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policy declared by the promoters of municipalization. The present sources of supply are the rivers Bourne and Blythe, the Plant Brook, and the Perry Stream, and eight deep wells. The works can provide 20 million gallons daily in dry weather. The area supplied covers 129i square miles, with an estimated population of 800,000. Owing to the rapid increase of demand, a new reservoir has been constructed at Shustoke on the Bourne, with a capacity of 400 million gallons. This brought the total capital authorized up to date to £2,097,860, the whole of which has been raised and expended. In 1891 the demand having risen to nearly 17 millions a day, new sources of supply had to be considered, and it was determined to seek an entirely new supply in Wales. By an Act of 1892 power was given to acquire the watershed of the rivers Elan and Claerwen, tributaries of the Wye in Radnor and Brecon shires, and to construct the necessary works, the capital authorized being £6,000,000. The works for the first instalment of the Welsh scheme are now in hand. These comprise a large storage and compensation reservoir, and two storage reservoirs on the river Elan. The estimate formed in 1891 for the present works was £3,621,950, but the actual cost will be greater. It may be mentioned that the capitalized value of the gas and water undertakings, as regards works now in operation (excluding the Welsh scheme), is about £4,500,000, against which is to be set an accumulated sinking fund amounting to nearly £800,000.

Administration.—In 1883 the various Acts of past years were combined into the Birmingham Corporation Consolidation Act, which gave further powers to erect assize courts, increase the area of gas supply, impose Free Library rate, and conduct a municipal School of Art. The poor - law administration has, since 1875, been put on a more popular basis. In 1882 a superintendent relieving officer was appointed, and a system of cross visitation started for the purpose of checking abuses of outdoor re-lief. In the same year the Guardians built an infirmary with 1300 beds. In 1878 they decided to build cottage homes in a rural district for the purpose of bringing up permanent pauper children. Each home has 30 inmates under the care of a "foster parent." There are 400 inmates altogether. Workhouses have been thoroughly modernized, the principle of separating children adopted, and infirmaries built. Women first sat on the Board of Guardians in 1880. In 1889 Birmingham was created a city, and a grant made of an official coat-of-arms carrying supporters. The title of lord mayor was conferred on the chief magistrate in 1897. The police force has increased from 500 in 1875 to 700 in 1899. In 1875 the amount of assessment to the borough rate was £1,254,911, the rate being 3s. 100, in the £ (of which 3d, was for the School Board), and the income about £300,000. In 1898-99 the income from rates was £535,659 at 5s. 1½d, in the £ on a gross assessment of £2,297,542, and the total debt to be provided for £9,380,000, of which about seven millions is represented by gas and water liabilities and by the dwelling-house improvement fund. The School Board rate for the same year was ls. 0.64d in the £ (included in the aforementioned 5s. 1½d.). The City Council consists of eighteen aldermen and fifty-four councillors, selected from eighteen wards; it is divided into seventeen committees, most of which consist of eight members. The corporation is the largest employer of labour in the borough; it employs over 6000 persons, and is also a largo landowner. The administration of justice was performed from 1838 to 1884 by a Court of Quarter Sessions, with a recorder, and a Court of Petty Sessions. In 1884 Birmingham was made an assize district of Warwickshire. In connexion with this event new law courts had to be created.

Religion.—The total sittings provided by the various churches of all denominations in Birmingham amount to about one quarter of the total population. In 1892 the Establishment had 108 churches and mission rooms, and other denominations 159pliteC8 of worship. This number has not materially changed. Three new churches belonging to the Establishment were consecrated in the period 1875-1897. Since 1897 two more have been consecrated and one commenced; three have been closed, and arrangements made for rebuilding in other districts.

Charities.—The old General Hospital had in 1875, 2000 in- and 25,000 out- patients. This has now been replaced by a splendid new erection on St Mary's Square, which both for external and internal merit ranks amongst the foremost hospitals of the kingdom. The building was commenced in 1894 and finished in 1897 at a total cost of £206,000. In that year the number of in-patients was 4119; out-patients, 59,217. The work of the Queen's Hospital has risen from 1300 and 17,000 in- and out-patients in 1875 to 2020 and 28,559 in 1898. The various medical and other charities mentioned as existing in 1875 are, with few exceptions, still in operation, and on an increased scale. Most of the hospitals and dispensaries, of which there are now fourteen, have been made free since that date.

Tramways.—The tramways belong to private companies, which hold leases from the corporation. Steam, electric, horse, and cable traction are employed. The total length is over 33 miles. The rent paid to the corporation during the period 1893-1900 was £8762.

Education.—The foundation of the schools of King Edward VI, derive an income, from endowments, of £37,000, as against £15,000 in 1875, and there is prospect of further increase. The principal school—the Boys' high School—is held in the building erected in New Street in 1840. It has a classical and a modern side, and educates about 500 boys. Adjoining it, in a new building opened in 1896, is a large high school for girls, with 300 pupils. There arc also on the foundation seven middle schools, called gram-mar schools, four for girls and three for boys, situate in different parts of the city, and containing about 1900 pupils altogether. The schools have numerous scholarships tenable at the schools as well as exhibitions to the universities and other places of higher education. Queen's College, with its medical and theological departments, was in 1875 flourishing on the former, languishing on the latter side. In 1882 a large part of the scientific teaching, hitherto done by special professors in Queen's College, was taken over by Mason College, and in 1892 the whole medical department was removed to the same institution under an order from the Court of Chancery. This change helped to advance the Birmingham Medical School to a position of high repute. The theological students of Queen's College are extremely few. The idea of developing Queen's College into a university had long existed. The idea was destined to be realized in connexion with Mason College. The foundation deed (dated 1870) of this college, the first stone of which was laid in 1875, declares the founder's intention to be that of promoting "thorough systematic education and instruction specially adapted to the practical, mechanical, and artistic requirements of the manufactures and industrial pursuits of the Midland district ... to the exclusion of mere literary education and instruction." Subsequent deeds (1874 and 1881) added Greek and Latin, and provided that instruction may be given in all such other subjects as the trustees may from time to