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Landscape ” (Diana Hunting), both of 1858, and “ Sappho,” 1859.' These works, which were much discussed, together with Lenbach’s recommendation, gained him his appointment as professor at the Weimar Academy. He held the office for two years, painting the “ Venus and Love,” a “ Portrait of Lenbach,” and a “ Saint Catherine.” He was again at Rome from 1862 to 1866, and there gave his fancy and his taste for violent colour free play in his “ Portrait of Mme. Bocklin,” now in the Bale Gallery, in “ An Anchorite in the Wilderness,” 1863 ; a “Roman Tavern,” and “Villa on the Sea-shore,” 1864; this last, one of his best pictures. He returned to Bale in 1866 to finish his frescoes in the gallery, and to paint, besides several portraits, “ The Magdalene with Christ,” 1868; “ Anacraeon’s Muse,” 1869 ; and “A Castle and Warriors,” 1871. His “Portrait of Himself,” with Death playing a violin, 1873, was painted after his return again to Munich, where he exhibited his famous “ Battle of the Centaurs” (in the Bale gallery) ; “ Landscape with Moorish Horsemen ” (in the Lucerne gallery); and “A Farm,” 1875. From 1876 to 1885 Bocklin was working at Florence, and painted a “Pieta,” “Ulysses and Calypso,” “Prometheus,” and the “ Sacred Grove.” From 1886 to 1892 he settled at Zurich. Of this period are the “ Naiads at Play,” “A Sea Idyll,” and “War.” After 1892 Bocklin resided at San Domenico, near Florence. An exhibition of his collected works was opened at Bale from 20th September to 24th October 1897. He died on the 16th of January 1901. His life has been written by Henri Mendelssohn. F. Hermann. Gazette des Beaux Arts. Paris, 1893.—Max Lehrs. Arnold Bocklin, Bin Leitfaden zum Verstdndniss seiner Kunst. Munich, 1897.—W. Ritter. Arnold Bocklin. Gand, 1895.—Katalog, der. Bocklin, Jubilaums Ausstellung. Basel, 1897. (H. Fr.) Bodenbach (Czech, Podmokly), a town in the government-district of Tetschen in Bohemia, Austria, near the Saxon frontier, situated on the left bank of the Elbe, opposite Tetschen, with which town it is connected by a chain bridge and two railway bridges. There is an Austrian and a Saxon custom-house; and the town has an important transit trade in addition to considerable manufactures (cotton and woollen goods, earthenware and crockery, chemicals, chicory, chocolate, sweetmeats and preserves, and beer). Population (1890), 7574, almost exclusively German ; (1900), 10,782. Bodenstedt, Friedrich Martin von (1819-1892), German author, was born at Peine, in the kingdom of Hanover, 22nd April 1819. Although a prolific and meritorious writer, Bodenstedt is more than most authors, as regards his European celebrity, “the man of one book.” His career, as it proved, was determined by his engagement in 1841 as tutor in the family of Prince Galitzin at Moscow, where he gained a thorough acquaintance with Russian. This led to his appointment in 1844 as the head of a public educational establishment at Tifiis, Transcaucasia. Thus residing in close proximity to Persia, he became acquainted with a modern Persian poet, Mirza Schaffy, and this intercourse inspired him with the volume of little poems in the Oriental taste published after his return to Europe (1851) as a translation from the Divan of his friend, but really original. The success of this work can only be compared with that of FitzGerald’s Omar Khayyam, produced in somewhat similar circumstances, but differed from it in being immediate. The Divan has gone through innumerable editions in Germany, and has been translated into almost all literary languages. Nor is this celebrity undeserved, for although Bodenstedt does not attain the poetical elevation of FitzGerald, his view •of life is wider, more cheerful, and more sane, while the


execution is a model of grace and elegance. The rich stores of knowledge which Bodenstedt brought back from the East' were turned to account in two important books, The Peoples of the Caucasus and their Struggles against the Russians (1848) and A Thousand and One Days in the East (1850). For some time after his return Bodenstedt continued to work up Slavonic subjects, producing translations of Pushkin, Lermontoff, Turgenieff, and of the poets of the Ukraines, and writing a tragedy on the false Demetrius, and an epic, Ada, the Lesghian Maid, on a Circassian theme. Finding, probably, this vein exhausted, he exchanged, in 1858, the Slavonic professorship he had obtained at Munich for one of Early English literature, and published (1858-60) a valuable work on the English dramatists contemporary with Shakespeare, with copious translations. In 1862 he produced a standard translation of Shakespeare’s sonnets, and between 1866 and 1872 published a complete version of the plays, with the help of many coadjutors. In 1867 he undertook the direction of the Meiningen Dramatic Company of Actors, and was ennobled by the duke. After 1873 he lived successively at Altona, Berlin, and Wiesbaden, where he died on the 19th of April 1892. His later works consist of an autobiography (1888), successful translations from Hafiz and Omar Khayyam, and lyrics and dramas which added little to his reputation. (r. g.) Bodmin, a market town, municipal borough, and county town in the Bodmin parliamentary division (since 1885) of Cornwall, England, 30 miles by rail W. by N. of Plymouth. The ancient church of St Petrock has been restored and the county lunatic asylum extended, public rooms and a public library have been erected. Bodmin also contains H.M. civil and naval prisons, the headquarters of the county constabulary, the depot of the Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry, and the District Probate Registry. Area, 2797 acres; population (1881), 5061 ; (1901), 5353. Boehm, Sir Joseph Edgar, Bart. (18341890), British sculptor, was born of Hungarian parentage on 4th July 1834 at Vienna, where his father was director of the Imperial Mint. After studying the plastic art in Italy and at Paris, he worked for a few years as a medallist in his native city. After a further period of study in England, he was so successful as an exhibitor at the Exhibition of 1862, that he determined to abandon the execution of coins and medals, and to give his mind to portrait busts and statuettes, chiefly equestrian. The colossal statue of Queen Victoria, executed in marble (1869) for Windsor Castle, and the monument of the duke of Kent in St George’s Chapel, were his earliest great works, and so entirely to the taste of his royal patrons, that he rose rapidly in favour with the court. He was made A.R.A. in 1878, and produced soon afterwards the fine statue of Carlyle on the Thames Embankment-at Chelsea. In 1881 he was appointed sculptor in ordinary to the Queen, and in the ensuing year became full Academician. On the death of Dean Stanley, Boehm was commissioned to execute his sarcophagus in Westminster Abbey, and his achievement, a recumbent statue, has been pronounced to be one of the finest pieces of portrait sculpture of modern times. He executed the equestrian statue of the duke of Wellington at Hyde Park Corner, and designed the jubilee (1887) coinage. He died suddenly in his studio at South Kensington on 12th December 1890. BogThaz Keui, a small village in Asia Minor, N.W. of Yuzgat in the Angora vilayet, remarkable for the ruins and rock-sculptures in its vicinity. The j ruins are those of “a ruling city of the Oriental type,