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BEST — BETHUNE 235 forgotten. Its author, however, instead of being dis- the Bessemer, was built on this plan in 1875 and put on the couraged by this lack of success, continued his experi- cross-Channel service to Calais, but the mechanism of the ments, and in two years was able to turn out a product swinging saloon was not found effective in practice and the quality of which was not inferior to that yielded by was ultimately removed. Bessemer’s ideas were indeed of the older methods. But when he now tried to induce very unequal merit, and he must be numbered with those makers to take up his improved system, he met with inventors who at more or less frequent intervals have general rebuffs, and finally was driven to undertake the happy thoughts which occasionally prove of real value, exploitation of the process himself. To this end he erected rather than with those who set themselves by a patient steelworks in Sheffield, on ground purchased with the help process of scientific deduction, based on a firm grasp of of friends, and began to manufacture steel. At first the scientific principle, to discover a means by which an output was insignificant, but gradually the magnitude of exactly predetermined object may be practically accomthe operations was enlarged until the competition became plished. He died at Denmark Hill, in the south of effective, and steel traders generally became aware that London, on 15th March 1898. (H. M. it.) the firm of Henry Bessemer and Co. was underselling them Best, William Thomas (1826-1897), English to the extent of £20 a ton. This argument to the pocket quickly had its effect, and licenses were applied for in organist, was born at Carlisle 13th August 1826. The such numbers that, in royalties for the use of his process, son of a solicitor, he received his first instruction from Young the cathedral organist; but when he decided to adopt x Bessemer received a sum in all considerably exceeding the profession of music, he set to work to teach himself, a million sterling. .(ff course, patents of such obvious value did not escape as the organs of his youth were mostly very incomplete criticism, and invalidity was freely urged against them on from a modern standpoint, and the admirers of the greatest various grounds. But Bessemer was fortunate enough to master of. the organ, Sebastian Bach, were very few. He maintain them intact without litigation, though he found applied himself especially to Bach’s music, and became it advisable to buy up the rights of one patentee, while in a player of great skill. His successive appointments were another case he was freed from anxiety by the patent to Pembroke chapel, Liverpool, 1840; to a church for being allowed to lapse in 1859 through non-payment of the blind, 1847, and the Liverpool Philharmonic Society fees. There is good reason to think that in this latter 1848. For a short time (1854-55) he was in London, at instance there was real danger. Bessemer, in fact, practi- the Panopticon in Leicester Square, the church of St cally admitted this to be his own opinion by granting the Martin’s-in-the-Fields, and Lincoln’s Inn chapel. In 1855 inventor, Robert Mushet, an annuity for life. At the he returned to Liverpool as organist of St George’s Hall outset he had found great difficulty in making steel by his where his frequent performances rapidly became famous process in his first licenses to the trade iron alone was throughout England. He held other appointments in or mentioned. Experiments he made with South Wales iron near Liverpool, but the post at St George’s Hall was the were failures because the product was devoid of malle- most important. He held this until 1894, when ill-health ability ; Mr Goransson, a Swedish ironmaster, using the obliged him to retire. He had been in the receipt of a civil purer charcoal pig-iron of that country, was the first to list pension since 1880, and in 1890 went to Sydney to open make good steel by the process, and even he was success- the organ there. Best died at Liverpool on the 10th of ful only after many attempts. His results prompted May 1897. He played concertos at many of the Handel Bessemer to try the purer iron obtained from Cumberland Festivals at the Crystal Palace. His playing was always haematite, but even with this he did not meet with much effective and often artistic ; though his style in interpreting success, until Mushet showed that the addition of a certain Bach was not always of the purest, the service he rendered quantity of spiegeleisen (a pig-iron containing manganese) in popularizing the works of that master must be acknowhad the effect, for whatever reason, of removing the ledged. He published a good deal of church music of a difficulties. Whether or not Mushet’s patents could have more or less popular kind, and issued many arrangements (j. a. f. m.) been sustained, the value of his procedure was shown by its of organ music, editions of Bach, &c. general adoption in conjunction with the Bessemer method . Bethel, eleven, miles north of Jerusalem, altitude of conversion. At the same time it is only fair to say that 2880 feet, now Beitfn, a small village of about 360 whatever may have been the conveniences of Mushet’s houses. Population, about 2000. plan, it was not absolutely essential; this Bessemer Bethlehem, i.e., “house of bread,” probably so proved in 1865, by exhibiting a series of samples of called from the fertility of the vicinity, situated on a steel made by his own process alone. The pecuniary projecting spur five miles from Jerusalem, altitude 2550 rewards of Bessemer’s great invention came to him with feet.. For a description of the church erected by Constancomparative quickness ; but it was not till 1879 that the tine in 330, see de Vogue, Les Bglises de la Terre Sainte. Royal Society admitted him as a fellow and the Govern- There are several monasteries and convents, and British, ment honoured him with a knighthood. French, and German schools. The population, 8000, has Among Bessemer’s numerous other inventions, not one contained few Moslems since the Moslem quarter was of which attained a tithe of the success or importance of destroyed by Ibrahim Pasha, after an insurrection in the steel process, were movable dies for embossed stamps, 1834. a gold paint, sugar machinery, and a ship which was to Bethlehem, a borough of Northumberland save her passengers from the miseries of mal de mer. This last had her saloon mounted in such a way as to be free county, Pennsylvania, U.S.A., situated in the eastern to swing relatively to the boat herself, and the idea was part of the state, on the north bank of Lehigh river, that this saloon should be always maintained steady and opposite South Bethlehem, in 40° 37' N. lat., and 75° 23' level, no matter how rough the sea. For this purpose W. long. It is a centre for four railways, and has extenhydraulic mechanism of Bessemer’s design was arranged sive ironworks, the chief industry. A Moravian college under the control of an attendant, whose duty it was to and seminary for young women are situated here. Popukeep watch on a spirit-level, and counteract by proper lation (1880), 5193 ; (1900), 7293. manipulation of the apparatus any deviation from the Bethulie. See Orange River Colony. horizontal that might manifest itself on the floor of the Beth une, chief town of arrondissement and railway saloon owing to the rolling of the vessel. A boat, called station, department of Pas-de-Calais, France, 18 miles in