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of Liege and Ghent, in the two free universities of Louvain 1899 introduced into the election of members of the legislative sities and Brussels, and in the “new” university founded at Brussels. chambers the principle of proportional representation, a principle To these universities are annexed schools of civil engineering, ot which in the case of an election divides the writs among the mines, and of arts and manufactures. _ The students attending parties according to the number of votes they represent. The the universities numbered in 1899, in all, more than 5000. members of the senate are elected for eight years one half being There is also a very large number of schools for special instrucrenewed every four years. Senators must be at least forty years tion. (1) For purposes military instruction, there are at of a<m and must fulfil prescribed conditions of fortune excepting Brussels a military school,ofwith an attendance of 300, designed in the* case of a certain number elected by the provincial councils. for the training of officers of all arms, a school ol war (icole de They are chosen by so many of the electors who vote for the guerre) attended by officers desiringand obtain the brevet of chamber of representatives as have attained the age of thirty adjoint d'itat major; a riding school ; toregimental schools with years, amounting in 1900 to 1,227,720 ; and by the provincial an attendance of 3300; classes for illiterate soldiers. io councils two, three, or four for each province, according to popula- provide artistic education, there are the Royal Academy ol(2)Fine tion Sons of the king, or, failing these, Belgian princes of the Arts at Antwerp, with 1300 students, and 84 other academies reicrnino- branch of the royal family, are, by right of law, senators and schools of design, having altogether an attendance of 15,000 ; at "the acm of eighteen, but till the age of twenty-five have no the Royal Conservatoire of Music at Brussels with 1600 students ; voice in the deliberations. The king takes part in the legislative another at Ghent with 1200 students ; another at Liege with power by his right of initiative to present projects of law, and by 1200 students ; and 71 other schools of music having an attendthe assent he gives to the projects of law voted by the chambers. ance altogether of 12,000. (3) For industrial and comHe is charged with the sole executive power, which he exercises mercial education there are special schools, with 1400 students, through the intermediation of the ministers whom he appoints to the universities ; the Hainault provincial school ot and removes, and who are held responsible for the acts of the attached (250 students) ; industrial or professional schools, comgovernment. There are eight ministries :—justice, foreign affaiis, mines or free, having an attendance altogether of 17,000 ; the interior and public instruction, finance and public works war, munal Institut Superieur of Commerce at Antwerp ; schools to teach railways posts and telegraphs, agriculture, industry and labour. weaving, brewing, &c. (4) There are also schools of navigation The country is divided into 26 judicial arrondissements and into at Antwerp and Ostend ; a government agricultural institute at 222 cantons of justices of peace. . reform agricultural schools and prison schools ; Provinces and communes.—Pot purposes of civil administration, Gembloux; for the deaf and dumb ; schools of domestic economy, &c. the country is divided into the nine provinces already specified, schools education is supported and encouraged by numerous and the provinces, again, are divided into communes, at present Public and literary institutions or associations, the principal ot numbering 2610. Each province is self-governed. In each there scientific are the Royal Academy of Sciences, Letters, and Fine Arts, is a commissioner of the government, bearing the title of governor, which Brussels, founded in 1769; the Royal Flemish Academy, and appointed by the king ; and a council chosen for four years at at Ghent in 1886 ; the Royal Academy of Medicine, by the electors of the province. Since the revision of the consti- founded established at Brussels in 1884; the observatory set up at tution the electors to the provincial council are the same body as Brussels in 1826 and now transferred to Uccle ; the Royal Museum elect the senators. In 1893 the number of provincial electors was of Natural History and the government botanic gardens at 425 451 : in 1900, 1,227,720. The council must assemble each Brussels ; the zoological at Antwerp, formed by a private year in the month of July. The provinces are divided into society ; and other bodies.gardens has instituted prizes, administrative arrondissements, in each of which a commissaire granted every three years,TheinGovernment and Flemish dramatic d’arrondissement is appointed to watch over the administration of literature; every five years in theFrench history of Belgium, in social communes having less than 5000 inhabitants. Each commune is science, French and Flemish literature, mathematics, and self-governed. In each there is a burgomaster nominated by the natural and medical physics ; and every ten years in philosophy kinc and, saving in exceptional cases, chosen by the members of and philology. „ . . , the communal council; also a number of aldermen chosen by the Crime and Pauperism.