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[history BELGIUM 198 of moderate Catholics, 19,620 miles. The same year there were over 100,000 inter- (1871-78). The latter, composed permitted the extreme Right, £< the Ultramontanes, to national telephonic communications made. . Banks. There are three very important financial institutions, take the lead. In this period came the struggle between established at the intervention of the state : the National Bank, the Pope and the Italian Government, and the German the General Savings Bank under state guarantee, and the Socidte du Credit Communal. The National Bank discounts bills, Kulturkamj)/. The Belgian Clericals declared in favour has its headquarters at Brussels, and branches in the provinces. of the re-establishment of the temporal power, and It serves gratuitously as cashier of the state and of the Savings congratulated the German priests whom Bismarck had Bank. The following figures show the situation of the National dispossessed. M. Malou held the Government aloof from Bank on the 31st December 1899 these manifestations, and in consequence of the representa1000 1000 r tions of the German Chancellor was obliged even publicly Passive. Active. Francs. Francs. to condemn them, but, notwithstanding the attitude of the 77,464 Government, the Ultramontane agitation compassed its 112,663 Capital and revenue . * 543,357 Cash 337,304 Notes in circulation . Portfolio, Belgium. fall. The Liberals, who in Rogier’s second Ministry had 112,861 Treasury accounts, current 34,161 „ Foreign . 38,232 ,, ,, divided themselves into Doctrinaires (Moderates) and Advances in public purse 49,913 Private 89,477 Various . . . . 11,894 Property, Mutuals. Progressists, again joined hands as a protest against Clerical intervention in politics and. especially against There are 54 joint-stock and private banks, also agricultural banks, credit unions, and popular banks. The sums discounted the attitude of the Church in the elections. The Governby the Bank in 1898 amounted to 3,026,959,163 francs. The ment was obliged to pass a law ensuring the secrecy of the Savings Bank under state guarantee receives deposits bearing ballot (1877), the provisions of which were framed on the interest, keeps cheque-books, and an insurance fund. There were English system, and this soon gave the Liberals a majority in 1898, 899 offices, 1,377,643 depositors, and the amount of in the Chambers, which lasted from 1878 to 1884. deposits at end of year was 532,081,819 francs. The new Cabinet devoted itself, under M. Frere-Orban, The Soctite du Crddit Communal is designed to secure to the communes the means of contracting loans on favourable terms. solely to the settlement of the educational question. A Credit Agricole was officially organized in 1884 by a law The office of Minister of Public Education was Tbe authorizing the Savings Bank to devote part of its funds m created, and a new system of primary education mb i era loans to agriculturists. Among the great number of other financial institutions are savings banks under the patronage of introduced. In 1842 the popular schools were party communes, the society for the encouragement of national sectarian in character, and instruction, by the industry, &c. . , clergy in the Catholic faith was obligatory) question. Money.—The mintage of Belgian money is committed to a contractor, entitled Directeur de la fabrication, who works under children belonging to other persuasions being the superintendence of the Government at a rate of charges fixed dispensed from attendance. After* 1846 the Liberal by royal decree. The value of all the coins minted since 1832 Congress, in framing the programme of the party, dedown to 1898 amounts to 1,172,516,348 francs. Since 1861 no manded the abolition of this system. The law of 1879 coins have been minted, except the gold piece of 20 francs ; silver provided for the secularization of primary education ; but pieces of 5, 2, and 1 francs, and of 50 centimes ; nickel pieces of by Article 4 the ministers of all confessions received per10 and 5 centimes ; and copper pieces of 2 and 1 centime. For Belgium’s relation with the Congo Free State, see that mission to impart religious instruction in the schools to article, and also below (p. 203). children whose parents desired it, at hours other than those Authorities. —J. C. Houzeon. Essai d'une Geographic set apart for regular education. Instruction in morals, physique de la Belgique, ISte.—Annuaire statistique de la Belgique, until then entrusted to the clergy, was secularized and published annually Annuaire de l observatoire royal, Brussels, placed in the hands of the regular teachers. On the 67th year, 1900 ; Bulletin Mensuel et Tableau, Annual du Commerce de la Belgique avec les pays Etrangers, published by the other side, the State extended its direction and control Ministry of Finance ; Becensement gindral des industries et des to the communal schools, subjecting them to a rigorous metiers, published by the Ministry of Industry and Labour, inspection. After the passing of this law, a struggle Brussels, 1900, 3rd vol.—Eug. van Bemmel, “Patna Belgica. Encyclopedic Nationale, Brussels, vol. iii., 1873-75.—Eug. van ensued between the Government and the Liberal party Bemmel. La Belgique illustree, Brussels, two vols., 18/8-82. on the one side, and the Episcopate and the Catholic Cartes de la Belgique, published by the Military Cartographical party on the other, the latter not being satisfied with the Institute.—Du Fief, Atlas du, Belgique, 27 maps. (j. du F.) concessions made by Article 4. The bishops condemned the school law, and ordained that absolution should be Recent History. refused to teachers in the Government schools, and to all When Belgium was definitely established, in 1839, as an parents who left their children in them j moreover, they independent state, the political parties which had formed implored their clergy to found schools everywhere in opposia coalition for the purpose of safeguarding and reorganizing tion to the schools “sans Dieu.” This movement succeeded the country again split up. In 1846 the first Catholic to a great extent. In 1884 the State primary schools administration was formed under Malou, and was succeeded numbered only 346,000 scholars, as against 500,000 m the in the following year by the first Liberal administration of Catholic schools. The Government was unable to prevail Rogier and Frfere-Orban. This government preserved Bel- upon the Episcopate to end this “ school campaign, the gium from the contagion of the revolutionary ideas of 1848, clergy being entirely independent of the State, although it extended the electoral franchise, diminished the intensity vainly negotiated with the Pope for the issue of an ordinance of the industrial crisis in Flanders, restored the financial to the bishops to abandon their opposition to the law. M. equilibrium, instituted the municipal guard and the National Frere-Orban was obliged to recall the Belgian Minister to Bank, and introduced public middle-class education. After the Vatican on the eve of the fetes of the national jubilee, a short interval of the Catholic Ministry of de Decker 1880, with which the clergy refused to associate themselves. (1855-57), the Liberals again returned to power, under The struggle was embittered by the report of a parliaRogier (1857-58), and under Frkre-Orban (1868-70). In mentary committee appointed to inquire into the educationa 1860 the octroi of the towns was abolished, and next year system, which not only showed conclusively the insufficiency Protection was introduced, savings banks were established, of education as imparted in Catholic schools, but exposed co-operative and friendly societies promoted, and trade the measures taken by the clergy to boycott the Government unions declared legal. In 1865 the devolution of the schools. In order to meet the Catholics with any hope of success, crown from Leopold I. upon his son was satisfactorily Liberalism had need of all its strength; but at this very effected. Between 1870 and 1878 two Catholic Cabinets were in power, d’Anethans (18/0-71), and Malous juncture it became so completely disintegrated that its