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BLUNTSCHLI — BOCKLIN 277 reputation of being one of the first strategists of the time. legislative council. He maintains a high school (270 If in 1866 it was Moltke’s mind that calculated the issue pupils in 1896-97), and also a printing-press. of the campaign, it was Blumenthal’s vigour which defeated Bober, a river of Germany, rising at an altitude of all obstacles before the goal. Like Moltke he was a 2438 feet in the Riesengebirge, S.W. of Landeshut. It man of sterling simplicity of character. Short and threads the valley of Hirschberg, reaches the lowlands at thick-set in figure, with large head and kindly features, flows past Bunzlau and Sagan, and enters the his appearance was rather that of a professor than of a Lowenberg, Oder from the left at Krossen (118 feet altitude), after a soldier; but his eyes were full of fire and energy. He N.N.W. course of 158 miles. In summer it is often a was affectionately known for many years as “ der alte mere shallow stream, but after the melting of the snows Blumenthal.” becomes a devastating torrent. Bluntschli, Johann Kaspar (1808-1881), Bobrinets, a town of South Russia, in the governSwiss jurist, was bom at Zurich, 7th March 1808. Having ment and 120 miles N.N.W. of Kherson, near the railway studied law at Berlin and Rome, he was appointed pro- from Nikolaiev to Kieff. It has tobacco factories and fessor of jurisprudence in the newly-founded University several steam flour-mills. Population, 14,352. of Zurich in 1833. In the troubles which agitated the Bobruisk, a first-class fortress and district town of state he mainly sided with the Conservative party, which government and 108 miles by rail S.E. of Minsk, he led in the Great Council from 1837, and after the Russia, on the right bank of the Berezina river, and on the revolution of September 1839 he became a member of the railway from Libau and Wilno to Ekaterinoslav. It has Government. An important modification in his ideas was ironworks and steam flour-mills, and carries effected by his becoming acquainted with the philosophy important of that remarkable, but little - known man, Frederick on an important trade in corn and timber shipped to Libau. Rohmer, of whom he said, shortly before his death, “I Population (1897), 35,177 (58,256 with military). have gained renown as a jurist, but my greatest desert Bochnia., the chief town of a district of the same is to have comprehended Rohmer.” This more liberal name in the Austrian crown-land of Galicia. Population direction of mind made Bluntschli’s participation in the of district (1890), 100,653, mostly Polish and Catholic ; Government uneasy to him, and he resigned; but so high (1900), 105,375. Population of town (1890), 8849, of was the estimation of his eminence as a jurist that the whom 2133 were Jews; (1900), 10,049. In addition to task of compiling a civil code was unanimously entrusted the salt-mines (with an annual yield of about 15,000 tons) to him. After the counter-revolution and overthrow of and deposits of gypsum, there are a number of steam-mills the Sonderbund (1847), Bluntschli removed to Munich, and factories for the manufacture of tin wares; while a where he was professor both of private and of state law considerable trade is done in corn, salt, and eggs. from 1848 to 1861. He produced there the Allgemeines a town of Prussia, province of Westphalia, Staatsrecht, and the Lehre vom modernen Stoat, which gave 12 Bocholt, miles by rail N. from Wesel, and near the frontier of him a European reputation, as well as numerous minor Holland. It is a seat of the cotton industry. Population works, and conducted a legal review from 1855 to 1858. (1885), 10,567; (1895), 16,273; (1900), 21,241. His removal to Heidelberg in 1861 was mainly occasioned by the unpopularity of his advocacy of German unity in Bochum, a town of Prussia, province of Westphalia, opposition to the “ particularism ” then prevailing at 11 miles by rail W. from Dortmund. It is a centre of the Munich. “I felt,” he says, “ that I was merely tolerated.” iron and steel industries, producing principally cast steel, In his new state, Baden, he soon had to encounter active cast iron, iron pipes, wire and wire ropes, and lamps, antagonism from his endeavours to keep it neutral during with tin and zinc works, coal-mining, factories for carpets, the Austro-Prussian war of 1866 ; the course of events, calcium carbide, and paper-roofing, brickworks, and however, speedily decided the question in Bluntschli’s breweries. There are a mining and a metallurgical school. favour, and, though frequently annoyed by intestine Population (1885), 40,767; (1895), 53,842; (1900), troubles in the University, upon which his memoirs throw 65,554. a curious light, he held his position unchallenged until his Bockenheim. See Frankfort-on-Main. sudden death, at Carlsruhe, on 21 st October 1881. While at Bocklin, Arnold (1827-1901), Swiss painter, was Heidelberg he produced several books which have taken rank as classics of jurisprudence, especially Geschichte des born at Bale, 16th October 1827. His father, Christian allgemeinen Staatsrechts (1864); Das moderne Kriegsrecht Frederick Bocklin, born at Bale, 16th July 1802, was (1866); Das moderne Volkerrecht (1868) ; Das Beuterecht descended from an old family of Schaffhausen, and engaged in Krieg (1878). The Staatsrecht has been translated in the silk trade. His mother, Ursula Lippe, was a native into Japanese. The most remarkable external incidents of the same city. In 1846 he began his studies at the of his life during this period were his active participation Dusseldorf Academy under Schirmer, who recognized in him in the Protestantenverein, a society formed to combat a student of exceptional promise, and sent him to Antwerp reactionary and Ultramontane ideas in theology ; and his and Brussels, where he copied the works of Flemish and important contribution towards the settlement of the Dutch masters. Bocklin then went to Paris, worked at Alabama difficulty by a seasonable pamphlet. His highly the Louvre, and painted several landscapes; his “ Landinteresting autobiography was published in 1884. His scape and Ruin ” reveals at the same time a strong feeling library was acquired by the Johns Hopkins University at for nature and a dramatic conception of scenery. After serving his time in the army he set out for Rome in March Baltimore. (r. g.) 1850, and the sight of the Eternal City was a fresh stimulus Bobbin, a town of British India, in the Yizagapatam to his mind. So, too, was the influence of Italian nature district of Madras, situated in 18° 34' U. lat. and 83° 25' and that of the dead pagan world. At Rome he married E. long., 70 miles N. of Yizagapatam town. Population (20th June 1853) Angela Rosa Lorenza Pascucci. In 1856 (1891), 14,468. It is the residence of a raja of old family, he returned to Munich, and remained there four years. He whose estate covers an area of 227 square miles ; estimated then exhibited the “ Great Park,” one of his earliest works, income, <£40,000; permanent land revenue, <£9000. The in which he treated ancient mythology with the stamp of present raja is a highly-educated man who has visited individuality, which was the basis of his reputation. Of England. He is a K.C.I.E. and member of the Madras this period, too, are his “Nymph and Satyr,” “Heroic