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BHAGALPUR—BHANDARA 239 municipal income in 1897-98 was Rs.46,280. Here are of the Irrawaddy between Bhamo and Sinbo. The district the headquarters of the Kistna canal system, which irri- covers an area of 9800 square miles, and the population gates more than 500,000 acres, and also provides naviga- in 1891 was 54,200, but this must now be much below tion throughout the delta. The anicut or dam at Bezwada, the real number. It is mainly composed of Shanbegun in 1852, consists of a mass of rubble, fronted with Burmese and Kachins. The Shan-Burmese inhabit the masonry, 1240 yards long. Here also is the central valleys and alluvial plains on each side of the river. junction of the East Coast railway from Madras to Calcutta, Ihe Kachins, who probably came from the sub-regions of 267 miles from Madras, where one branch line comes down ie Himalayas, occupy the hills throughout the district. from the Warangal coalfield in the Nizam’s dominions, and Ihere are also settlements of Shans, Shan-Chinese, Chinese another from Bellary on the Southern Mahratta line. It and Assamese. There are extensive fisheries in the Shwegu is proposed to construct a third branch to Masulipatam and Mo-hnym circles, and in the Indaw, a chain of lakes on the coast. There are a Church Mission and high J St d the Mosit 0 schools. i? r oaaa ’ PPosite Shwegu. Thesein yield Rs.13 000 rental, a year. The district abounds rich Bhagralpur, a city of British India, in the Behar teak forests, and there are reserves representing 60,000 province of Bengal, which gives its name to a district and acres of teak plantation. Contracts and licenses were to a division; situated on the right bank of the Ganges, issued in 1897 for nearly 26,000 logs. The whole of the 265 miles from Calcutta. It is a station on the East country along the banks of the Irrawaddy, the MoR, Indian railway. Population (1881), 68,238: (1891) taping Sinkan, and Kaukkwe, is generally in a water69,106; (1901), 75,273, showing an increase of 9 per logged condition during the rains. The climate in the cent. The chief educational institution is the Tejnarayan district is therefore decidedly malarious, especially at the Jubilee College, supported almost entirely by fees. The egmning and end of the rains. From November to English high school had 335 pupils in 1897, and there March there is very bracing cold weather. The highest are four printing-presses. temperatures range a few degrees over 100° F. up to 106° The district of Bhagalpur stretches across both banks and the lowest a few degrees under 40°. The average of the Ganges. It has an area of 4226 square miles maximum for the year is about 87°, the average minimum Population (1881), 1,967,635; (1891), 2,032,694, show- about 62°. The rainfall averages 72 inches a year. ing an increase of 3 per cent.; average density, 481 persons fbe headquarters of the district, is situated in 24° 16' per square mile. Classified according to religion, Hindus JN iat. In 1891 it contained 5798 inhabitants, of whom a connumber were Chinamen, natives of India, and Shan numbered 1,811,359; Mahommedans, 195,591; aborigines,- siderable Chinese. It stretches for a distance of nearly four miles along the -.4,740, Christians, 534, of whom 140 were Europeans Irrawaddy bank in a series of small villages, transformed into “others,” 470. In 1901 the population was 2,088,565,’ quarters ot the town, but the town proper is confined mainly to the showing a further increase of 3 per cent. The land one high ridge of land running at right angles to the river. The surface of the ground is much cut up by ravines which fill and dry revenue and rates in 1897-98 were Rs.7,60,266, and up according to the rise and fall of the river. When the Irrawaddy number of police was 473. There were 23,437 boys at is at its height the lower portion of the town is flooded, and the school in 1896-97. The registered death-rate (1897) was country all round is a sheet of water, but usually for no very long 30 per 1000. There are 17 indigo factories, employing une. Here or hereabouts has long been the terminus of a great about 7000 persons, with an out-turn valued at Rs. 2,82,000. deal of the land commerce from China. Until some years after the annexation, however, the trade routes were very unsafe owing to Other industries include the weaving of tusser silk and attacks from the Kachins. These have now quite ceased, and the the making of coarse glass. A large trade is carried on by roads, which were mere bridle-tracks, have been greatly improved, ine two chief are the so-called Santa and Ponlaing route, through rail and river with Lower Bengal. The tract south of the Manyun (Manwaing) and Nantien to Tengyiieh, and the southern Ganges is traversed by the loop-line of the East Indian or Sawadi route by way of Namhkam. Cart roads are now being railway, and a railway across the northern tract was in constructed on both routes, and that south of the Taping river 1901, under construction. could easily be continued through Manyun to T’engyiieh if the The division of Bhagalpur stretches across the Ganges Chinese should be induced to co-operate. A railway to T’engyiieh is feasible and would doubtless be profitable, but it would never from the Nepal frontier to the hills of Chota Nagpur. It quite Ve a ar e . , Sand*Fea °f country, could not be comprises the five districts of Monghyr, Bhagalpur, Purneha, m,A iengyueh, would be greatly inferior to prolonged the route beyond by the Maldha, and the Sonthal Parganas. The total area covers Kun - long ferry. There is a fairly large military garrison in Hhamo distributed between two forts to the north and' east of the mileS; and in 1891 the bkqoWT® Population was town. Ihere are in general stationed here a native regiment »,582,490, being an average of 418 persons per square sections of a battery, and the wing of a European regiment.’ mile; the land revenue and rates in 1897-98 were two Besides the barracks there are a circuit house, dak bungalow Rs.38,76,545; the number of police was 2196. In courthouse, and post and telegraph offices. There is daily steamer 1896-97 the total number of schools was 5432, attended communication, either direct to Mandalay or to the terminus of the railway at Katha, by the vessels of the Irrawaddy Flotilla oy 113,240 pupils, of whom 7418 were girls. C0n W(J. G. Sc.) Bhamo, in ancient times the capital of the Shan a town and district of British India, state of Manmaw, later the seat of a Burmese governor, m Bha.nda.ra., the Nagpur division of the Central Provinces. The now the headquarters of a district in the northern division town (population about 13,000) is situated on the left bank of Upper Burma (Chinese frontier). It lies wholly in the basin of the Irrawaddy, which, as well as its tributaries of the river Wainganga, six miles from a station on the runs through the heart of it. On the east is the river Bengal-Nagpur railway. It has considerable manufactures of the Shan plateau, running almost due north and south. of cotton, cloth and brass-ware, and a first-grade middle est of the Irrawaddy there is a regular series of ranges school, with a library. The average death - rate for five enclosing the basins of the Kaukkwe, Mosit, Indaw years is 28 per thousand. The district of Bhandara has an area of 3968 and other streams, down which much timber is floated’ square miles. The population in 1891 was 742,850, being Beyond the Kaukkwe there is a ridge of hills, which starts at Leka, near Mogaung, and diverges to the south, the 187 .persons per square mile. Classified according to eastern ridge dividing the Kaukkwe from the Mosit, and religion, Hindus numbered 639,994; Mahommedans, the western forming the eastern watershed of the Nam 13,100; aborigines, 89,179, chiefly Gonds; Christians, 121, of whom 13 were Europeans; “others,” 456. In rm and running south into Katha. It is an offshoot 1901 the population was 663,578, showing a decrease of 11 trom the latter of these ridges that forms the third defile per cent., compared with an increase of 8 per cent, in the