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birds 257 extremities extremely reduced. Dinomis, numerous species, Sub-order 3. Galli.—With large spina communis, and with recently extinct, New Zealand. large processus obliqui. Hallux functional. Mega6. Order iEpyornithes.—sEpyornis, recently extinct, Madagascar. pmUidee, Australian region. Gracidce, curassows and To the Katite belong possibly also the imperfectly known gu ms, neotropical. Gallidce, cosmopolitan. Diatryma, Eocene of New Mexico, Gaatornis and Dasomis, Sub-order 4. Opihthocomi.—Arboreal, with long spina Eocene of Europe, Genyomis of Pleistocene, Australia. externa; without basipterygoid processes. Opisthocomus, II. Division Odontolcte. —Marine, flightless, without hoatzin, Guiana and Venezuela. sternal keel. Upper and lower jaws with teeth in 10. Order Gruiformes. — Legs of the wading type. Without basipterygoid processes. Without spina interna. Nidifugous. furrows. Cretaceous epoch. Enaliornis, England, Essentially schizognathous. Rallidce, cosmopolitan, since vertebrae chiefly biconcave; Hesperomis, North Oligocene. . Rail us, Fulica, Ocydromus, &c., Gallinula America, vertebrae heterocoelous. nesiotis, Tristan d’Acunha, flightless. Notornis, New Zealand, flightless, nearly extinct. Aptomis, New Zealand, flightless, III. Division Carinate.—With keelech sternum. extinct. Aphanapteryx (Mauritius) = Erythromachus (Rodri1. Order Ichthyomithes. —Power of flight well develo^d. Yerteguez) = Diaphoraptei'yx (Chatham Island), flightless and braj still amphiccelous. With small pygostyle. Incisura recently extinct. Gywornis, upper Eocene, France. Gruidce, ischiadica. With alveolar teeth. Cretaceous. Ichthyomis. cranes, cosmopolitan, allied Phororhacos, Tertiary of Argentina. Apatornis. Dicholophidce, cariamas, neotropical. Otididce, bustards. 2. Order Colymbiformes.—Plantigrade, nidifugous, aquatic. All Rhmochetidce, kagus, New Caledonia. Eurypygidce, suntoes webbed, fourth largest, hallux short; metatarsus laterally bittern, neotropical. Heliornithidce, finfoots, tropical. compressed ; tibia with high, pyramidal crest. Bill straight 11. Order Charadriiformes. — Schizognathous. With eleven pointed, with simple sheath. remiges, of which the terminal very short. Aquinto-cubital. Sub-order 1. Colymbi, Divers. Front toes completely Spin® sterni short, separate. webbed. Periarctic. Colymbus. Sub-order 1. Limiool.®.—Nidifugous, without spina Sub-order 2. Podicipedes, Grebes. Toes lobated. Cosmointerna sterni. Hypotarsus complicated. Charadriidce, politan. plovers. Chionididce, sheath-bill. Glareolidte, wading 3. Order Sphenisciformes. — Nidicolous, marine. Flightless, swallows and coursers. Thinocorytidoe, seed - snipes. wings transformed into rowing paddles. Sphenisci, penguins! (Edicnemididae, thick-knees. Parridoe. Antarctic and southern temperate coasts. Since the Eocene. Sub-order 2. Lari.—Aquatic, vomer complete. Without 4. Order Procellariiformes. — Well flying, pelagic, nidicolous. basipterygoid processes. Front toes webbed; hallux Hallux absent or vestigial. Rhaniplio theca compound. small or absent. Large supraorbital glands. Since Cosmopolitan. Tubinabes, petrels and albatrosses. Miocene. Laridce, gulls, cosmopolitan. Alcidce, auks, 5. Order Ciconiiformes.—Swimmers or wadera. Desmognathous, northern half of periarctic region. without basipterygoid processes; with one pair of sterno! Sub-order 3. Pte rocles. —Sand-grouse. Nidifugous. Vomer tracheal muscles. vestigial. With large crop and c®ca. Hallux vestigial Sub-older 1. Steganopodes.—Well flying, aquatic, or absent. Africa to India. Pterocles and Syrrhaptes. nidicolous ; with all the four toes webbed together. Sub-order 4. Columb®.—Pigeons. Nidicolous. Vomer Rhamphotheca compound; cosmopolitan. Phaethon, vestigial. With large crop, vestigial c®ca. Coiumbidcc, tropic-bird; Sula,. gannet; Phalacrocorax, cormorant, cosmopolitan, since Miocene. Dididce, flightless, andPlotus, snake-bird; Fregata, frigate-bird; Pdecanus. recently extinct. Didus, dodo, Mauritius. Pezophaps, Here also Pelagornis, Miocene of Franco ; Argillornis solitaire, Rodriguez. and probably Odontopteryx from the London Clay. Cuculiformes.—Desmognathous, nidicolous; zygodacSub-order 2. ArdE/E.