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B I X I O — B JOHNSON home from Yabase ; cloudless peaks at Awazu ; rain at nightfall advance. Founded on Sir Walter Scott’s novel, this opera over Karasaki; and wild geese sweeping down to Katata. The lacks unity of style, and its pages are marred by conlake is connected with Kyoto by a canal constructed in 1890, and cessions to the vocalist. One number has survived, the is thus brought into water communication with Osaka. characteristic Bohemian dance which has been interpolated Bixio, Nino (1821-1873), Italian soldier, was into the fourth act of Carmen. In his third opera born on 2nd October 1821. While still a boy he was Bizet returned to an Oriental subject. Djamileh, a onecompelled by his parents to embrace a maritime career. act opera given at the Opera Comique on 22nd May After numerous adventures he returned to Italy in 1846, 1872, is certainly one of his most individual efforts. The joined the Giovine Italia, and, on 4th November 1847, music is impregnated with a fascinating Eastern flavour, made himself conspicuous at Genoa by seizing the bridle and the entire work is a veritable artistic gem. Again of Charles Albert’s horse and crying, “Pass the Ticino, were accusations of Wagnerism hurled at the composer’s Sire, and we are all with you.” He fought through the head, and Djamileh did not achieve the success it uncampaign of 1848, became captain under Garibaldi at doubtedly deserved. The composer was more fortunate Rome in 1849, taking prisoners an entire French battalion, with the incidental music he wrote to Alphonse Daudet’s and gaining the gold medal for military valour. In 1859 drama UArlesienne, produced in October 1872. Different he commanded a Garibaldian battalion, and gained the numbers from this arranged in the form of suites have military cross of Savoy. Joining the Marsala expedition often been heard in the concert-room. Rarely have poetry in 1860, he turned the day in favour of Garibaldi at and imagination been so well allied as in these exquisite Calatafimi, was wounded at Palermo, but recovered in pages, which seem to reflect the sunny skies of Provence. time to besiege Reggio in Calabria (21st August 1860), Bizet’s masterpiece, Carmen, was brought out at the Opera and, though again wounded, took part in the battle of Comique on 3rd March 1875. Three months later the Yolturno, where his leg was broken. Elected deputy in genial composer expired after a few hours’ illness from a 1861, he endeavoured to reconcile Cavour and Garibaldi. heart affection (3rd June). Before dying he had the satisIn 1866, at the head of the seventh division, he covered faction of knowing that Carmen had been accepted for the Italian retreat from Custozza, refusing the Austrian production at Yienna. After the Austrian capital came invitation to surrender. Created senator in February Brussels, Berlin, and in 1878 London, when Carmen 1870, he was in the following September given command was brought out at Her Majesty’s Theatre with immense of a division during the movement against Rome, took success, Mme. Minnie Hauk impersonating the heroine. Civita Yecchia, and participated in the general attack upon The influence exercised by Bizet on dramatic music has Rome (20th September 1870). He died of cholera at been very great, and may be discerned in the realistic Achin Bay in Sumatra en route for Batavia, whither he works of the young Italian school, as well as in those had gone in command of a commercial expedition (16th of his own countrymen. Carmen may be said, in a December 1873). (h. w. s.) measure, to constitute a fresh point of departure in French Bizet, Georges (properly Alexandre Charles operatic music. Although conceived according to the ideas Leopold) (1838-1875), French musical composer, was born then in vogue at the Opera Comique theatre, and in its at Bougival, near Paris, on the 25th October 1838. He original form containing spoken dialogue, it is essentially displayed musical ability at an early age, and was sent to modern in spirit, new and bold in its harmonic and instruthe Paris Conservatoire, where he studied under Halevy mental treatment. It clearly foreshadows the present (a. He.) and speedily distinguished himself, carrying off prizes for evolution of the French “ lyrical drama.” organ and fugue, and finally in 1857, after an ineffectual Bjdmeborg' (Finnish, Pori), a district town of attempt in the previous year, the Grand Prix de Rome. Finland, government of Abo-Bjorneborg, on the E. coast A success of a different kind also befell him at this time. of the Gulf of Bothnia, at the mouth of the Kumo. Lat. Offenbach, then manager of the Theatre des Bouffes- 51° 8' N., long. 46° O' E. Population, 11,669 in 1897, Parisiens, had organized a competition for an operetta, mostly Swedes. Large vessels cannot enter its roadstead, in which young Bizet was awarded the first prize in con- and stop at Rafso. The town has shipbuilding wharfs, one junction with Charles Lecocq, the future composer of La large saw-mill, mechanical works, and several tanneries Fille de Mme. Angot. After the three years spent in and brickworks, the aggregate returns of which are about Rome, an obligation imposed by the French Government 2,000,000 marks. Its foreign trade is considerable, the on the winners of the first prize at the Conservatoire, chief exports being timber, and the main imports flour and Bizet returned to Paris, where he achieved a reputation metals. as a pianist and accompanist. On the 23rd of SeptemBjbrnson, Bjornstjerne (1832 ), Norber 1863, his first opera, Les Pecheurs de Perles, was wegian poet, novelist, and dramatist, was born on the 8th brought out at the Theatre Lyrique, but owing possibly to the somewhat uninteresting nature of the story, the December 1832, at the farmstead of Bjorgen, in Kvikne, opera did not enjoy a very long run. The qualities dis- in Osterdalen, a very remote district of Norway. In 1837 played by the composer, however, were amply recognized, his father, who had been priest of Kvikne, was transferred although the music was stated, by some critics, to exhibit to the parish of Ncesset, in Romsdalen; in this romantic traces of Wagnerian influence. Wagnerism at that period place the childhood of Bjornson was spent. In 1841 he was a sort of spectre that haunted the imagination of was sent to school at the neighbouring town of Molde. many leading members of the musical press. It sufficed At the age of 17 he was sent to Christiania to study for the for a work to be at all out of the common for the epithet University; his instinct for poetry was already awakened, “Wagnerian” to be applied to it. The term, it may be and indeed he had written verses from his eleventh year. said, was intended to be condemnatory, and it was applied He took his degree at the University of Christiania in with little understanding as to its real meaning. The 1852, and began to work as a journalist, especially as a score of the Pecheurs de Perles contains several charm- dramatic critic. His progress was, however, slow. . It was ino- numbers; its dreamy melodies are well adapted to not until 1856 that in Thrond, the earliest of his short fit0 a story laid in Eastern climes, and the music reveals stories, he began to develop his real talent. In 18o/ a decided dramatic temperament. Bizet s second opera, appeared Synnove Solbakken, the first of Bjornson s peasantLa Jolie Fille de Perth, produced at the Theatre novels • in 1858 this was followed by Arne, in 1860 by Lyrique on 26th December 1867, was scarcely a step in A Happy Boy, and in 1868 by The Fisher Maiden. These 268