—In 1897 the number of criminals members of the council from among themselves; further, a sentenced at the Assize courts was 105 ; and at the correctional communal council elected for eight years by the electors of the tribunals 43,364. average number of inmates of the various commune. To be an elector to the communal council, it is classes of prisons inThe 1897 was central prisons, 735 ; secondary necessary, 'since the law of the 11th April 1895,(1) to be a prisons, 3833 ; reformatories, 222. The charitable institutions Belgian by birth or by naturalization ; (2) to fulfil the same con- received in donations and legacies 4,407,000 francs. In ditions as are required for the right to elect senators ; (3) to have 1898 the total entries in the depots inof 1898, mendicite for the reception been actually domiciled in the commune for at least three years. of beggars and adult vagabonds were 3623, and the expenditure If the elector fulfil certain other conditions he may dispose of as 1 224: 213 francs. many as four votes. In 1893 the number of communal voters was 'Finance.—Every year the chambers settle the accounts and 547 550 ; in 1900, 1,136,010. The principle of proportional vote the budget. The total receipts and total expenditure of the representation applies also to communal elections. have to be entered in the budget and in the accounts. A llcliqion.—The recognized religions are the Roman Catholic, State special court called the Cour des Comptes is charged with the the Protestant, the Anglican, and the Hebrew. The population duty of examining and liquidating the accounts of the general is almost wholly Catholic. The Protestants number only about administration and of presenting its observations thereon, ihe 15 000 and the Jews 3000. In the budget of 1898, 5,268,000 revenue and expenditure for the years specified were as follows francs figures under the headfof expenditure for the support of the Revenue Expenditure Catholic religion, and 118,000 francs for the other creeds. Year. (Francs). (Francs). Education.—Free education has been recognized. There are 1880 . . • 394,215,932 382,908,429 accordingly schools of various grades established by private 1885 . • • 333,085,424 351,251,439 persons by corporations and associations, and by the public 1890 . • 378,404,319 417,893,629 authorities, national, provincial, and communal. There are three 1895 . . 395,730,445 410,383,402 grades of general public education elementary, middle-class, 1897 . . 499,612,888 511,398,214 and higher. Elementary education comprised in 1898 more than 2000 fnfant schools with 195,000 pupils; 6700 elementary From 1880 to 1897 the revenue has increased 26 per cent., and the schools subject to government inspection, numbering altogether increase on the expenditure has been in that period 33 per cent. 775 000 pupils ; 2300 adult schools with an attendance of The taxation, amounting to 28 francs per head of population in 12 000 • 19 normal schools for male teachers and 34 for female had risen to 31 francs per head in 1897. The total amount teachers comprising altogether 3700 students. The expenditure 1880, taxation shows an increase of 39 per cent, on the total sum ot on elementary education amounted in 1897 to 35,761,000 francs, of 1880. Among the items of expenditure for 1898, the most torin 1875 to 24,800,000 francs. The number of young men unable midable one is that on account of the service of railways, posts, to read and write when called on to draw lots for the conscription and telegraphs, figuring at 127,679,000 francs. The next m imwas in 1870, 29-2 per cent. ; in 1899, 12-8 per cent. Middle-class portance is on account of the interest on public debt, 123,303,8oi» instruction, lower grade, was imparted in 1898 by 78 government francs. The public debt, consolidated and floating, was in 188U, schools for boys and 10 communal schools, having altogether 1 422,814,049 francs ; in 1890, 2,018,043,774 francs ; in 1899, 16 000 pupils; by 34 government schools for girls and 6 francs. In the budget for 1900 the revenue was communal schools, with an attendance altogether of 7000 pupils ; 2*693,787,176 estimated at 452,246,618 francs, and expenditure 4o0,929,7/b and by 2 male normal schools numbering, m 1899, 60 students, francs. In each province the council settles every year the account and 2 female normal schools numbering 100 students. Middle- of the revenue and expenditure of the preceding financial year, and. “i instruction, higher grade was given n the budget for the current year. In f18,9J c v° f athenseum and 15 communal colleges, counting altogether <500 votes receipts amounted altogether to the sum of 17,501,567 francs. scholars The expenditure of the State, the provinces, and the The sum total of the provincial debts amounted to 32,b/J,t>i4 communes on middle-class instruction, inclusive of the two grades, francs. In each commune the council prepares every year tlie increases year by year, and amounted in 1897 to 4,600,000 francs. budget of revenue and expenditure. In 1892 the sum total of the The higher learning is communicated in the two State univer-