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240

BHARATPUR — BHIWANI

preceding decade. The total amount of land revenue and original fellows of the University of Bombay. As the rates is returned as Rs.4,74,385, the incidence of assessment first native president of the Students’ Literary and being Ks.0:5:3 per acre of assessed area ; number of police, Scientific Society, and the champion of the cause of female 237. In 1897-98, out of a total cultivated area of 796,618 education, a girls’ school was founded in his name, for acres, 195,416 were irrigated from tanks, &c. The prin- which an endowment was provided by his friends and cipal crops are rice, wheat, millet, other food-grains, pulse, admirers. In the political progress of India he took a linseed, and a little sugar-cane. The district is traversed great and active interest, and the Bombay Association, and by the main road from Nagpur to the east, and also by the Bombay Branch of the East Indian Association owe the Bengal-Nagpur railway. The number of schools is their existence to his ability and exertions. He was twice 152, attended by 7802 pupils. The average death-rate chosen Sheriff of Bombay, in 1869 and 1871. Various for five years is 32 per thousand. Bhandara suffered in scientific societies in England, France, Germany, and America conferred on him their membership. He conthe famine of 1896-97, and yet more severely in 1900. tributed numerous papers to the journal of the Bombay Bharat pur, or Bhurtpore, a native state of branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. He found time to India, in the Bajputana Agency. Its area covers 1961 make a large collection of rare ancient Sanskrit manusquare miles. In 1881 it had a population of 645,540, scripts at great cost and trouble. But his career was and in 1891 of 640,303, giving an average density of 327 cut short by a sudden stroke of paralysis, to which he persons per square mile. In 1901 the population was succumbed in May 1874. His brother, Dr. Narayen Daji 626,120, a decrease of 2 per cent. The estimated gross (who helped him to set up the charitable dispensary in revenue was Rs.27,00,000; the expenditure on public works Bombay), did not long survive him. Dr. Bhau was a man in 1897-98 was Rs.5,52,420, of which Rs.1,88,780 was of the most simple and amiable character and manners; devoted to irrigation; the number of schools was 89, with his kindness and sympathy towards the poor and distressed 6248 pupils ; the number of hospitals and dispensaries was were unbounded, and will ever embalm and endear his 77, attended by 116,228 patients. The present Maharaja, memory among the Hindus of Bombay. (n. b. w.) Raghunath Sing, was placed on the throne in 1895, in Bhaunagar, or Bhavnagar, a native state of supersession of his elder brother, who was found unfit. During his minority the administration has been con- India, in Kathiawar, within the Gujarat division of ducted by a native minister, together with a state council, Bombay. Its area covers 2860 square miles; in 1881 under the general superintendence of the political agent. the population was 400,323, and in 1891 it was 464,671. Imperial service cavalry are maintained. The state is The estimated gross revenue in 1897-98 was Rs.38,27,740, of which Rs.9,22,810 was expended on public works, traversed for about 40 miles by the Rajputana railway. The city of Bharatpur is 34 miles west of Agra by and Rs.2,82,000 on famine relief; the tribute was rail. The population in 1881 was 66,163 ; in 1891 is Rs. 1,54,490. The chief, whose title is Thakor Saheb, was 68,033. The immense mud ramparts still stand. is a Gohel Rajput. He was educated at the Rajkumar It has a handsome palace, a new hospital, and a high College at Rajkot, and has visited England. The system school, with 144 pupils learning English. There are of administration, formed during his minority, has been special manufactures of chauris, or flappers, with handles of continued with admirable results under his personal sandalwood, ivory, or silver, and tails also made of strips supervision, and forms a model for other native states. Bhaunagar suffered terribly from the famine of 1899of ivory or sandalwood as fine as horse-hair. 1900. About 60 miles of the Bhaunagar-Gondal railway Bhau Daji (Ramkrishna Vithal) (1822-1874), run through the state, with its terminus at the town of Hindu physician of Bombay, Sanskrit scholar and anti- Bhaunagar, which is the principal port. The town of quary, born in 1822 at the village of Manjare, in the native Bhaunagar is situated in 21J 45' N. lat. and 72 12 E. state of Savantwudi, of humble parents, dealing in clay long., on the west coast of the Gulf of Cambay. The dolls. Dr. Bhau’s career is a striking instance of great population in 1881 was 47,792; in 1891 it was 57,653. results arising from small accidents. An Englishman It is now the chief port in Kathiawar, though only noticing his cleverness at chess induced his father to give admitting vessels of small burden. There is a cotton the boy an English education. Accordingly Bhau was mill, with 208 looms and 12,000 spindles; several steam brought to Bombay and was educated at the Elphinstone presses and ginning factories; an arts college, with 102 Institution, under Harkness, Bell, and Henderson. He students in 1896-97; a high school, with 384 pupils ; a relieved his father of the cost of his education by winning school for girls, entirely supported by the state; and a many prizes and scholarships, and on his father’s death state printing-press. two years later he cheerfully undertook the burden of supporting his mother and a brother (Narayen), who also Bhera, a town of British India, in the Shahpur in after-life became a distinguished physician and surgeon. district of the Punjab, situated in 32 29 N. lat. and 72 About this time he gained a prize for an essay on Infan- 57' E. long., on the river Jhelum. It is the terminus of ticide, and was appointed a teacher in the Elphinstone a branch of the North-Western railway. In 1881 it had Institution. He began to devote his time to the study of a population of 15,165; and in 1891 of 17,428; the Indian antiquities, deciphering inscriptions and ascertain- municipal income in 1897-98 was Rs.19,419. It is an ing the dates and history of ancient Sanskrit authors. important centre of trade, with manufactures of cotton He then studied at the Grant Medical College, under goods, metal-work, carving, &c. It has two high schools, Morehead, Ballingall, and Giraud, and was one of the first municipal and Anglo - Sanskrit, and a printing - press, batch who graduated there in 1845. In 1851 he set up issuing a newspaper. as a medical practitioner in Bombay, where his success was Bhiwani, a town of British India, in the Hissar so great that he soon made a fortune. He studied the Sanskrit literature of medicine, and also tested the value district of the Punjab, 38 miles south-east of Hissar town of drugs to which the ancient Hindus ascribed marvellous by rail. The population in 1881 was 33,762; in 1891 powers, among other pathological subjects of historical it was 35,487 ; the municipal income in 1897-98 was interest investigating that of leprosy. He was an Rs.50,042. It is an important centre of trade with Rajardent promoter of education. He was appointed a putana, and has three factories for ginning and pressing member of the Board of Education, and was one of the cotton. It has a Baptist mission and a municipal school.