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the native chiefs. This agreement, arrived, at without great trade route to the north—the “ Suez Canal of South any reference to the British Government, was a breach Africa,” as Mr Rhodes called it—would thus have been of the Pretoria Convention, and led to an intimation on effectually shut against trade and British colonization. the part of Great Britain that she could not recognize the With regard to the precise effect of missionary influence new republics. In South Africa, as well as in Bngland, upon the natives, opinion will always. remain divided. strong feeling was aroused by this act of aggression. But Livingstone, who was not only a missionary but also Unless steps were taken at once, the whole of Bechuana- an enlightened traveller, stated that a considerable amount land might be permanently lost, while German territory on of benefit had been conferred upon the native races by the west might readily be extended to join with that of the missionary teaching. Livingstone was a great advocate Boers. In the London Convention of 1884, conceded by of the prohibition of alcohol among the natives, and t at Lord Derby in response to the overtures of Boer delegates, policy has always been adhered to by Khama. In 1891 the Customs Union was extended to British the Transvaal boundaries were defined, but in spite of this convention the Boers remained in Bechuanaland, and at Bechuanaland, and in 1895 the . country was annexed to length the Rev. John Mackenzie, who had succeeded Cape Colony. At the same time it was provisionally Livingstone, was sent to the country to arrange matters. arranged that the Bechuanaland protectorate should pass He found very little difficulty in negotiating with the under the administration of the British South Africa various Bechuana chiefs, but with the Boers he was not so Company. On learning what was going on, Khama and successful. In Goshen the Boers defied his authority, two other Bechuana chiefs came to England and protested while in Stellaland only a half-hearted acceptance of it was against this arrangement. The result was that their given. He was then recalled by Sir Hercules Robinson, territories and those of other petty chiefs lying to the and Mr Rhodes succeeded him as deputy commissioner of north of the Molopo were made native reserves, into which the importation of liquor was forbidden. A British resident Bechuanaland. Mr Rhodes’s mission was attended with great difficulty. officer was to be appointed to each of the reserves. A British prestige after the disastrous Boer war of 1881 was stipulation, however, was made with these chiefs that a at a very low ebb, and he realized that he could not count strip of country sufficient for the purposes of the Matabeleon any active help from the imperial or colonial authorities. land railway should be conceded to the Chartered ComHe adopted a tone of conciliation, and decided that, the pany. In December 1895, the occurrence of the Jameson Stellaland republic should remain under a sort of British Raid, an expedition which started from these territories, suzerainty. But in Goshen the Boers would let him do prevented the completion of negotiations, and the whole nothing. Joubert, after meeting him at Rooi Grond, of Northern Bechuanaland still remains a British protecentered the country and attacked Montsioa. Mr Rhodes torate. The two chief towns in British Bechuanaland are then left under protest, declaring that the Boers were Mafeking and Vryburg, Palapye. being the chief town m making war against Great Britain. The Boers now pro- the protectorate. The railway is now extended throughclaimed the country Transvaal territory. This was a out the entire length of the country, and up to Bulawayo breach of the London Convention, and Mr Kruger ex- in Rhodesia. Material progress during the last few years plained that the steps had been taken in the “ interests of in Bechuanaland has not been great, owing to disturbed humanity.” Indignant protest in Cape Town and through- political conditions, but there is little question that as a out South Africa, as well as England, led to the despatch grazing country, and also possibly for agricultural and in October 1884 of the Warren Expedition, which was mineral purposes, the country has a promising future. Authorities. — Theal. History of South Africa; South sent out by the British Government to remove the African History and Geography.—Li vingston k. ^ _ South Africa. filibusters, to bring about peace in the country, and to Private correspondence

Sir David Tennant and Sir Henry Bulwei.

hold it until further measures were decided upon. Mr John Mackenzie. Austral Africa, Losing it or Ruling it. Kruger met Sir Charles Warren s force at the Modder Statistical Register, Cape of Good Hope, 1899.—Pratt. Leading river, and endeavoured to stop him from proceeding farther, Points in South African History.—Yindex. Cecil Rhodes, His (a. P. H.) saying that he would be responsible for keeping order in Political Life and Speeches. the country. Warren, however, proceeded with his nrission, Beckenham, a parish and urban district in the and broke up the republics of Stellaland and Goshen. Sevenoaks parliamentary division of Kent, England, 10 miles Bechuanaland was formally taken under British protection, S. of London by rail. Although one of the more remote and the sphere of British influence was declared to extend outlying districts around London, it has found great favour to the 22nd parallel of latitude. as a place of residence among City business men, and has The natives cheerfully accepted this new departure in changed from a village to a rapidly-growing modern town. British policy, and from this time forward Khanra’s It still retains many of its rural characteristics, and has wide country was known as the British Protectorate of Bechuana- thoroughfares and many handsome residences standing in land. That portion lying to the south of the Molopo extensive grounds. It has adopted electric lighting and river was described as British Bechuanaland, and was public baths. Population of urban district (area, 3881 constituted a crown colony. In 1890 the northern portion acres) (1881), 13,045; (1891), 20,707; (1901), 26,330. also passed under the control of the governor of British Beckx, Petrus Johannes (1795 1887), Bechuanaland, Sir Sidney Shippard, a, protest being made at the time by the British South Africa Company, on the twenty-second General of the Jesuits, was b<int at Sickeni, ground that it was included in the sphere of their charter. near Louvain in Belgium, on 5th February 17 95, and was Under the able administration of Sir Sidney Shippard admitted to the Society of Jesus at Hildesheim m 1819. peace was maintained among the natives, who have shown In 1826 the conversion of Duke Ferdinand and Duchess Julia of Anhalt-Kothen (daughter of Frederick William great loyalty to British rule. A review of the history of the country down to this date II. of Prussia) to the Roman Catholic faith produced shows how much has been due to the eftoits of men like a great sensation in Germany; and it was a proof of Livingstone, Mackenzie, and Rhodes. It is quite clear Father Beckx’s reputation that he was recommended by that had they not represented the true state of affairs to the General of the Order as their confessor. On the death the authorities the whole of this territory would have of the duke he accompanied the duchess to Vienna, gradually been absorbed by the Boers, until they had where he acquired great influence over the highest effected a union with the Germans on the west. The persons of the state, and in particular over Mettermch.