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Divisions. Orissa

Area and Population, of Bengal (1891)—continued. Population, Census of 1891. Number Area of Towns and in Square Districts. Total. Miles. Villages. Females. Males. 3,633 2,473 2,066 1,681

5,429 5,000 6,311 1,443

940,557 474,530 481,638 85,768

997,114 470,468 512,987 84,290

1,937,671 944,998 994,625 170,058







35,563,299 35,783,688 71,346,987 151,5431 227,255 Exclusive of the Sundarbans, about 5500 square miles. Area and Population of Native States of Bengal (1891). Population, Census of 1891. Number Area of Towns and in Square Total, Females. Villages. Males. Miles.


Cuttack Puri . Balasore Angul and Kondmals Total British Territory

Density of Population to Square Mile. 533 382 481 101



11,385 4,678

302,457 71,596 849,450 449,683

276,411 65,846 847,360 433,676

578,868 137,442 1,696,710 883,359













I Gooch Behar . . . . ! Hill Tippera . Tributary States : Orissa ,, ,, Chota Nagpur

1,307 4,086 14,387 16,054

Total Native States . Grand Total

Density of Population to Square Mile. 443 34 118 55


Since 1881 the population increased by nearly 7 per cent., which was below the rate of increase for India generally. But this increase of population was unequally distributed. In some of the central and northern districts there was an actual decrease, attributed to the prevalence of malarial fever. In eastern Bengal, where the population is already very dense, the rate of increase was as high as 11 per cent. In the hilly country of Chota Nagpur, where some emigration prevails, the increase was 10 per cent. The extremely high rate of increase for native states (19 _ per cent., despite an actual decrease in Gooch Behar) may be ascribed to more accurate enumeration. Excluding the metropolitan districts of the Twenty-four Parganas and Hooghly, the greatest density of population is to be found in the Patna division, or Behar proper. Here two purely agricultural districts (Saran and Muzatfarpur) each support more than 900 persons on every square mile, being the highest density for all India. In Chota Nagpur the average density falls to 172 persons per square milef Classified according to religion, and excluding native states, Hindus numbered 45,220,124, or 63'4 per cent, of the total population, as compared with 64-8 per cent, in 1881, showing that they increased less rapidly than other religions. Mahommedans numbered 23,437,591, or 32'85 per cent., being specially numerous in eastern Bengal, where in some districts they form more than two-thirds of the inhabitants. The fact that they have increased more than the Hindus is explained partly by conversion and partly by their healthier mode of life. They eat more meat, and marry later. The Christians numbered 190,829, or '27 per cent. Of these, 23,301 were Europeans, and 15,006 Eurasians, leaving 152,522 for native converts, who are most numerous in the Lohardaga district of Chota Nagpur. Buddhists and Jains together numbered 196,164, or '27 per cent. The Buddhists proper are almost confined to the half-Tibetan district of Darjiling and the half-Burmese district of Chittagong. The few Jams are traders residing chiefly in Calcutta and Murshidabad. Aboriginal tribes numbered 2,294,506, or 2‘4 per cent. , They are found chiefly in Chota Nagpur, the Sonthal Parganas, and the border districts of the Burdwan division. In the native states of Bengal the proportion of aboriginal tribes rises as high as 14 per cent. Jews numbered 1447 ; Sikhs, 412 ; and Parsis, 179 5 leaving 5735 for “others.” According to the preliminary returns of the census of 1901, the total population of Bengal amounted to 74,713,020 for British territory alone, showing an increase of nearly 5 per cent. _ In eastern Bengal the rate of increase was maintained ; but there is an actual decrease in the thickly populated tracts of Behar. In the native states which for the first time include Sikkim, the total population amounted to 3,735,715, showing an apparent increase of 13 Crops.' Excluding Orissa, almost the entire area of Bengal was brought under the permanent settlement of Lord Cornwallis in 1793 Consequently, no agricultural statistics are available, as for the rest of India. The following figures are little better than coniectural The total cultivated area is estimated at 55 million acres of which 10 millions are cropped more than once. The staple crop almost everywhere is rice, grown on 40 million acres, while other food grains cover 15 million acres ; oil-seeds, 4 million

acres; jute, 2 million; sugar-cane, 1 million; tobacco, 648,000; indigo, 555,000; opium, 235,000; cotton, 167,000; tea, 128,000. The two crops grown under European supervision are indigo and tea. Indigo-planting has decreased in Bengal proper, but is still an important industry in northern Behar. The crop is a very fluctuating one, the total out-turn having been 58,000 maunds in 1896-97, compared with 94,000 maunds in the next year. The following table gives the chief statistics of the tea industry for 1897, according to districts :— Area Area Out-turn of Number Area of under under Manufactured of District. Mature Immature Gardens. Leaf. Gardens. Plant. Plant. lb. Acres. Acres. Acres. 7,234 11,597,256 55,822 48,588 186 Darjiling . 65,072 46,905 18,167 24,232,316 285 Jalpaiguri. 2,126,028 428 4,024 3,596 23 Chittagong Chittagong 27,120 100 100 Hill Tracts 36,200 586 611 4 Hazaribagh 931,695 2,429 2,438 21 Lohardaga Total .


128,067 102,204



The tea industry is almost confined to the hills of Darjiling, and the submontane tract of the Dwars (or Dooars) in Jalpaiguri. It is in the latter tract that most of the later extensions have taken place. The larger out-turn is apparently due to the leaf being sent here from Darjiling to be manufactured. The returns show 75,143 persons permanently employed, and a daily average of 52,444 persons temporarily employed. Cinchona is grown on Government plantations in the neighbourhood of Darjiling, and there manufactured into quinine. The total number of cinchona trees is about 2£ millions. In 1897-98 the crop amounted to 318,715 lb of dry”bark. The output of the factory was 10,149 lb of sulphate of quinine and 4075 lb of cinchona febrifuge. The gross receipts amounted to B,s.l,76,798, a net profit of Bs.l 1,632. Industries.—The chief coalfields of Bengal are near Raniganj in the Burdwan district, and at Karharbari and Giridih in Hazaribagh. The industry has progressed rapidly, not only supplying fuel to the local railways and factories, but also exporting it by sea. In 1898 the aggregate output of all the Bengal collieries was 3,622,090 tons, valued at Rs.96,87,250. The total number of persons employed was 48,604, of whom 14,709 were women and 2090 children. The following table gives the output for 1893-99, and also for earlier quinquennial periods:— Output of Coal Output of Coal in Bengal. Year. in Bengal. Year. Tons. Tons. 2,716,155 1895 957,243 1878 3,037,920 1896 1,200,957 1883 3,142,497 1,380,594 1897 1888 3,622,090 1898 1,902,866 1893 3,883,000 1899 2,035,944 1894 The only important ironworks are those of the Barrakur Company