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BECHUAN ALAND 187 1895 an integral part of Cape Colony; and North Bechuana- paramount chief of that people. The attacks of the Boers Jand, from the Molopo to the Zambezi, since 1885 a British at length became so unbearable that Montsioa made a protectorate. In both sections the natives retain their request to the British authorities to be taken under primitive tribal organization, with their hereditary chiefs, their protection. In formulating this appeal he declared totems (tutelar deities), recognized territories, and head that when the Boers were at war with Moselekatze, chief kraals (stations), as tabulated above. of the Matabele, he had aided them on the solemn underHere the areas include extensive hunting grounds claimed taking that they were to respect his boundaries. This by the several tribes in the Kalahari desert, and in the promise they had broken. Khama, chief of the Bamangpopulations are comprised some thousands of the so-called wato in Northern Bechuanaland, wrote about the same Ba-Kalahari, i.e., Bushman half-breeds, formerly slaves, time to Sir Henry Barkly making an appeal similar to that now servants and farm assistants of their Bechuana masters. sent by the Barolong. The letter, which is a remarkable The emancipation of these debased Bushman groups was one, contained the following significant passages : “ I write one of the most beneficent results of the extension of to you, Sir Henry, in order that your queen may preserve British rule over Bechuanaland. Khama, the central figure for me my country, it being in her hands. The Boers are if not the recognized paramount chief of the Bechuana coming into it, and I do not like them.” “ Their actions nation, has long administered his extensive territory and are cruel among us black people. We are like money, they controlled his formerly lawless Bamangwato subjects with sell us and our children.” “ I ask Her Majesty to defend a vigour combined with kindness which Avould reflect me, as she defends all her people. There are three things credit on any European potentate. In this Christian which distress me very much—war, selling people, and prince are embodied all the higher qualities of which the drink. All these things I shall find in the Boers, and it Bantu race is capable, and he, with Moshesh, Chaka, and a is these things which destroy people to make an end of few others, has been appealed to in proof of the mental them in the country. The custom of the Boers has always superiority of the Negroid Bantus over the full-blood been to cause people to be sold, and to-day they are still Sudanese negro. In the protectorate the three chiefs, selling people.” The statements of Khama in this letter Khama, Sebele, and Bathoen, continue to govern their own do not appear to have been exaggerated. The testimony of people under the protection of Great Britain, which is repre- Livingstone confirms them, and even a Dutch clergyman, sented by a Resident Commissioner stationed at the adminis- writing in 1869, described the system of apprenticeship of trative capital, Mafeking, and acting under the High Com- natives which obtained among the Boers “ as slavery in missioner of South Africa. The natives pay a hut-tax, which the fullest sense of the word.” These representations on is collected by the chiefs, and order is maintained by a force the part of the Barolong, and the Bamangwato under of mounted police. The people are occupied chiefly with Khama, supported by the representations of Cape polistock-breeding, and in recent years have suffered greatly ticians, led in 1878 to the military occupation of Southern from drought and rinderpest. In consequence of these Bechuanaland by a British force under Colonel M arren. losses the expenditure has in some years greatly exceeded The imperial troops at Warren’s disposal, with the the revenue (in 1897, £88,450 and £47,510 respectively); Kimberley volunteers, were able to check the Boers in but in normal times accounts are balanced, and the popula- the district at that time. With regard, however, to the tion appears to be increasing. Khama had always forbidden indignant protests that were made by missionaries and the importation of spirits in his territory, and at present travellers on the subject of Boer cruelty towards the no licenses are granted for their sale in any part of the natives, it is only fair to say that at the outset, in a large protectorate. For the physical features, climate, and other number of instances, the Boers’ aid was called in by one geographical details, see South Africa. or other native chief, a party to the tribal strife continuJ. D. Hepburn. Twenty Years in Khama’s Country. London, ally raging among the Bantu. In fact what occurred in 1895.—Sir Harry Johnston. The Colonization of Africa. Cam- Bechuanaland occurred more or less throughout South bridge, 1899.—A. H. Keane. Africa, vol. ii. London, 1895. Afiica. A continual struggle for power was going on (a. h. k.) amongst petty Bantu chieftains, who did not hesitate to Recent History.—W ith the settlement of Dr Livingstone call in any allies they could obtain. Thus in 1881 Massow in the country in the early ’forties, the political history of invited the aid of the Boers against Mankoroane, who Bechuanaland may be said to begin. In 1852 a trader claimed to be paramount chief of Bechuanaland. The named M Gabe was stopped by the Boers whilst crossing Transvaal war of that date oflered opportunities to the the Kalahari. This satisfied Livingstone that the Boers freebooting Boers of the west which were not to be lost. were endeavouring to close the country to British coloniza- Once having entered upon the scene of internal native tion. “The Boers,” he wrote, “resolved to shut up the warfare, the Boers continued their interference until interior, and I determined to open the country.” At this Montsioa himself became involved, the Boers professing to time the Boers attacked Setylli, a tribal chief, and tried support the claims of Moshette. to induce Montsioa, chief of the Barolong, to assist them, At this time the British forces were too much occupied but he refused to be drawn into the strife. At a later with the Boers themselves to be able to respond to native date they tried to raise taxes from the Barolong, but appeals for help. Consequently the Boers prowithout success. This led to a protest from Montsioa, ceeded without let or hindrance with their steliaiand which he lodged with a landdrost at Potchefstroom in conquest and annexation of territory. In Goshen the Transvaal, threatening to submit the matter to the 1882 they set up the republic of Stellaland, °S British High Commissioner if any further attempt at with Vryburg as its capital, and forthwith proceeded to taxation were made on the part of the Boers. The Boers set up the republic of Goshen, farther north, in spite of then resorted to cajolery, and invited the Barolong to join the protests of Montsioa, and established a small town their territories with the Transvaal, in order to save them called Rooi Grond as capital. They then summoned from becoming British. Montsioa’s reply was short: “ No Montsioa to quit the territory. The efforts of the British one ever spanned in an ass with an ox in one yoke.” authorities at this period (1882-83) to bring about a satisThese overtures of the freebooting parties of Boers having factory settlement were feeble and futile, and fighting failed, the president of the Transvaal in 1872 endeav- continued until peace was made entirely on Boer lines. The oured to replace Montsioa as chief of the Barolong by Transvaal Government was to have supreme power, and to Moshette, whom he declared to be the rightful ruler and be the final arbiter in case of future quarrels arising among