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BENGHAZI — BENIN limits is 2,722,000, or less than 4 per cent, of the total population. districts 61,018,611 individuals were employed on works for one The number of electors is 469,000, or about one in six of the day, and 70,783,120 were fed gratuitously. The total expenditure inhabitants. The municipalities vary in size, from Patna with on famine relief amounted to Rs.1,08,03,758, of which Rs. 63,00,000 168,000 persons to Nalchiti with only 1675 ; the majority, how- were spent on wages and Rs.32,00,000 on food. Plague first ever, have between 5000 and 15,000. The rule is that two-thirds appeared at Calcutta in a sporadic form in April 1898, but of the municipal commissioners shall be elected by the ratepayers. down to April of the following year the total number of deaths But in a few cases (27 in all) the Government exercises the right ascribed to plague throughout the province was less than 1000, of nomination. Out of a total of 2183 commissioners, 1172 are compared with 191,000 for Bombay. At the beginning of 1900, elected and 1011 nominated; 349 are officials and 1834 non- however, there was a serious recrudescence of plague at Calcutta, officials ; 1949 are Indians and 234 Europeans. The classes most and a very malignant outbreak in the district of Patna, which numerously represented are lawyers, landholders, merchants, caused 1000 deaths a week. In the early months of 1901, plague doctors, and schoolmasters. In 1897-98, the aggregate municipal again appeared in the same regions. During 1900 the total income was Rs.33,00,000, of which Rs.26,79,000 was derived from number of deaths from plague in Bengal was 37,265, and during taxation, the average incidence of taxation being nearly R. 1 per head. the first three months of 1901 as many as 52,402 deaths had The aggregate expenditure was Rs.36,00,000, of which Rs. 10,68,000 occurred. The earthquake of 12th June 1897, which had its was devoted to conservancy, Rs. 5,04,000 to buildings and roads, centre of disturbance in Assam, was felt throughout eastern Rs. 3,76,000 to water-supply and drainage, Rs.3,62,000 to hospitals and northern Bengal. In all the large towns the masonry and vaccination, Rs.2,82,000 to police, lighting, and fire preven- buildings were severely damaged or totally wrecked. The permanent way of the railways also suffered. The total cost of repairs tion, and Rs. 1,32,000 to education. The number of district boards is 38, and of local boards 104. to Government buildings alone was estimated at Rs.13,00,000, These bodies possess no power of taxation, but administer certain while the losses to private individuals may have amounted to a funds made over to them for expenditure on roads and bridges, crore of rupees (say, £666,000). The total number of deaths education, hospitals, &c. On the district boards the number of returned was only 135. Ear more destructive to life, was the members is 794, of whom 328 are elected by the local boards. On cyclone and storm-wave that broke over Chittagong district on the the local boards the number of members is 1253, of whom 413 are night of 24th October 1897. Apart from damage to shipping and elected. Of the total number of both (2047), 1635 are non-officials, buildings, the low-lying lands along the coast. were. completely and 1761 are Indians. In 1897-98, the total income of the boards submerged, and in many villages half the inhabitants were was Rs. 65,80,000, of which Rs. 39,20,000 was derived from road drowned. The loss of human lives was reported to be about cess, Rs. 12,20,000 from tolls at ferries, &c., Rs.4,70,000 from 14,000, and the number of cattle drowned about 15,000. As fees at cattle pounds, &c., and Rs. 5,40,000 from a Govern- usual in such cases, a severe outbreak of cholera followed in the ment grant. The total expenditure was Rs.69,10,000, of which track of the storm-wave. Another natural calamity on a large Rs. 37,90,000 was devoted to roads, bridges, &c., Rs. 12,00,000 to scale occurred at Darjiling in October 1899. Torrential, rains education, Rs.3,00,000 to hospitals, and Rs.2,60,000 to sanitation caused a series of landslips, carrying away houses and breaking up the hill railway. The loss of life was returned at 300, including and water-supply. Revenue and Expenditure.