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BERLIN 22; of Lords (Herrahaus) in the Albrecht Strasse. Other new the bronze equestrian statue of the Emperor William I. official buildings are the Patent Office on the site of the (by R. Begas), erected opposite the west portal of the old Ministry 5 the Interior; the new Ministry of Posts held oss. The space for the site was gained by pulling (with Post Museum) at the corner of the Mauer and down the old houses composing the so-called SchlossLeipziger Strassen; the Central Criminal court in Moabit; freiheit and damming back the Spree. The monuthe courts of first instance on the Alexander Platz; the ment, which cost £'200,000, represents the emperor in Ministry of Police, and the Peichsversicherungs-aint, a martial cloak, his right hand resting on a field-marshal’s which is the centre for the great system of old-age baton, reining in his charger, which is led by a female pensions. In addition to these, many buildings have genius of peace. The work is mounted on a high pedestal been restored and enlarged, chief among them being the and is surrounded by a colonnade of Ionic columns. On /eughaus (Armoury), the War Office, and the ministry of the square on the south side of the castle is a bronze public works, while the Marstall (Royal Mews) has been fountain (also by R. Begas) representing “ Neptune on entirely rebuilt and boasts an imposing facade. rocks, the gift of the city to the Emperor William II. Among the public monuments comes first and foremost On the Kbnigsplatz, in the north-east corner of the Thier-

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ygn,V liuiliiw Berlin {Environs). gar ten, between the column of Victory and the Reichstags- the Ringbahn, or outer circle, which was opened in gebaude, and immediately facing the western facade &of 1871, and by a well-devised system connects the termini the latter, is the bronze statue of Prince Bismarck, un- of the various main lines. The through traffic coming veiled.in April 1901, a figure 20 feet in height standing east and west is carried by the so-called Stadtbahn, on a granite socket. From the south side of the Kbnigs- from or city railway, which also connects with and forms an platz runs the broad Sieges Allee, lately adorned by thirtypart of the outer circle. This line runs through two groups of marble statuary representing famous rulers integral of the house of Hohenzollern, the gift of the Emperor the heart of the city, and was originally a private enterprise. Owing, however, to the failure of the company, William II. to the city. The Thiergarten itself, the the great work was taken in hand by the State, and the beautiful park with its thickets of dense undergrowth and line opened in 1878. It has four tracks—two for the winding lanes and lakes, has lost somewhat of its sylvan through traffic, and two for local and suburban ■character owing to building encroachments on the north main-line service, and is carried at a height of about 20 feet side and the laying out of new rides and drives. It above the streets. Its length is 12 miles, the total cost has in addition to those above enumerated been enriched by statues of Queen Louisa, of Goethe, and Lessing. 3f millions sterling. The chief stations are Zoologischer The smaller parks around the city, as the Friedrichshain’ Garten, I riedrich Strasse, Alexander Platz, and Schlesischer Bahnhof. Lying apart from the system are the Lehrter Humboldtshain, and the Victoria park on the Kreuzberg, Bahnhof for Hamburg and Bremen, the Stettiner for Baltic, have not, except in the case of the last, which has received ports, and the Gbrlitzer, Anhalter, and Potsdamer termini a waterfall, been materially altered. for traffic to the south, of which the last two are fine Berlin is the centre of the North German network of specimens of railway architecture. Internal communicarailways. No fewer than twelve main lines concentrate tion is also provided for by an excellent system of tram■upon it. Internal communication is provided for by lines worked both by horses and by electricity, while