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AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

[DUAL

MONARCHY

that of Hungary in the middle of 1898 was 18,862,269 ; for national defence of the two states. For the military so that the total population of the whole monarchy at and administrative service of the army there are fifteen the end of 1900, on these results, aggregated about 45^ military territories (fourteen corps-commands and one millions. The number of inhabitants to an English square military command), besides a special corps-command for mile in 1890 was, in Austria, 206 ; in Hungary, 140. Bosnia and Herzegovina. Under these territorial authorThe average yearly increase of population in Austria from ities are the supplementary {Ergdnzungs) district-com1869 to 1880 was 0-87, from 1880 to 1890, 0'76 per mands (103 for the army, three for the navy), whose cent., and from 1890 to 1900, 0-94 per cent.; in Hungary, business it is to fill up deficiencies in the army and to from 1869 to 1880, 0’13, and from 1880 to 1890, 1'09 keep the register of the troops. per cent. In Bosnia and Herzegovina, the number of The army on a peace footing numbers 21,203 officers and military inhabitants to an English square mile was 81, and the functionaries, 283,877 men, and 58,475 horses. The strength of average yearly increase (1885-95) 1‘7 per cent. the different bodies of troops is Government.—The present constitution of the AustroHorses. Men. Officers. Hungarian monarchy is based on the Pragmatic Sanction of the Emperor Charles YI. of 19th April 1722, whereby 129 4 Bodyguard Infantry. 1,020 161,002 8,816 the succession to the throne is settled in the dynasty of Infantry . ♦ . • 92 16,491 974 Hapsburg-Lothringen, descending by right of primogeniChasseurs 76 132 4 Mounted Bodyguard ture and lineal succession to male heirs, and, in case of 40,686 45,726 1,764 Cavalry .... their extinction, to the female line, and whereby the in13,901 25,502 1,583 Field Artillery. 134 7,762 dissolubility and indivisibility of the monarchy are deter398 Fortress Artillery 15 8,430 480 Pioneers . . . • mined ; is based, further, on the diploma of the Emperor 4 1,487 86 Railway and Telegraph Regiment Francis Joseph I. of 20th October 1860, whereby the con1,916 3,309 417 Transport Service (train) . stitutional form of government is introduced; and on the 1,922 5,863 917 Other Services . fundamental laws of the 21st December 1867, regulating 59,766 275,833 15,443 Total the affairs common to all lands of the monarchy. The unity of the monarchy is expressed in the common 1,632 4,533 44 Extraordinary Force head of the state (emperor of Austria and apostolic king of Hungary) and in the declared copimunity of certain The navy on its peace footing consists of 811 officers, &c., and state departments (Foreign Affairs and the Army), as also 2486 sailors for land service ; 638 officers and 5450 sailors for sea of the organs appointed for their maintenance—the service ; total number of persons belonging to the navy, 9385. Delegations, Common Ministry, Common Supreme Court The fleet consists of:— of Exchequer. In other relations the two states of DisplaceHorseAustria and Hungary, composing the monarchy, are comCrew. ment Number. Power. Tons. pletely independent, each having its separate parliament and separate Government. The constitutional right of 9,087 126,805 169,000 27 Battleships and cruisers . voting money applicable to the common affairs and of 1,522 77,800 7,492 75 Torpedo boats . 383 5,500 its political control is exercised by the Delegations, which 5,490 3 Transports 300 4,090 1,556 6 consist each of sixty members, chosen for one year, oneRiver boats . . • 2,731 13,750 18,588 15 Ships for mission stations third of them by the Austrian Herrenhaus (Upper and coast service House) and the Hungarian Table of Magnates (Upper 222 5,905 7,760 10 Ships for special purposes House), and two-thirds of them by the Austrian and the and ships of servitude 2,960 1,547 12,920 10 Hungarian Houses of Representatives. The Delegations Training ships. 186 6,510 5 Hulks .... are annually summoned by the monarch alternately to Vienna and to Budapest. Each delegation has its 187,121 279,005 15,978 151 Total . separate sittings, both alike public. Their decisions are reciprocally communicated in writing, and, in case of non The Common Ministry of Finance has charge of the agreement, their deliberations are renewed. Should three such interchanges be made without agreement, a common finances of common affairs, of the state debt, consisting plenary sitting is held of an equal number of both dele- of Treasury bills and bills guaranteed in common, and gations ; and these collectively, without discussion, decide of the still standing common funds. The requisitions of the question by common vote. The common decisions of (In thousands sterling.) both Houses require for their validity the sanction of the 1895. 1885. 1875. monarch. Each delegation has the right to formulate resolutions independently, and to call to account and Expenditure— arraign the common ministers. In the exercise of their 333 368-7 396 Foreign Affairs. 12539 office the members of both delegations are irresponsible, 9005-4 10085 War and Marine 170-4 167-2 154-2 enjoying constitutional immunity. Finance . . • • 10-7 10-6 10-5 Board of Control For the administration of common affairs there are three ministries : the Ministry of the Imperial House of Foreign 9566-1 10631-5 13053-1 Total Affairs; the Ministry of War, including the naval departRevenue— 258-2 260-7 432 ment; and the Common Ministry of Finance. For the For the above Departments 4476 402-2 997-4 Customs . • . • . • control of the common finances there is appointed a 8316-4 9971-1 8136-7 Proportional Contributions Common Supreme Court of Exchequer. The Ministry of 9566-1 10631-5 13053-1 Foreign Affairs can conclude international treaties. But Total commercial treaties and such state treaties as impose burdens on the state, or parts of the state, or involve a change of territory, require the parliamentary assent of the departments of common affairs are covered, first, by both "states. The Common Ministry of War is the highest the revenues proper of the ministries and of the Common authority for the administration of all military affairs, to Supreme Court of Exchequer ; then by the net proceeds of the exclusion of the functions committed to the ministries the customs; and the remainder by the proportional con-