only disliked See also J. Pennell. The Studio. 1893.—Symons. Aubrey in the House of Commons for his mysterious manner, but Beardsley. 1898.—R. Ross. Volpone. 1898.—H. C. Marillier. prejudiced by a pronounced foreign air and aspect. Lord The Early Work of Aubrey Beardsley. 1899.—Smithers. AV/jtoof Drawings by Aubrey Beardsley.—Jons Lane. The Malmesbury does not put it quite as strongly as that, but ductions Later Works of Aubrey Beardsley. 1901. (e. F. S.) he might have done so with truth. No Englishman could approach Disraeli without some immediate consciousness BeardstOWIl, a city of Cass county, Illinois, that he was in the presence of a foreigner. U.S.A., situated in the western part of the state, on the Lord Beaconsfield has been praised for his integrity in east bank of Illinois river, at an altitude of 448 feet. It money-matters: the praise could have been spared—it is entered by two railways, the Baltimore and Ohio Southdoes not rise high enough. It is also said to his honour Western, and the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy. Poputhat he “ never struck at a little man,” and that was well; lation (1880), 3135; (1890), 4226; (1900), 4827. but it is explained as readily by pride and calculation Bearings, Ball and Roller.—There are as by magnanimity. A man of extraordinary coolness and self-control, his faults in every kind were faults of two methods usually adopted for the transport of loads excess : it is the mark of them all. But whatever offence along roads, namely, by wheels or by rollers. The former they gave, whatever mischief they did, was soon exhausted, consists of a disc or wheel, turning on a spindle or axle ; in this case frictional resistance due to the load is exerted and has long since been pardoned. Lord Beaconsfield’s Preface to 1849 edition of Isaac Disraeli s at the bearing surface of the wheel on the axle, and has works.—Correspondence with his Sister, and Home Letters, edited to be met and overcome. The latter arrangement, in its by Ralph Disraeli.—Samuel Smiles. Memoirs and Correspondence primitive form, is usually adopted for of John Murray.—Life of the Earl of Beaconsfield, by F. Hitch- the transport of heavy loads only. It Memoir by T. E. Kebbel.—il/gmoir by J. A. Fkoude.— Memoir by Harold Gorst.—Sir William Fraser’s Disraeli and possesses the advantage that, as there his Day.—The Speeches of Lord Beaconsfield, edited by T. E. is no rubbing contact between the Kebbel.—T. P. O’Connor’s Life.—National Dictionary of Bio- surface of the rollers and the load, graphy. Personal knowledge. (f. G.) purely frictional resistances do not Beaconsfi eld, a town of Cape Colony in Griqua- exist. This argument is strictly only land West, nearly 2 miles S.W. of Kimberley, after which true when the rollers are hard and it ranks as the most important place in the diamond fields. work on true hard surfaces. The ball Although dating only from 1870, when it was founded bearing, which has done much to near the famous Dutoit’s Pan mine, and still figured on make the cycle carriage efficient, combut few maps, it had a population in 1891 of 10,500, and bines the adoption of the principle in 1898 of over 13,000. In the same district are also the involved in the latter method described rich De Beer’s and Bultfontein mines, for the collective above, with its application to the former, so that the frictional resistoutput of which, see Kimberley. Ball Bearing. ances which would otherwise exist Beardsley, Aubrey Vincent (1872 1898), between wheel and axle are practically eliminated. In English artist in black and white, was born at Brighton, 24th place of rollers, however, balls are generally used, espeAugust 1872. In 1883 his family settled in London, and cially for light loads, as they possess the obvious adin the following year he appeared in public as an “ infant vantage that, being symmetrical about a centre, there musical phenomenon,” playing at several concerts with is no need to constrain them, as in the case of rollers his sister. In 1888 he obtained a post in an archi- whose axes must be kept in correct relation to each tect’s office, and afterwards one in the Guardian Life other. It will be seen that in the case of a sphere and Fire Insurance Company (1889). In 1891, under placed between two plane surfaces actual contact is made the advice of Sir Edward Burne-Jones and M. Puvis de at two points only, and the stresses at these points under Chavannes, he took up art as a profession. In 1892 he a load are correspondingly severe. For this reason it is attended the classes at the Westminster School of Art, necessary to employ in a bearing a large number of balls then under Professor Brown; and from 1893 until his in order to increase the points of support, and to make death, at Mentone, 16th March 1898, his work came con- the balls themselves and the paths on which they run of tinually before the public, arousing a storm of criticism the finest hardened steel, and perfectly true in form. and much hostile feeling. Beardsley had an unswerving Perfect rolling contact is only obtained when the balls tendency towards the fantastic of the gloomier and and contact surfaces touch at points, and then only when “ unwholesome ” sort. His treatment of most subjects the parts in contact are not constrained to move at was revolutionary ; he deliberately ignored proportion different speeds in relation to each other. It is frequently and perspective, and the “ freedom from convention the case that, in order to obtain more contact surface so which he displayed caused his work to be judged with as better to support a load, the paths on which the balls harshness. In certain phases of technique he especially run are curved to fit the balls, but in such cases friction, excelled; and his earlier methods of dealing with the due to rubbing contact in place of true rolling contact, single line in conjunction with masses of black are in must necessarily result. In light machines, such as their way unsurpassed, except in the art of Japan, the bicycles, it is customary to have one circle of balls to each country which probably gave his ideas some assistance. bearing, but for heavier bearings these are increased in He was always an ornamentist, rather than an illustrator; number; and as the examination and separation of a and his work must be judged from that point of view. bearing with a large number of balls would be exceedingly His frontispiece to Volpone is held by some to be, from inconvenient, it is customary to carry the balls in cages or this purely technical standpoint, one of the best pen- some similar device. Where heavy loads have to be drawings of the age. His posters for the Avenue Theatre carried it is customary to use rollers in a bearing in place and for Mr Fisher Unwin were among the first of the of balls, with very satisfactory results. It is absolutely modern cult of that art. . necessary, however, that the axes of the rollers should The following are the chief works which are illustrated with draw- retain a symmetrical relation to each other, and that ings by Beardsley : the Bon Mot Library, The Pall Mall Budget and their peripheries should not touch, or friction will result. The Studio (1893), Sir Thomas Malory s Morte d Arthur (1893-94),