—The net revenue of Bengal for 1897-98 several English school children, and the value of property de(j. s. Co.) (in tens of rupees), was Rx.14,340,376, classified thus: Imperial, stroyed at Rs.25,00,000. Rx.10,051,972 ; provincial, Rx.3,783,460 ; local, Rx.504,944. The Benghazi. See Tripoli. net expenditure for the same period was Rx.4,375,988 : Imperial, Rx.87,584 ; provincial, Rx.3,670,721 ; local, Rx.617,683. Of the or Sa.o Filipe de Benguella, a town total revenue, Rx.3,945,951 was derived from land, Rx.2,443,364 of Benguella, Portuguese West Africa, capital of district Benguella, from salt, Rx.1,759,285 from stamps, Rx.1,444,919 from customs, stands on a bay of the same name, and is connected with and Rx. 1,273,766 from excise. Education.—The following table gives the chief statistics of its emporium, Catumbella, by a railway. Population, education in Bengal for the three quinquennial years, 1886-87, 2500. The district of Benguella exports spirits, cotton, 1891-92, and 1896-97 india-rubber, wax, cocoanuts, hides, gums, ivory, salt, &c. 1891-92. 1896-97. 1SS6-S7. —the principal being india-rubber (£358,200 in 1896). The total trade increased from £186,900 in 1886 to Schools. Pupils. Schools. I Pupils. Schools. Pupils. £669,100 in 1896, and £534,666 in 1899. 56 8,273 39 4,611 48 6,287 !| Colleges . . 2,235 184,319 2,369 202,684 2,532 224,094 Secondary Beni, a department of Bolivia. Occupying the N.E. i Schools 50,667 1,122,286 51,269 1,175,962 52,854 1,307,867 part of the republic and extending to the Rio Beni which | Primary Schools 198 8,359 is its west boundary, it borders on the department of La 7,438 5,378 270 180 Special Paz and the territory of Madre de Dios. The river Guapore Schools 45,508 13,868 139,594 12,207 126,182 forms its boundary to the east where it touches Brazil. To 4,221 Private Institutions the south its limits are the departments of Cochabamba and Total . . 57,342 1,362,102 67,824 1,531,965 67,847 1,674,775 Santa Cruz. Its area is 100,580 square miles. The populaThese figures show fair progress, particularly in colleges, secondary, tion in 1893 numbered 25,760, and in 1898, 18,640, mostly and primary schools. The general rate of increase in pupils was Indians. The capital, Trinidad (5000), is situated on the 12 per cent, during the first quinquennium, and 9 per cent, during Mamore. The department is divided into three provinces. the second, which is in both cases somewhat below the rate of In 1898 there were 24 schools with 700 pupils. increase for India generally. If we compare the number of pupils with the estimated population of school-going age (15 per cent, of Benin.—The old kingdom of Benin has been inthe total population), the increase in ten years has been from 13'3 corporated in Southern Nigeria. Few Europeans visited to 15’2 per cent. Taking girls alone, the number at school increased from 88,731 in 1891-92 to 105,919 in 1896-97, or by 19 Benin city in the period 1875 to 1891. Consul Annesley per cent., while the proportion to the female population of school- saw the king in 1890 with the hopes of making a treaty, going age rose from 1‘61 to 1'93 per cent. Expenditure on educa- but failed in his object. In March 1892 Captain Vicetion increased from Rs.78,87,383 in 1886-87 to Rs.1,09,68,635 Consul Gallwey (now Lieut.-Colonel H. L. Gallwey, in 1896-97. The total expenditure has increased faster than the total number of pupils, the rate of increase being 19 per cent, in C.M.G., D.S.O.) succeeded in concluding a treaty with the the first quinquennium, and 17 per cent, in the second. But by king Overami. The treaty, however, proved of no avail, far the larger share of this increase has come from fees and “ other and the king kept as aloof as of old from any outside sources,” chiefly missionary contributions and subscriptions. Alto- interference. In January 1897, the Acting Consul-General gether, the proportion of the total expenditure borne by public funds fell in ten years from 40'8 to 36 H per cent. In secondary J. R. Phillips and eight Europeans were brutally massacred on the road from Gwato to Benin city whilst on a mission schools alone public funds contribute less than one-fifth. Public Calamities.—Bengal has been fortunate in escaping to a to the king. A punitive expedition (see below) was organgreat extent the two calamities of famine and plague which recently ized under the command of Admiral Sir Harry Rawson, afflicted Central and Western India. The drought of 1896-97 did indeed extend to Bengal, but not to such an extent as to cause actual K. famine. The distress was most acute in the densely populated dis- February 1897. The king and chiefs responsible for the tricts of Northern Behar, and in the remote hills of Chota Nagpur. massacre having been placed on their trial by Sir Ralph Reducing the persons relieved to terms of one day, the net result Moor, K.C.M.G., the king was deposed, and deported to of the operations from first to last shows that in the fifteen affected