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B E A W A R —B ECHUANALAND Pennsylvania, U.S.A., situated in the western part of the plete overthrow of society, but a gradual amelioration. conflict of tendencies then begun has continued, and state, on Beaver river, 30 miles north-west of Pittsburg, The Bebel has come to be regarded as the chief exponent of at an altitude of 784 feet, on the Pennsylvania and the the traditional views of the orthodox Marxist party. He Pittsburg and Lake Erie Railways. It is m the coal and been exposed to some natural ridicule on the ground natural gas region and has extensive manufactures. It is has that the “ Kladderadatsch,” which he often spoke of as the seat of Geneva College. Population (1900), 10,054. imminent, has not yet taken place. On the other hand, B6£LW£LI*j a town of British India, the administrative though a strong opponent of militarism, he has publicly headquarters of Merwara district in Rajputana, situated stated that foreign nations attacking Germany must not in 26° 9' H. lat. and 74° 23' E. long., 33 miles from expect the help or the neutrality of the Social Democrats. Ajmer. Population, about 20,000. It is an important His book, Die Frau und der Socialismus, which has gone centre of trade, especially in raw cotton, and has four through many editions, and contains an attack on the factories for ginning and pressing cotton, two of which are institution of marriage, has identified him with the most worked by hydraulic pressure. extreme forms of Socialism. Mehring. Gesehichte der deutschen Social-Demokratie. StuttBebel, Ferdinand August (1840 ), gart 1898 —Reports of the Annual Meetings of the Social DemoGerman socialist, was born at Cologne on the 22 nd of cratic Party. Berlin Yorwarts Publishing Company, 1890-1900. B Russell. German Social-Democracy. London, 189/. February 1840 ; he became a turner and worked at (j. W. He.) Leipzig. Here he took a prominent part in the workmen’s movement and in the association of working men Beccles, a municipal borough, market town, and which had been founded under the influence of Schultz- railway station, in the Lowestoft parliamentaiy division of Delitzsch ; at first an opponent of socialism, he came under Suffolk, England, on the Waveney, 10 miles W. by S. of the influence of Liebknecht, and since 1865 he has been Lowestoft. The corporation is lord of the. manor and a confirmed advocate of socialism. With Liebknecht he principal landowner. There are now extensive printing belonged to the branch of the socialists which was m works and a hospital. Area of borough (a parish), 2017 close correspondence with Karl Marx and the International, acres; population (1881), 5721 ; (1891), 6669; (1901), and refused to accept the leadership of Schweitzer, who 6898. had attempted to carry on the work after Lassalle’s death. Bechuanaland, a country of British South He was one of those who supported a vote of want of con- Africa, which occupies all the central part of the great fidence in Schweitzer at the Eisenach conference in 1867, plateau, stretching from the Orange River uninterfrom which his party was generally known as “ the Eisen- inland ruptedly northwards to the Zambezi, and merging gradually acher.” In this year he was elected a member of the R orth westwards in the Kalahari desert. It is thus coterminous German Reichstag for a Saxon constituency, and, with the exception of the years 1881 to 1883, has been a member of on the east with Orange River Colony, Transvaal, and Rhodesia, and on the west with German South-West Africa, the German Parliament ever since. His great organizing | Area in Populatalent and oratorical power quickly made him one of the Chief Territory. Square Kraals. Tribal Groups. tion. leaders of the socialists and their chief spokesman in Miles. parliament. In 1870 he and Liebknecht were the only members who did not vote the extraordinary subsidy Batlaro and Basao- From Griqua- 30,000 60,000 Kuruman maka (totem, Klu, land West required for the war with France ; the followers of Lassalle, the Elephant) ;! to Kuruman ! on the other hand, voted for the Government proposals. Chief, Mankoroane j and Taungs j Taungs He was the only Socialist who was elected to the Reichstag Batlapin, (totem, Between in 1871, but he used his position to protest against the Tlapi, the Fish) ; Taungs and chief, Mankoroane Vryburg annexation of Alsace-Lorraine and to express his full (totem, BetweenVry- 20,000 30,000 Mafeking sympathy with the Paris Commune. Bismarck after- Barolong Mari, the Buffalo); burg and wards said that this speech of Bebel’s was a “ray of chief, Montsioa Molopo river light,” showing him that Socialism was an enemy to be Total, South Bechuaxaland . 50,000 90,000! fought against and crushed; and in 1872 Bebel was accused in Brunswick of preparation for high treason, and the Mo- 50,000 100,000 Kanya condemned to two years’ imprisonment in a fortress, and, Bawanketsi (totem, From lopo to the Kwena, the Crocofor insulting the German emperor, to nine months’ ordinary dile) ; chief, Bath- Kanya disimprisonment. After his release he helped to organize, at trict oen Formerly the Congress of Gotha, the united party of Social Demo- Bakwcna (totem, From Kanya Kolobeng. Kwena); chief, Se- to Tropic of crats, which had been formed during his imprisonment. now MoCapricorn bele lepolole After the passing of the Socialist Law he continued to show Formerly great activity in the debates of the Reichstag, and was also Bamangwato and FromSebele s 150,000 400,000 Shoshong elected a member of the Saxon Parliament; when the Bativana (totem I to the Zamnow bezi and Puti, the duiker state of siege was proclaimed in Leipzig he was expelled Palapye westwards Antelope)

chiefs, from the city, and in 1886 condemned to nine months to and beKhama and Secimprisonment for taking part in a secret society. Although yond Lake home FT garni the rules of the Social Democratic party do not recognize a leader or president, Bebel has since been by far the most Total, North Bechuanaland. 200,000 500,000 influential member of the party. In the party meetings of 1890 and 1891 his policy was severely attacked, first where the conventional boundaries, as laid down by the by the extremists, the “young” Socialists from Berlin, Anglo-German agreements of 1884 and 1890 coincide who wished to abandon parliamentary action; against partly with 20° and partly with 21° E. Gr. This region, these Bebel won a complete victory. On the other side he which enjoys almost complete ethnical unity, being mainly was involved in a quarrel with Yolmar and his school, who inhabited by various branches of the great Bechuana nation, desired to put aside from immediate consideration the is divided politically into two sections—-/SW& hechuanacomplete attainment of the Socialist ideal, and proposed land, from the Orange to the Molopo river, forming since that the party should aim at bringing about, not a com186