— Piscivorous, nidicolous, waders; with 12. Order tylous, or with the outer toe reversible. complicated hypotarsus and with long cervical apteria. Sub-order 1. Cuculi.—Cuckoos. Quinto-cubital. Cuculidce, Ardeidce, cosmopolitan ; including Cancromct, Palcecosmopolitan. Musophagidce, plantain - eaters and niceps, Scopidce, Ethiopian. Proherodias, Eocene of touracos, Ethiopian. England. Sub-order 2. Psittaci.—Parrots. Zygodactylous ; aquintoSub-order 3. Cicoxite. — Carnivorous, nidicolous, waders ; cubital. Cosmopolitan, chiefly tropical. Trichoglossidoe, with simple hypotarsus and without cervical apteria. lories, Austro-Malayan. Nestor, New Zealand. CycloCosmopolitan. Ciconiidce, storks. Ibidce, ibises and psittacus,' Eos, Lorius, &c. Psitlacidce, tongue smooth, spoonbills. Propelargus, Oligocene. inch Stringops. Sub-order 4. Phcenicopteri.—Flamingos. Nidifugous, 13. Order Coraciiformes. — Nidicolous. Nares impervi®, holowaders ; without simple hypotarsus and without cervical rhrinal. Down restricted to the apteria or absent. Thirteen apteria. Front toes completely webbed; hallux very to fifteen cervical vertebr®. Mostly desmognathous. Deep short or absent; vegetable feeders, chiefly confervae. plantar tendons connected with each other. Phxnicopterus, cosmopolitan. Oligocene Elornis and Sub-order 1. Coraci®.—Either (1) with long spina externa allied, Pcdcelodus. sterni, and Coraciida-, rollers, Old World. Momolidce, 6. Order Anseriformes.—Desmognathous, nidifugous; with two neotropical, motmots and todies. Aleedinidoc, kingpairs of sterno-traeheal muscles, with complete basipterygoid fishers, cosmopolitan or (2) with long spina communis. processes and with a penis. iferopidee, beo-caters, Old World. Upupidoe, hoopoes Sub-order 1. Palamede^e.—Screamers. Ribs without and hornbills, pal®arctic and pal®otropical. uncinate processes. Hypotarsus simple. Neotropical. Sub-order 2. Striges. — Owls. Outer toe reversible. Chauna, Palamedea. Schizognathous. Long c®ca. Flexor tendons normal. Sub-order 2. An.sekes.—Family Anatidre. Hypotarsus Hypotarsus simple. Cosmopolitan. complex. . Anser, Anas, Cygnus, since Miocene. Sub-order 3. Caprimulgi.—Nightjars. Nocturnal. With Cnemiornis, Pleistocene, New Zealand, flightless. gaping mouth. Ten remiges and ten rcctrices. Spin® 7. Order Falconiformes.—Birds of prey. Carnivorous, desmosterni vestigial. C®ca functional. Eteatornithidcc, gnathous, nidicolous, without functional caeca. Terrestrial, Steatornis, oil-bird or Guacharo, South America. aerial. Podargidce, Australasian, Caprimulgidce, cosmopolitan. Sub-order 1. CatharTjE.—American vultures. With Sub-order 4. Cyp.seli.—Tenth terminal remex the longest. nares pervise. Catharisles, condor; Cathartes. With short spin® sterni. Without c®ca. Cypselidcc, Sub-oi'der 2. Accipitres.—With nares perviae. Gyposwifts, cosmopolitan. Trochilidce, humming - birds, geranidez, secretary-bird, Ethiopian; Miocene, France. American. Fulturidce, Old World vultures, excluding Australia. Sub-order 5. Colii.—Mouse-birds. First and fourth toes Filconidce, cosmopolitan, since the Eocene. Harpagornis, reversible. Ethiopian. Pleistocene, New Zealand ; Lilhornis, Eocene, England! Sub-order 6. Trogones.—Trogons. Heterodactyle, first Pandionidce, pandion. and second toes directed forwards, third and fourth 8. Order Tinamiformes.—Nidifugous, with incisura ischiadica, backwards. Tropical. Trogon gallicus, Miocene of without. pygostyle. Herbivorous, terrestrial, neotropical. France. Crypturi, tmamous. Sub-order 7. Pici.—Zygodactylous. Tendon of the middle Galliforrn.es.—Schizognathous, herbivorous, terrestrial. flexor hallucis longus sending a strong vinculum to that With ten functional remiges. With strong spinae sterni. of the middle flexor profundus, the tendon of which Sub - order 1. Mesites. Without basipterygoid processes, goes to the third toe only. Galbulidce, puff-birds and and with large spina interna. Mesi/es, Madagascar. jacamars, neotropical. Capitonidce, barbets, tropical. Sub-order 2. Tuknices.—Hemipodes. Nidifugous ; vomer Rhamphastidce, toucans, neotropical. Picidce, woodlarge ; sternum without processus obliqui. Hallux peckers, cosmopolitan, excepting Madagascar and absent or vestigial. Old World. Tumix, Pedionomus. Australian region. S. II. — 33